Abstract

Supercontinuum (SC) generation is among the most interesting nonlinear optical effects lately discovered, due to the complexity of the mechanisms responsible for its generation. This phenomenon, first demonstrated by Alfano and Shapiro using picosecond pulses in condensed phase, has found novel applications in optical pulse compression, time-resolved spectroscopy and material characterization among many others. Here, we demonstrate that picosecond generated SC white-light in water preserves the polarization state: linear, elliptical and circular of the pump source. Moreover, we were able to determine the SC polarization rotation direction in the circular case. With the generation of pulsed circularly polarized SC, new studies and applications are envisaged in the biological, medical and pharmaceutical field. Amino acids, involved in the origin of life, and other chiral structures represent an attractive target for this type of study.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  5. J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille and L. Wöste, "Infrared extension of the super continuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 25, 1397-1399 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. L. Fork, C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker and C. V. Shank, "Compression of optical pulses to six femtoseconds by using cubic phase compensation," Opt. Lett. 12, 483-485 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. T. J. Nibbering, O. Dühr and G. Korn, "Generation of intense tunable 20-fs pulses near 400nm by use of a gas-filled hollow waveguide," Opt. Lett. 22, 1335-1337 (1997).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  14. O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, "Conical emission from laser plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 1332-1334 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Brodeur, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence," Opt. Commun. 129, 193-198 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406-4409 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Yang and Y. R. Shen, "Spectral broadening of ultrashort pulses in a nonlinear medium," Opt. Lett. 9, 510-512 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Lin and R. H. Stolen, "New nanosecond continuum for excited-state spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216-218 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, "The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126-L128 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Multiple filamentation of circularly polarized beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 013901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Srivastava and D. Goswami, "Control of supercontinuum generation with polarization of incident laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 325-328 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. Nagura, A. Suda, H. Kawano, M. Obara and K. Midorikawa, "Generation and characterization of ultrafast white-light continuum in condensed media," Appl. Opt. 41, 3735-3742 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. P. L. Baldeck and R. R. Alfano, "Intensity effects on the stimulated four photon spectra generated by picosecond pulses in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1712-1715 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "White-light supercontinuum generation with 60-ps pump pulses in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1356-1358 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. L. D. Barron, "Polarization effects in stimulated Raman scattering and related phenomena," J. Phys. B.: Atom. Molec. Phys. 3, 1558-1568 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. Bloembergen, "Stimulated Raman effect," Am. J. Phys. 35, 989-1023 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
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2004 (2)

2003 (1)

A. Srivastava and D. Goswami, "Control of supercontinuum generation with polarization of incident laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 325-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, "The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126-L128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406-4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

L.  Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronnenberger, H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond Atmospheric Lamp," Laser und Optoelektronik  29, 51-53 (1997).

S. Y. Venyaminov and F. G. Prendergast, "Water (H2O and D2O) molar absorptivity in the 1000-4000 cm-1 range and quantitative infrared spectroscopy of aqueous solutions," Anal. Biochem. 248,234-245 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, "Conical emission from laser plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 1332-1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, O. Dühr and G. Korn, "Generation of intense tunable 20-fs pulses near 400nm by use of a gas-filled hollow waveguide," Opt. Lett. 22, 1335-1337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Brodeur, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence," Opt. Commun. 129, 193-198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

P. L. Baldeck and R. R. Alfano, "Intensity effects on the stimulated four photon spectra generated by picosecond pulses in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1712-1715 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker and C. V. Shank, "Compression of optical pulses to six femtoseconds by using cubic phase compensation," Opt. Lett. 12, 483-485 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1976 (1)

C. Lin and R. H. Stolen, "New nanosecond continuum for excited-state spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216-218 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

L. D. Barron, "Polarization effects in stimulated Raman scattering and related phenomena," J. Phys. B.: Atom. Molec. Phys. 3, 1558-1568 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

N. Bloembergen, "Stimulated Raman effect," Am. J. Phys. 35, 989-1023 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

P. L. Baldeck and R. R. Alfano, "Intensity effects on the stimulated four photon spectra generated by picosecond pulses in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1712-1715 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Andrade, A. A.

André, Y.-B.

Baldeck, P. L.

P. L. Baldeck and R. R. Alfano, "Intensity effects on the stimulated four photon spectra generated by picosecond pulses in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1712-1715 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Balu, M.

Barron, L. D.

L. D. Barron, "Polarization effects in stimulated Raman scattering and related phenomena," J. Phys. B.: Atom. Molec. Phys. 3, 1558-1568 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, "Stimulated Raman effect," Am. J. Phys. 35, 989-1023 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Borne, F.

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, "The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126-L128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brito Cruz, C. H.

Brodeur, A.

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406-4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, "Conical emission from laser plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 1332-1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence," Opt. Commun. 129, 193-198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chau, A. H. L.

Chien, C. Y.

Chin, S. L.

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, "The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126-L128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406-4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, "Conical emission from laser plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 1332-1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence," Opt. Commun. 129, 193-198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Boni, L.

Dühr, O.

Fibich, G.

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Multiple filamentation of circularly polarized beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 013901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fork, R. L.

Franco, M.

Goswami, D.

A. Srivastava and D. Goswami, "Control of supercontinuum generation with polarization of incident laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 325-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Hales, J.

Harvey, J. D.

He, G.

Hirlimann, C.

Ilan, B.

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Multiple filamentation of circularly polarized beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 013901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilkov, F. A.

A. Brodeur, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence," Opt. Commun. 129, 193-198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kandidov, V. P.

Kannan, R.

Kasparian, J.

Kawano, H.

Knight, J. C.

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O. G.

Leonhardt, R.

Lin, C.

C. Lin and R. H. Stolen, "New nanosecond continuum for excited-state spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216-218 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.C.

Mendonça, C.

Midorikawa, K.

Misoguti, L.

Miyazaki, K.

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, "The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126-L128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mondelain, D.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nagura, C.

Nibbering, E. T. J.

Niedermeier, S.

Nikolov, S.

L.  Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronnenberger, H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond Atmospheric Lamp," Laser und Optoelektronik  29, 51-53 (1997).

Obara, M.

Petit, S.

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, "The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126-L128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

Prasad, P.

Prendergast, F. G.

S. Y. Venyaminov and F. G. Prendergast, "Water (H2O and D2O) molar absorptivity in the 1000-4000 cm-1 range and quantitative infrared spectroscopy of aqueous solutions," Anal. Biochem. 248,234-245 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rairoux, P.

L.  Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronnenberger, H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond Atmospheric Lamp," Laser und Optoelektronik  29, 51-53 (1997).

Rodriguez, M.

Rolland, C.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ronnenberger, F.

L.  Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronnenberger, H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond Atmospheric Lamp," Laser und Optoelektronik  29, 51-53 (1997).

Russell, P. S. J.

Sauerbrey, R.

Schillinger, H.

L.  Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronnenberger, H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond Atmospheric Lamp," Laser und Optoelektronik  29, 51-53 (1997).

Shank, C. V.

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Srinivasan-Rao, T.

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srivastava, A.

A. Srivastava and D. Goswami, "Control of supercontinuum generation with polarization of incident laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 325-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stein, B.

L.  Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronnenberger, H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond Atmospheric Lamp," Laser und Optoelektronik  29, 51-53 (1997).

Stolen, R. H.

C. Lin and R. H. Stolen, "New nanosecond continuum for excited-state spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216-218 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Suda, A.

Tan, L. S.

Tomlinson, W. J.

Tzortzakis, S.

Vaia, R.

Van Stryland, E. W.

Venyaminov, S. Y.

S. Y. Venyaminov and F. G. Prendergast, "Water (H2O and D2O) molar absorptivity in the 1000-4000 cm-1 range and quantitative infrared spectroscopy of aqueous solutions," Anal. Biochem. 248,234-245 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wedekind, C.

L.  Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronnenberger, H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond Atmospheric Lamp," Laser und Optoelektronik  29, 51-53 (1997).

Werner, C.

L.  Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronnenberger, H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond Atmospheric Lamp," Laser und Optoelektronik  29, 51-53 (1997).

Wille, H.

Wolf, J.-P.

Wöste, L.

Yang, G.

Yen, R.

Yu, J.

Zilio, S. C.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

N. Bloembergen, "Stimulated Raman effect," Am. J. Phys. 35, 989-1023 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

S. Y. Venyaminov and F. G. Prendergast, "Water (H2O and D2O) molar absorptivity in the 1000-4000 cm-1 range and quantitative infrared spectroscopy of aqueous solutions," Anal. Biochem. 248,234-245 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Srivastava and D. Goswami, "Control of supercontinuum generation with polarization of incident laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 325-328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Lin and R. H. Stolen, "New nanosecond continuum for excited-state spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 216-218 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. L. Baldeck and R. R. Alfano, "Intensity effects on the stimulated four photon spectra generated by picosecond pulses in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 5, 1712-1715 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B.: Atom. Molec. Phys. (1)

L. D. Barron, "Polarization effects in stimulated Raman scattering and related phenomena," J. Phys. B.: Atom. Molec. Phys. 3, 1558-1568 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. L. Chin, S. Petit, F. Borne, and K. Miyazaki, "The white light supercontinuum is indeed an ultrafast white light laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, L126-L128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laser und Optoelektronik (1)

L.  Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronnenberger, H. Schillinger and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond Atmospheric Lamp," Laser und Optoelektronik  29, 51-53 (1997).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Brodeur, F. A. Ilkov and S. L. Chin, "Beam filamentation and the white light continuum divergence," Opt. Commun. 129, 193-198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (7)

R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, C. Hirlimann, R. Yen and W. J. Tomlinson, "Femtosecond white-light continuum pulses," Opt. Lett. 8, 1-3 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yang and Y. R. Shen, "Spectral broadening of ultrashort pulses in a nonlinear medium," Opt. Lett. 9, 510-512 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Fork, C. H. Brito Cruz, P. C. Becker and C. V. Shank, "Compression of optical pulses to six femtoseconds by using cubic phase compensation," Opt. Lett. 12, 483-485 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, A. Brodeur, C. Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, "Conical emission from laser plasma interactions in the filamentation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in air," Opt. Lett. 22, 1332-1334 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. T. J. Nibbering, O. Dühr and G. Korn, "Generation of intense tunable 20-fs pulses near 400nm by use of a gas-filled hollow waveguide," Opt. Lett. 22, 1335-1337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille and L. Wöste, "Infrared extension of the super continuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 25, 1397-1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Coen, A. H. L. Chau, R. Leonhardt, J. D. Harvey, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth and P. S. J. Russell, "White-light supercontinuum generation with 60-ps pump pulses in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1356-1358 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

P. B. Corkum, C. Rolland, and T. Srinivasan-Rao, "Supercontinuum generation in gases," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2268-2271 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brodeur and S. L. Chin, "Band-gap dependence of the ultrafast white-light continuum," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4406-4409 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, "Multiple filamentation of circularly polarized beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 013901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, "Observation of self-phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 592-594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999).

D. A. Dunmur, A. Fukuda, and G. R. Luckhurst, Liquid Crystals: Nematics (INSPEC, 2001).

R. R. Alfano, The Supercontinuum Laser Source (Springer, 2005).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2002).

G. R. Fleming and L. J. Kaufman, Ultrafast Spectroscopy (Oxford University Press, 2005).

M. E. Ferma, A. Galvanauskas, and G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications (CRC, 2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Liquid Crystals and Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, 1997).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental schematic used to generate and analyze the SC generation (details in the text).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Normalized SC spectra for different input polarization states: linear (solid line), elliptical (dotted line), circular (dashed line). (b). SC output energy as a function of input energy of linearly (■) and circularly (●) polarized light.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SC intensity contour plots as a function of the rotation angle (θ) of the analyzer (P) and emission wavelength for linear (a), elliptical (b) and circular (c) pump polarization.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Normalized transmittance vs. rotation angle (θ) of the analyzer (P) for for linear (□), ellipcal Δ) and circular (○) polarized SC. λ=646 nm. Solid lines are the theoretical fitting using a sin2(θ) function.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SC intensity contour plots as a function of the rotation angle (θ) of the analyzer (P) and emission wavelength. a) SC generated with clockwise circular pump polarization and b) with couter-clockwise pump polarization. c) and d) are the theoretically simulated SC contour plots using a phase mask with retardation Δϕ(λ)=π/2 and Δϕ(λ)=-π/2 respectively, for 646 nm. White arrows indicate the zero transmittance fringes orientations. Curves arrows on the top indicate the polarization rotation for pump (black) and SC (rainbow colors).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Photographs of SC under linear (left), elliptical (center) and circular (right) polarization excitation conditions.

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