Abstract

Coherent optical communication systems promise superior performance, but their realization in real time also poses big technical challenges. After an introduction the potential of coherent optical transmission systems is shown as manifested in offline experiments. Then we present key components that are necessary to realize these systems in real time. We review recent achievements in realtime coherent communication and finally present the results of a realtime QPSK transmission system with a 3×3 coupler in the receiver. The achieved BER at a data rate of 1.4 Gbit/s is well below the FEC threshold.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Tsukamoto, D. -S. Ly-Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, " Coherent Demodulation of 40-Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK Signals with16-GHz Spacing after 200-km Transmission," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP29.
  2. C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, and M. O'Sullivan, " Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) Performance of a Coherent 40Gbit/s Dual-Polarization Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DP-QPSK) Transceiver," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP16.
  3. G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, and S. Bigo, " Efficient Mitigation of Fiber Impairments in an Ultra-Long Haul Transmission of 40Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed Data, by Digital Processing in a Coherent Receiver," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP17.
  4. K. Kikuchi, " Coherent Detection of Phase-Shift Keying Signals Using Digital Carrier-Phase Estimation," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuI4.
  5. M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, K. Kasai, J. Hongou, "20 Msymbol/s, 128 QAM Coherent Optical Transmission over 500 km Using Heterodyne Detection with Frequency-stabilized Laser," Proc. ECOC 2006, Mo4.2.2, Sept. 24-28, 2006, Cannes, France.
  6. C.R.S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, C. Schulien, "Uncompensated Transmission of 86Gbit/s Polarization Multiplexed RZ-QPSK over 100km of NDSF Employing Coherent Equalisation," Proc. ECOC 2006, Th4.3.3, Sept. 24-28, 2006, Cannes, France.
  7. S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Express 15, 2120-2126 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Nakazawa, J. Hongo, K. Kasai, and M. Yoshida, " Polarization-Multiplexed 1 Gsymbol/s, 64 QAM (12 Gbit/s) Coherent Optical Transmission over 150 km with an Optical Bandwidth of 2 GHz," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP26.
  9. S. Hoffmann, T. Pfau, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, M. Porrmann, and R. Noé, " Hardware-Efficient and Phase Noise Tolerant Digital Synchronous QPSK Receiver Concept," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications/Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThC6.
  10. J. Sitch, "Implementation Aspects of High-Speed DSP for Transmitter and Receiver Signal Processing," Proc. SUM2007, Ma4.3, July 23-25, 2007, Portland, OR, USA.
  11. F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Noé, "PLL-Free Synchronous QPSK Polarization Multiplex/Diversity Receiver Concept with Digital I&Q Baseband Processing," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Noé, E. Meissner, B. Borchert, H. Rodler, "Direct modulation 565 Mb/s PSK experiment with solitary SL-QW-DFB lasers and novel suppression of the phase transition periods in the carrier recovery," Proc. ECOC’92, Th PD I.5, Vol. 3, pp. 867-870
  14. T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noé, and Y. Achiam, " Real-time Synchronous QPSK Transmission with Standard DFB Lasers and Digital I&Q Receiver," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications/Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThC5.
  15. A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, No. 24, 1421-1422 (November 23, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Pfau, R. Peveling, S. Hoffmann, S. Bhandare, S. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noé, Y. Achiam, D. Schlieder, A. Koslovsky, Y. Benarush, J. Hauden, N. Grossard, H. Porte, "PDL-Tolerant Real-time Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK Transmission with Digital Coherent Polarization Diversity Receiver," Proc. SUM2007, Ma3.3, July 23-25, 2007, Portland, OR, USA.
  17. K. Roberts, "Electronic Dispersion Compensation Beyond 10 Gb/s," Proc. SUM2007, Ma2.3, July 23-25, 2007, Portland, OR, USA.
  18. P. S. Cho, G. Harston, A. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, R. M. Bertenburg, A. Brennemann, B. Adoram, P. Goldgeier, and A. Hershkovits, " Integrated Optical Coherent Balanced Receiver," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications/Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThB2.
  19. S. Hoffmann, T. Pfau, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, M. Porrmann, and R. Noé, " Hardware-Efficient and Phase Noise Tolerant Digital Synchronous QPSK Receiver Concept," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications/Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThC6.

2007

2006

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, No. 24, 1421-1422 (November 23, 2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Noé, "PLL-Free Synchronous QPSK Polarization Multiplex/Diversity Receiver Concept with Digital I&Q Baseband Processing," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1992

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bayvel, P.

Chen, Y.-K.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, No. 24, 1421-1422 (November 23, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Derr, F.

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gavioli, G.

Kaneda, N.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, No. 24, 1421-1422 (November 23, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Killey, R. I.

Klein, A.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, No. 24, 1421-1422 (November 23, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Koc, U.-V.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, No. 24, 1421-1422 (November 23, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Leven, A.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, No. 24, 1421-1422 (November 23, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Noé, R.

R. Noé, "PLL-Free Synchronous QPSK Polarization Multiplex/Diversity Receiver Concept with Digital I&Q Baseband Processing," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Savory, S. J.

Electron. Lett.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, No. 24, 1421-1422 (November 23, 2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

R. Noé, "PLL-Free Synchronous QPSK Polarization Multiplex/Diversity Receiver Concept with Digital I&Q Baseband Processing," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

M. Nakazawa, J. Hongo, K. Kasai, and M. Yoshida, " Polarization-Multiplexed 1 Gsymbol/s, 64 QAM (12 Gbit/s) Coherent Optical Transmission over 150 km with an Optical Bandwidth of 2 GHz," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP26.

S. Hoffmann, T. Pfau, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, M. Porrmann, and R. Noé, " Hardware-Efficient and Phase Noise Tolerant Digital Synchronous QPSK Receiver Concept," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications/Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThC6.

J. Sitch, "Implementation Aspects of High-Speed DSP for Transmitter and Receiver Signal Processing," Proc. SUM2007, Ma4.3, July 23-25, 2007, Portland, OR, USA.

R. Noé, E. Meissner, B. Borchert, H. Rodler, "Direct modulation 565 Mb/s PSK experiment with solitary SL-QW-DFB lasers and novel suppression of the phase transition periods in the carrier recovery," Proc. ECOC’92, Th PD I.5, Vol. 3, pp. 867-870

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noé, and Y. Achiam, " Real-time Synchronous QPSK Transmission with Standard DFB Lasers and Digital I&Q Receiver," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications/Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThC5.

T. Pfau, R. Peveling, S. Hoffmann, S. Bhandare, S. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noé, Y. Achiam, D. Schlieder, A. Koslovsky, Y. Benarush, J. Hauden, N. Grossard, H. Porte, "PDL-Tolerant Real-time Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK Transmission with Digital Coherent Polarization Diversity Receiver," Proc. SUM2007, Ma3.3, July 23-25, 2007, Portland, OR, USA.

K. Roberts, "Electronic Dispersion Compensation Beyond 10 Gb/s," Proc. SUM2007, Ma2.3, July 23-25, 2007, Portland, OR, USA.

P. S. Cho, G. Harston, A. Greenblatt, A. Kaplan, Y. Achiam, R. M. Bertenburg, A. Brennemann, B. Adoram, P. Goldgeier, and A. Hershkovits, " Integrated Optical Coherent Balanced Receiver," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications/Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThB2.

S. Hoffmann, T. Pfau, O. Adamczyk, R. Peveling, M. Porrmann, and R. Noé, " Hardware-Efficient and Phase Noise Tolerant Digital Synchronous QPSK Receiver Concept," in Optical Amplifiers and Their Applications/Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CThC6.

S. Tsukamoto, D. -S. Ly-Gagnon, K. Katoh, and K. Kikuchi, " Coherent Demodulation of 40-Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed QPSK Signals with16-GHz Spacing after 200-km Transmission," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper PDP29.

C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, and M. O'Sullivan, " Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) and Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) Performance of a Coherent 40Gbit/s Dual-Polarization Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DP-QPSK) Transceiver," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP16.

G. Charlet, J. Renaudier, M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, and S. Bigo, " Efficient Mitigation of Fiber Impairments in an Ultra-Long Haul Transmission of 40Gbit/s Polarization-Multiplexed Data, by Digital Processing in a Coherent Receiver," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper PDP17.

K. Kikuchi, " Coherent Detection of Phase-Shift Keying Signals Using Digital Carrier-Phase Estimation," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuI4.

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, K. Kasai, J. Hongou, "20 Msymbol/s, 128 QAM Coherent Optical Transmission over 500 km Using Heterodyne Detection with Frequency-stabilized Laser," Proc. ECOC 2006, Mo4.2.2, Sept. 24-28, 2006, Cannes, France.

C.R.S. Fludger, T. Duthel, T. Wuth, C. Schulien, "Uncompensated Transmission of 86Gbit/s Polarization Multiplexed RZ-QPSK over 100km of NDSF Employing Coherent Equalisation," Proc. ECOC 2006, Th4.3.3, Sept. 24-28, 2006, Cannes, France.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Layout of 5 bit SiGe ADC chip (a) and CMOS chip with combined full-custom design for demultiplexing and standard-cell design for carrier & data recovery (b).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup for 1.4 Gbit/s coherent QPSK transmission with 3×3 coupler used in the receiver.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured BER vs. preamplifier input power for 1.4 Gbit/s synchronous QPSK transmission.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Specifications of SiGe ADC and CMOS chip

Equations (3)

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x 1 = Re { X } , x 2 , 3 = ( 1 2 ) Re { X } ± ( 3 2 ) Im { X } .
X ̲ = Re { X } ̲ + j Im { X } 2 x 1 x 2 x 3 + j 3 ( x 2 x 3 ) .
( X 1 X 2 ) = ( x 1 + j x 2 x 3 )

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