Abstract

Optically modulated internal strain has been observed in InGaN quantum dots (QDs) deposited on SINx nano masks. The modulated internal strain can induce a number of intriguing effects, including the change of refractive index and the redshift of InGaN A 1(LO) phonon. The underlying mechanism can be well accounted for in terms of the variation of internal strain through the converse piezoelectric effect arising from the screening of the internal electric field due to spatial separation of photoexcited electrons and holes. Our results point out a convenient way for the fine tuning of physical properties in nitride-based semiconductor nanostructures, which is very important for high quality optoelectronic devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, "External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Raymond, J. P. Reynolds, J. L. Merz, S. Fafard, Y. Feng, and S. Charbonneau, "Asymmetric stark shift in AlInAs/AlGaAs self-assembled dots," Phys. Rev. B 58, R13415-R13418 (1998).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. C. Wang, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, C. F. Huang, and C. C. Yang, "Residual thermal strain in thick GaN epifilms revealed by cross-sectional Raman scattering and cathodoluminescence spectra," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22896-899 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. C. Wang, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, C. F. Huang, and C. C. Yang, "Residual thermal strain in thick GaN epifilms revealed by cross-sectional Raman scattering and cathodoluminescence spectra," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

H. J. Chang, C. H. Chen, L. Y. Huang, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "In-plane optical anisotropy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells induced by Pockels effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Shi, C. Xia, S. Wei, and Z. Liu, "Exciton states in wurtzite InGaN strained coupled quantum dots: Effects of piezoelectricity and spontaneous polarization," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, "External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, "Triggered single photons from a quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

D. C. Marra, E. S. Aydil, S. J. Joo, E. Yoon, and V. I. Srdanov, "Angle-dependent photoluminescence spectra of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3346-3348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Shikanai, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, "A pump and probe study of photoinduced internal field screening dynamics in an AlGaN/GaN single-quantum-well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 454- 456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, "A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S.V. Nair, K. Nishi, S. Sugou, T. Okuno, and Y. Masumoto, "Optical anisotropy in self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, R5300-R5303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Raymond, J. P. Reynolds, J. L. Merz, S. Fafard, Y. Feng, and S. Charbonneau, "Asymmetric stark shift in AlInAs/AlGaAs self-assembled dots," Phys. Rev. B 58, R13415-R13418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, and M. Burns, "Large-band-gap SiC, III-V nitride, and II-VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363-1398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aydil, E. S.

D. C. Marra, E. S. Aydil, S. J. Joo, E. Yoon, and V. I. Srdanov, "Angle-dependent photoluminescence spectra of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3346-3348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Becher, C.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, "A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burns, M.

H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, and M. Burns, "Large-band-gap SiC, III-V nitride, and II-VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363-1398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. J.

H. J. Chang, C. H. Chen, L. Y. Huang, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "In-plane optical anisotropy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells induced by Pockels effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, S.

S. Raymond, J. P. Reynolds, J. L. Merz, S. Fafard, Y. Feng, and S. Charbonneau, "Asymmetric stark shift in AlInAs/AlGaAs self-assembled dots," Phys. Rev. B 58, R13415-R13418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

H. J. Chang, C. H. Chen, L. Y. Huang, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "In-plane optical anisotropy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells induced by Pockels effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. H.

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

F. C. Wang, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, C. F. Huang, and C. C. Yang, "Residual thermal strain in thick GaN epifilms revealed by cross-sectional Raman scattering and cathodoluminescence spectra," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Chang, C. H. Chen, L. Y. Huang, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "In-plane optical anisotropy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells induced by Pockels effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. L.

F. C. Wang, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, C. F. Huang, and C. C. Yang, "Residual thermal strain in thick GaN epifilms revealed by cross-sectional Raman scattering and cathodoluminescence spectra," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chi, J.

R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S.

A. Shikanai, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, "A pump and probe study of photoinduced internal field screening dynamics in an AlGaN/GaN single-quantum-well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 454- 456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chuo, C. C.

R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dale, Y.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, "Triggered single photons from a quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darakchieva, V.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deguchi, T.

A. Shikanai, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, "A pump and probe study of photoinduced internal field screening dynamics in an AlGaN/GaN single-quantum-well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 454- 456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Della Sala, F.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Di Carlo, A.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fafard, S.

S. Raymond, J. P. Reynolds, J. L. Merz, S. Fafard, Y. Feng, and S. Charbonneau, "Asymmetric stark shift in AlInAs/AlGaAs self-assembled dots," Phys. Rev. B 58, R13415-R13418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

S. Raymond, J. P. Reynolds, J. L. Merz, S. Fafard, Y. Feng, and S. Charbonneau, "Asymmetric stark shift in AlInAs/AlGaAs self-assembled dots," Phys. Rev. B 58, R13415-R13418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gao, G. B.

H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, and M. Burns, "Large-band-gap SiC, III-V nitride, and II-VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363-1398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Georgakilas, A.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, "A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C. F.

F. C. Wang, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, C. F. Huang, and C. C. Yang, "Residual thermal strain in thick GaN epifilms revealed by cross-sectional Raman scattering and cathodoluminescence spectra," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. Y.

H. J. Chang, C. H. Chen, L. Y. Huang, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "In-plane optical anisotropy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells induced by Pockels effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, "A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jalabert, D.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jancu, J.-M.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Joo, S. J.

D. C. Marra, E. S. Aydil, S. J. Joo, E. Yoon, and V. I. Srdanov, "Angle-dependent photoluminescence spectra of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3346-3348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kiraz, A.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, "A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiyoko, H.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kontos, A. G.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, T.

A. Shikanai, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, "A pump and probe study of photoinduced internal field screening dynamics in an AlGaN/GaN single-quantum-well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 454- 456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. C.

R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. P.

R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. E.

H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, and M. Burns, "Large-band-gap SiC, III-V nitride, and II-VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363-1398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. Y.

H. J. Chang, C. H. Chen, L. Y. Huang, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "In-plane optical anisotropy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells induced by Pockels effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

J. Shi, C. Xia, S. Wei, and Z. Liu, "Exciton states in wurtzite InGaN strained coupled quantum dots: Effects of piezoelectricity and spontaneous polarization," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lugli, P.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marra, D. C.

D. C. Marra, E. S. Aydil, S. J. Joo, E. Yoon, and V. I. Srdanov, "Angle-dependent photoluminescence spectra of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3346-3348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, Y.

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, "External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S.V. Nair, K. Nishi, S. Sugou, T. Okuno, and Y. Masumoto, "Optical anisotropy in self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, R5300-R5303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsusshita, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Merz, J. L.

S. Raymond, J. P. Reynolds, J. L. Merz, S. Fafard, Y. Feng, and S. Charbonneau, "Asymmetric stark shift in AlInAs/AlGaAs self-assembled dots," Phys. Rev. B 58, R13415-R13418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Michler, P.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, "A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monemar, B.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, and M. Burns, "Large-band-gap SiC, III-V nitride, and II-VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363-1398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nair, S. V.

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, "External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nair, S.V.

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S.V. Nair, K. Nishi, S. Sugou, T. Okuno, and Y. Masumoto, "Optical anisotropy in self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, R5300-R5303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

A. Shikanai, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, "A pump and probe study of photoinduced internal field screening dynamics in an AlGaN/GaN single-quantum-well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 454- 456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, K.

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, "External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S.V. Nair, K. Nishi, S. Sugou, T. Okuno, and Y. Masumoto, "Optical anisotropy in self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, R5300-R5303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, T.

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S.V. Nair, K. Nishi, S. Sugou, T. Okuno, and Y. Masumoto, "Optical anisotropy in self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, R5300-R5303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paskov, P. P.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paskova, T.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelekanos, N. T.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pelton, M.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, "Triggered single photons from a quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petroff, P. M.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, "A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raptis, Y. S.

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, S.

S. Raymond, J. P. Reynolds, J. L. Merz, S. Fafard, Y. Feng, and S. Charbonneau, "Asymmetric stark shift in AlInAs/AlGaAs self-assembled dots," Phys. Rev. B 58, R13415-R13418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H. W.

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, "External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.-W.

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S.V. Nair, K. Nishi, S. Sugou, T. Okuno, and Y. Masumoto, "Optical anisotropy in self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, R5300-R5303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, J. P.

S. Raymond, J. P. Reynolds, J. L. Merz, S. Fafard, Y. Feng, and S. Charbonneau, "Asymmetric stark shift in AlInAs/AlGaAs self-assembled dots," Phys. Rev. B 58, R13415-R13418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Santori, C.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, "Triggered single photons from a quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaff, W. J.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, "A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholz, R.

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

J. Shi, C. Xia, S. Wei, and Z. Liu, "Exciton states in wurtzite InGaN strained coupled quantum dots: Effects of piezoelectricity and spontaneous polarization," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shikanai, A.

A. Shikanai, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, "A pump and probe study of photoinduced internal field screening dynamics in an AlGaN/GaN single-quantum-well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 454- 456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, G.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, "Triggered single photons from a quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sota, T.

A. Shikanai, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, "A pump and probe study of photoinduced internal field screening dynamics in an AlGaN/GaN single-quantum-well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 454- 456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Srdanov, V. I.

D. C. Marra, E. S. Aydil, S. J. Joo, E. Yoon, and V. I. Srdanov, "Angle-dependent photoluminescence spectra of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3346-3348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Strite, S.

H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, and M. Burns, "Large-band-gap SiC, III-V nitride, and II-VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363-1398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugisaki, M.

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, "External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S.V. Nair, K. Nishi, S. Sugou, T. Okuno, and Y. Masumoto, "Optical anisotropy in self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, R5300-R5303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sugou, S.

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S.V. Nair, K. Nishi, S. Sugou, T. Okuno, and Y. Masumoto, "Optical anisotropy in self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, R5300-R5303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sverdlov, B.

H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, and M. Burns, "Large-band-gap SiC, III-V nitride, and II-VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363-1398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tackeuchi, A.

A. Shikanai, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, "A pump and probe study of photoinduced internal field screening dynamics in an AlGaN/GaN single-quantum-well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 454- 456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. E.

R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tu, R. C.

R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tun, C. J.

R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Valcheva, E.

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. C.

F. C. Wang, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, C. F. Huang, and C. C. Yang, "Residual thermal strain in thick GaN epifilms revealed by cross-sectional Raman scattering and cathodoluminescence spectra," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. C.

R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, S.

J. Shi, C. Xia, S. Wei, and Z. Liu, "Exciton states in wurtzite InGaN strained coupled quantum dots: Effects of piezoelectricity and spontaneous polarization," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, C.

J. Shi, C. Xia, S. Wei, and Z. Liu, "Exciton states in wurtzite InGaN strained coupled quantum dots: Effects of piezoelectricity and spontaneous polarization," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, "Triggered single photons from a quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

F. C. Wang, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, C. F. Huang, and C. C. Yang, "Residual thermal strain in thick GaN epifilms revealed by cross-sectional Raman scattering and cathodoluminescence spectra," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, E.

D. C. Marra, E. S. Aydil, S. J. Joo, E. Yoon, and V. I. Srdanov, "Angle-dependent photoluminescence spectra of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3346-3348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, "A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

F. Della Sala, A. Di Carlo, P. Lugli, F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, R. Scholz, and J.-M. Jancu, "Free-carrier screening of polarization fields in wurtzite GaN/InGaN laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2002-2004 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Marra, E. S. Aydil, S. J. Joo, E. Yoon, and V. I. Srdanov, "Angle-dependent photoluminescence spectra of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3346-3348 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, W. H. Chen, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "Piezoelectric, electro-optical, and photoelastic effects in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1770-1772 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Chang, C. H. Chen, L. Y. Huang, Y. F. Chen, and T. Y. Lin, "In-plane optical anisotropy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells induced by Pockels effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 011924 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Shikanai, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, "A pump and probe study of photoinduced internal field screening dynamics in an AlGaN/GaN single-quantum-well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 454- 456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Darakchieva, P. P. Paskov, E. Valcheva, T. Paskova, B. Monemar, M. Schubert, H. Lu, and W. J. Schaff, "Deformation potentials of the E1(TO) and E2 modes of InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3636-3638 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Morkoc, S. Strite, G. B. Gao, M. E. Lin, B. Sverdlov, and M. Burns, "Large-band-gap SiC, III-V nitride, and II-VI ZnSe-based semiconductor device technologies," J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1363-1398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Shi, C. Xia, S. Wei, and Z. Liu, "Exciton states in wurtzite InGaN strained coupled quantum dots: Effects of piezoelectricity and spontaneous polarization," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 083705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, S. Nagahama, N. Iwasa, T. Yamada, T. Matsusshita, H. Kiyoko, and Y. Sugimoto, "InGaN-based multi-quantum-well-structure laser diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L74-L76 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tu, C. J. Tun, C. C. Chuo, B. C. Lee, C. E. Tsai, T. C. Wang, J. Chi, C. P. Lee and G. C. Chi, "Ultra-high-density InGaN quantum dots grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L264-L266 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

A. G. Kontos, Y. S. Raptis, N. T. Pelekanos, A. Georgakilas, E. Bellet-Amalric, and D. Jalabert, "Micro-Raman characterization of InGaN/GaN/Al2O3 heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155336 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugisaki, H. W. Ren, S. V. Nair, K. Nishi, and Y. Masumoto, "External-field effects on the optical spectra of self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 66, 235309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Raymond, J. P. Reynolds, J. L. Merz, S. Fafard, Y. Feng, and S. Charbonneau, "Asymmetric stark shift in AlInAs/AlGaAs self-assembled dots," Phys. Rev. B 58, R13415-R13418 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugisaki, H.-W. Ren, S.V. Nair, K. Nishi, S. Sugou, T. Okuno, and Y. Masumoto, "Optical anisotropy in self-assembled InP quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 59, R5300-R5303 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Santori, M. Pelton, G. Solomon, Y. Dale, and Y. Yamamoto, "Triggered single photons from a quantum dot," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1502-1505 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Michler, A. Kiraz, C. Becher, W. V. Schoenfeld, P. M. Petroff, L. Zhang, E. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, "A quantum dot single-photon turnstile device," Science 290, 2282-2285 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

F. C. Wang, C. L. Cheng, Y. F. Chen, C. F. Huang, and C. C. Yang, "Residual thermal strain in thick GaN epifilms revealed by cross-sectional Raman scattering and cathodoluminescence spectra," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 22896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer, Berlin, 1997).

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals, (Oxford, University Press, London, 1972).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Atomic force microscope images of InGaN layers with 195 s of SINx treatment on the underlying GaN layers.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Edge photoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum dots (QDs) with different excitation density at room temperature. A guiding line is used to show the blueshift with increasing the pumping power.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Refractive index as a function of the optical excitation density. The refractive index was calculated from the interference pattern shown in Fig. 2 by using the Fabry- Pérot equation listed in the text.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Temperature dependence of the photoluminescence peak position of InGaN QDs under high and low excitation intensity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Room-temperature µ-Raman scattering spectra of InGaN QDs under different excitation density.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). The relationship of A 1(LO) and E 2 H phonon modes versus optical excitation density. (b) The calculated strain as a function of optical excitation density based on Eq. (1).

Equations (1)

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ε = Δ ω [ 2 ( a b C 13 C 33 ) ] ,

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