Abstract

A short overview on Optical Phase locking techniques and a detailed description of the Phase Locking technique based on Sub-Carriers modulation is presented. Furthermore, a novel Single Side Sub-Carrier-based Optical Phase Locked Loop (SS-SC-OPLL), with off the shelf optical components, is also presented and experimentally demonstrated. Our new method, based on continuous wave semiconductor lasers and optical single side sub-carrier modulation using QPSK LiNbO3 modulator, allows a practical implementation with better performance with respect to the previously proposed OPLL circuits, and permits an easy use in real time WDM signal coherent demodulation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. G. Kazovsky, "Balanced phase-locked loops for optical homodyne receivers: performance analysis, design considerations, and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 182-195 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, and H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves RF 22, 65-70 (1983).
  3. A. L. Scholtz, W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, and E. Bonek, "Infra-red homodyne receiver with acousto-optically controlled local oscillator," Electron. Lett. 19, 234-235 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. J. Malyon, T. G. Hodgkinson, D. W. Smith, R. C. Booth, and B. E. Daymond-John, "PSK homodyne receiver sensitivity measurements at 1.5 μm," Electron. Lett. 19, 144-146 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Lee, "Local oscillator excess noise suppression for homodyne and heterodyne detection," Opt. Lett. 8, 419-421 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. J. Malyon, "Digital fibre transmission using optical homodyne detection," Electron. Lett. 20, 281-283 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. Malyon, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, "Semiconductor laser homodyne optical phase-locked-loop," Electron. Lett. 22, 421-422 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. G. Kazovsky and D. A. Atlas, "A 1320-nm experimental optical phase-locked loop: performance investigation and PSK homodyne experiments at 140 Mb/s and 2 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1414-1425 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Kahn, B. L. Kasper, and K. J. Pollock, "Optical phaselock receiver with multigigahertz signal bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 25, 626-628 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, E. Bonek, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop experiments for a 10.6 um communications receiver," IEEE Trans. Commun. 31, 1000-1002 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. G. Kazovsky, "Decision-driven phase-locked loop for optical homodyne receivers: performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1238-1247 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Sato, "PSK Optical Homodyne detection using external cavity laser diodes in Costas loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 374-376 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. G. Hodgkinson, "Costas loop analysis for coherent optical receivers," Electron. Lett. 22, 394-396 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Wang, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop self-homodyne experiment for a diode laser receiver," Electron. Lett. 22, 686-687 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "10Gbit/s optical PSK homodyne transmission experiments using external cavity DFB LDs," Electron. Lett. 26, 648-649 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gbit/s QPSK Optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 765-767 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. R. Barry, and J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1939-1951 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. H. Enloe, and J. L. Rodda, "Laser phase locked loop," Proc. IEEE 53, 165-166 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, and E. Bonek, "Frequency synchronization and phase locking of CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 592-594 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. M. Kahn, "1 Gbit/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 340-342 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Fischer, "A 700 Mbit/s PSK optical homodyne system with balanced phase locked loop," J. Opt. Commun. 9, 27-28 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. J. Kane, and E. A. P. Cheng, "Fast frequency tuning and phase locking of diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring lasers," Opt. Lett. 13, 970-972 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. S. Norimatsu, H. Mawatari, Y. Yoshikuni, O. Ishida, and K. Iwashita, "10Gbit/s optical BPSK homodyne detection experiment with solitary DFB laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 31, 125-127 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Camatel, V. Ferrero, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Optical phase-locked loop for coherent detection optical receiver," Electron. Lett. 40, 384-385 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. V. Ferrero, S. Camatel, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "A novel optical phase locked loop architecture based on sub-carrier modulation," in Proceedings Optical Fiber Communication Conference(Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, United States, 2004), pp. 615-617.
  26. S. Camatel, and V. Ferrero, "Homodyne coherent detection of ASK and PSK signals performed by a subcarrier optical phase-locked loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 142-144 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Norimatsu, and K. Iwashita, "PLL propagation delay-time influence on linewidth requirements of optical PSK homodyne detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1367-1375 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Camatel, and V. Ferrero, "2.5-gb/s BPSK ultradense WDM homodyne coherent detection using a subcarrier-based optical phase-locked loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1919-1921 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Camatel, and V. Ferrero, "Homodyne coherent detection of ASK and PSK signals performed by a subcarrier optical phase-locked loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 142-144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Camatel, and V. Ferrero, "2.5-gb/s BPSK ultradense WDM homodyne coherent detection using a subcarrier-based optical phase-locked loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1919-1921 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Camatel, V. Ferrero, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Optical phase-locked loop for coherent detection optical receiver," Electron. Lett. 40, 384-385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. Norimatsu, H. Mawatari, Y. Yoshikuni, O. Ishida, and K. Iwashita, "10Gbit/s optical BPSK homodyne detection experiment with solitary DFB laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 31, 125-127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gbit/s QPSK Optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 765-767 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Barry, and J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1939-1951 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Norimatsu, and K. Iwashita, "PLL propagation delay-time influence on linewidth requirements of optical PSK homodyne detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1367-1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Sato, "PSK Optical Homodyne detection using external cavity laser diodes in Costas loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 374-376 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "10Gbit/s optical PSK homodyne transmission experiments using external cavity DFB LDs," Electron. Lett. 26, 648-649 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky and D. A. Atlas, "A 1320-nm experimental optical phase-locked loop: performance investigation and PSK homodyne experiments at 140 Mb/s and 2 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1414-1425 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

J. M. Kahn, B. L. Kasper, and K. J. Pollock, "Optical phaselock receiver with multigigahertz signal bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 25, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kahn, "1 Gbit/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 340-342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

G. Fischer, "A 700 Mbit/s PSK optical homodyne system with balanced phase locked loop," J. Opt. Commun. 9, 27-28 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kane, and E. A. P. Cheng, "Fast frequency tuning and phase locking of diode-pumped Nd:YAG ring lasers," Opt. Lett. 13, 970-972 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (4)

T. G. Hodgkinson, "Costas loop analysis for coherent optical receivers," Electron. Lett. 22, 394-396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop self-homodyne experiment for a diode laser receiver," Electron. Lett. 22, 686-687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Malyon, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, "Semiconductor laser homodyne optical phase-locked-loop," Electron. Lett. 22, 421-422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky, "Balanced phase-locked loops for optical homodyne receivers: performance analysis, design considerations, and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 182-195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

L. G. Kazovsky, "Decision-driven phase-locked loop for optical homodyne receivers: performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1238-1247 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. J. Malyon, "Digital fibre transmission using optical homodyne detection," Electron. Lett. 20, 281-283 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (5)

H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, E. Bonek, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop experiments for a 10.6 um communications receiver," IEEE Trans. Commun. 31, 1000-1002 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, and H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves RF 22, 65-70 (1983).

A. L. Scholtz, W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, and E. Bonek, "Infra-red homodyne receiver with acousto-optically controlled local oscillator," Electron. Lett. 19, 234-235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Malyon, T. G. Hodgkinson, D. W. Smith, R. C. Booth, and B. E. Daymond-John, "PSK homodyne receiver sensitivity measurements at 1.5 μm," Electron. Lett. 19, 144-146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Lee, "Local oscillator excess noise suppression for homodyne and heterodyne detection," Opt. Lett. 8, 419-421 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, and E. Bonek, "Frequency synchronization and phase locking of CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 592-594 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

L. H. Enloe, and J. L. Rodda, "Laser phase locked loop," Proc. IEEE 53, 165-166 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, G. L.

Atlas, D. A.

L. G. Kazovsky and D. A. Atlas, "A 1320-nm experimental optical phase-locked loop: performance investigation and PSK homodyne experiments at 140 Mb/s and 2 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1414-1425 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Barry, J. R.

J. R. Barry, and J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1939-1951 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bonek, E.

E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, and H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves RF 22, 65-70 (1983).

H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, E. Bonek, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop experiments for a 10.6 um communications receiver," IEEE Trans. Commun. 31, 1000-1002 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Scholtz, W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, and E. Bonek, "Infra-red homodyne receiver with acousto-optically controlled local oscillator," Electron. Lett. 19, 234-235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, and E. Bonek, "Frequency synchronization and phase locking of CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 592-594 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Booth, R. C.

D. J. Malyon, T. G. Hodgkinson, D. W. Smith, R. C. Booth, and B. E. Daymond-John, "PSK homodyne receiver sensitivity measurements at 1.5 μm," Electron. Lett. 19, 144-146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Camatel, S.

S. Camatel, and V. Ferrero, "Homodyne coherent detection of ASK and PSK signals performed by a subcarrier optical phase-locked loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 142-144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Camatel, and V. Ferrero, "2.5-gb/s BPSK ultradense WDM homodyne coherent detection using a subcarrier-based optical phase-locked loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1919-1921 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Camatel, V. Ferrero, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Optical phase-locked loop for coherent detection optical receiver," Electron. Lett. 40, 384-385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. W. S.

Cheng, E. A. P.

Daymond-John, B. E.

D. J. Malyon, T. G. Hodgkinson, D. W. Smith, R. C. Booth, and B. E. Daymond-John, "PSK homodyne receiver sensitivity measurements at 1.5 μm," Electron. Lett. 19, 144-146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Enloe, L. H.

L. H. Enloe, and J. L. Rodda, "Laser phase locked loop," Proc. IEEE 53, 165-166 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Ferrero, V.

S. Camatel, and V. Ferrero, "2.5-gb/s BPSK ultradense WDM homodyne coherent detection using a subcarrier-based optical phase-locked loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1919-1921 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Camatel, and V. Ferrero, "Homodyne coherent detection of ASK and PSK signals performed by a subcarrier optical phase-locked loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 142-144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Camatel, V. Ferrero, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Optical phase-locked loop for coherent detection optical receiver," Electron. Lett. 40, 384-385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, G.

G. Fischer, "A 700 Mbit/s PSK optical homodyne system with balanced phase locked loop," J. Opt. Commun. 9, 27-28 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gaudino, R.

S. Camatel, V. Ferrero, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Optical phase-locked loop for coherent detection optical receiver," Electron. Lett. 40, 384-385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, T. G.

T. G. Hodgkinson, "Costas loop analysis for coherent optical receivers," Electron. Lett. 22, 394-396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Malyon, T. G. Hodgkinson, D. W. Smith, R. C. Booth, and B. E. Daymond-John, "PSK homodyne receiver sensitivity measurements at 1.5 μm," Electron. Lett. 19, 144-146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, O.

S. Norimatsu, H. Mawatari, Y. Yoshikuni, O. Ishida, and K. Iwashita, "10Gbit/s optical BPSK homodyne detection experiment with solitary DFB laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 31, 125-127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iwashita, K.

S. Norimatsu, H. Mawatari, Y. Yoshikuni, O. Ishida, and K. Iwashita, "10Gbit/s optical BPSK homodyne detection experiment with solitary DFB laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 31, 125-127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gbit/s QPSK Optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 765-767 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, and K. Iwashita, "PLL propagation delay-time influence on linewidth requirements of optical PSK homodyne detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1367-1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Sato, "PSK Optical Homodyne detection using external cavity laser diodes in Costas loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 374-376 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "10Gbit/s optical PSK homodyne transmission experiments using external cavity DFB LDs," Electron. Lett. 26, 648-649 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

J. R. Barry, and J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1939-1951 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kahn, B. L. Kasper, and K. J. Pollock, "Optical phaselock receiver with multigigahertz signal bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 25, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kahn, "1 Gbit/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 340-342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kane, T. J.

Kasper, B. L.

J. M. Kahn, B. L. Kasper, and K. J. Pollock, "Optical phaselock receiver with multigigahertz signal bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 25, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

L. G. Kazovsky and D. A. Atlas, "A 1320-nm experimental optical phase-locked loop: performance investigation and PSK homodyne experiments at 140 Mb/s and 2 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1414-1425 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky, "Balanced phase-locked loops for optical homodyne receivers: performance analysis, design considerations, and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 182-195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky, "Decision-driven phase-locked loop for optical homodyne receivers: performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1238-1247 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. K.

Leeb, W. R.

Y. Wang, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop self-homodyne experiment for a diode laser receiver," Electron. Lett. 22, 686-687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, E. Bonek, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop experiments for a 10.6 um communications receiver," IEEE Trans. Commun. 31, 1000-1002 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Scholtz, W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, and E. Bonek, "Infra-red homodyne receiver with acousto-optically controlled local oscillator," Electron. Lett. 19, 234-235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, and H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves RF 22, 65-70 (1983).

W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, and E. Bonek, "Frequency synchronization and phase locking of CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 592-594 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Malyon, D. J.

D. J. Malyon, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, "Semiconductor laser homodyne optical phase-locked-loop," Electron. Lett. 22, 421-422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Malyon, "Digital fibre transmission using optical homodyne detection," Electron. Lett. 20, 281-283 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Malyon, T. G. Hodgkinson, D. W. Smith, R. C. Booth, and B. E. Daymond-John, "PSK homodyne receiver sensitivity measurements at 1.5 μm," Electron. Lett. 19, 144-146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mawatari, H.

S. Norimatsu, H. Mawatari, Y. Yoshikuni, O. Ishida, and K. Iwashita, "10Gbit/s optical BPSK homodyne detection experiment with solitary DFB laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 31, 125-127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, K.

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gbit/s QPSK Optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 765-767 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "10Gbit/s optical PSK homodyne transmission experiments using external cavity DFB LDs," Electron. Lett. 26, 648-649 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Norimatsu, S.

S. Norimatsu, H. Mawatari, Y. Yoshikuni, O. Ishida, and K. Iwashita, "10Gbit/s optical BPSK homodyne detection experiment with solitary DFB laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 31, 125-127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gbit/s QPSK Optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 765-767 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, and K. Iwashita, "PLL propagation delay-time influence on linewidth requirements of optical PSK homodyne detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1367-1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Sato, "PSK Optical Homodyne detection using external cavity laser diodes in Costas loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 374-376 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "10Gbit/s optical PSK homodyne transmission experiments using external cavity DFB LDs," Electron. Lett. 26, 648-649 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Philipp, H. K.

H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, E. Bonek, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop experiments for a 10.6 um communications receiver," IEEE Trans. Commun. 31, 1000-1002 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Scholtz, W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, and E. Bonek, "Infra-red homodyne receiver with acousto-optically controlled local oscillator," Electron. Lett. 19, 234-235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, and E. Bonek, "Frequency synchronization and phase locking of CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 592-594 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phillipp, H. K.

E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, and H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves RF 22, 65-70 (1983).

Poggiolini, P.

S. Camatel, V. Ferrero, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Optical phase-locked loop for coherent detection optical receiver," Electron. Lett. 40, 384-385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, K. J.

J. M. Kahn, B. L. Kasper, and K. J. Pollock, "Optical phaselock receiver with multigigahertz signal bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 25, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rodda, J. L.

L. H. Enloe, and J. L. Rodda, "Laser phase locked loop," Proc. IEEE 53, 165-166 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Sato, "PSK Optical Homodyne detection using external cavity laser diodes in Costas loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 374-376 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Scholtz, A. L.

E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, and H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves RF 22, 65-70 (1983).

A. L. Scholtz, W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, and E. Bonek, "Infra-red homodyne receiver with acousto-optically controlled local oscillator," Electron. Lett. 19, 234-235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, E. Bonek, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop experiments for a 10.6 um communications receiver," IEEE Trans. Commun. 31, 1000-1002 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, and E. Bonek, "Frequency synchronization and phase locking of CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 592-594 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. W.

D. J. Malyon, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, "Semiconductor laser homodyne optical phase-locked-loop," Electron. Lett. 22, 421-422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Malyon, T. G. Hodgkinson, D. W. Smith, R. C. Booth, and B. E. Daymond-John, "PSK homodyne receiver sensitivity measurements at 1.5 μm," Electron. Lett. 19, 144-146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop self-homodyne experiment for a diode laser receiver," Electron. Lett. 22, 686-687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

D. J. Malyon, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, "Semiconductor laser homodyne optical phase-locked-loop," Electron. Lett. 22, 421-422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikuni, Y.

S. Norimatsu, H. Mawatari, Y. Yoshikuni, O. Ishida, and K. Iwashita, "10Gbit/s optical BPSK homodyne detection experiment with solitary DFB laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 31, 125-127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, and E. Bonek, "Frequency synchronization and phase locking of CO2 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 592-594 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (10)

A. L. Scholtz, W. R. Leeb, H. K. Philipp, and E. Bonek, "Infra-red homodyne receiver with acousto-optically controlled local oscillator," Electron. Lett. 19, 234-235 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Malyon, T. G. Hodgkinson, D. W. Smith, R. C. Booth, and B. E. Daymond-John, "PSK homodyne receiver sensitivity measurements at 1.5 μm," Electron. Lett. 19, 144-146 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, H. Mawatari, Y. Yoshikuni, O. Ishida, and K. Iwashita, "10Gbit/s optical BPSK homodyne detection experiment with solitary DFB laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 31, 125-127 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Camatel, V. Ferrero, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "Optical phase-locked loop for coherent detection optical receiver," Electron. Lett. 40, 384-385 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Malyon, "Digital fibre transmission using optical homodyne detection," Electron. Lett. 20, 281-283 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Malyon, D. W. Smith, and R. Wyatt, "Semiconductor laser homodyne optical phase-locked-loop," Electron. Lett. 22, 421-422 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kahn, B. L. Kasper, and K. J. Pollock, "Optical phaselock receiver with multigigahertz signal bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 25, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Hodgkinson, "Costas loop analysis for coherent optical receivers," Electron. Lett. 22, 394-396 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop self-homodyne experiment for a diode laser receiver," Electron. Lett. 22, 686-687 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "10Gbit/s optical PSK homodyne transmission experiments using external cavity DFB LDs," Electron. Lett. 26, 648-649 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Noguchi, "An 8 Gbit/s QPSK Optical homodyne detection experiment using external-cavity laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 765-767 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Kahn, "1 Gbit/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phase-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 340-342 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Camatel, and V. Ferrero, "2.5-gb/s BPSK ultradense WDM homodyne coherent detection using a subcarrier-based optical phase-locked loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1919-1921 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Camatel, and V. Ferrero, "Homodyne coherent detection of ASK and PSK signals performed by a subcarrier optical phase-locked loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 142-144 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, K. Iwashita, and K. Sato, "PSK Optical Homodyne detection using external cavity laser diodes in Costas loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 374-376 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

H. K. Philipp, A. L. Scholtz, E. Bonek, and W. R. Leeb, "Costas loop experiments for a 10.6 um communications receiver," IEEE Trans. Commun. 31, 1000-1002 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

L. G. Kazovsky, "Decision-driven phase-locked loop for optical homodyne receivers: performance analysis and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 1238-1247 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky and D. A. Atlas, "A 1320-nm experimental optical phase-locked loop: performance investigation and PSK homodyne experiments at 140 Mb/s and 2 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1414-1425 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Barry, and J. M. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for homodyne and heterodyne detection of optical quadriphase-shift keying," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1939-1951 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky, "Balanced phase-locked loops for optical homodyne receivers: performance analysis, design considerations, and laser linewidth requirements," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 182-195 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Norimatsu, and K. Iwashita, "PLL propagation delay-time influence on linewidth requirements of optical PSK homodyne detection," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1367-1375 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Fischer, "A 700 Mbit/s PSK optical homodyne system with balanced phase locked loop," J. Opt. Commun. 9, 27-28 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Microwaves RF (1)

E. Bonek, W. R. Leeb, A. L. Scholtz, and H. K. Phillipp, "Optical PLLs see the light," Microwaves RF 22, 65-70 (1983).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

L. H. Enloe, and J. L. Rodda, "Laser phase locked loop," Proc. IEEE 53, 165-166 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

V. Ferrero, S. Camatel, R. Gaudino, and P. Poggiolini, "A novel optical phase locked loop architecture based on sub-carrier modulation," in Proceedings Optical Fiber Communication Conference(Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, United States, 2004), pp. 615-617.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Block diagram of an optical phase-locked loop.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the Sub-Carrier Optical Phase Locked Loop architecture.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SC-OPLL OVCO output (a) and RX signal (b) optical spectra when the two signals are phase-locked. SS-SC-OPLL OVCO output (c) and RX signal (d) optical spectra. Resolution Bandwidth: 0.01 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Block diagram of the Optical Voltage Controlled Oscillator used in the Single Side Sub Carrier Optical Phase Locked Loop.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured phase error standard deviation versus OPLL natural frequency for Sub-Carrier and Single Side Sub-Carrier Optical Phase Locked Loops.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental set-up, for Sub-Carrier and Single Side Sub-Carrier Optical Phase Locked Loop demonstrations.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

BPSK 2.5 Gbps transmission experiment: measured BER versus the OSNR (Resolution Bandwidth 0.1 nm) for SS-SC-OPLL and SC-OPLL.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

e 1 ( t ) = e 2 ( t ) = A 0 · e j 2 πf 0 t
a 1 ( t ) = k 1 cos ( 2 π f VCO t + φ 1 )
a 2 ( t ) = k 2 cos ( 2 π f VCO t + φ 2 )
k 1   = k 2 = k
φ 2 = φ 1 π 2
e out ( t ) = 1 2 [ e 1 ( t ) + e 2 ( t ) ] = A 0 · k [ cos ( 2 π f VCO t + φ 1 ) sin ( 2 π f VCO t + φ 1 ) · e j Δ φ ] · e j 2 π f t
e out ( t ) = A 0   · k [ cos ( 2 π f VCO t + φ 1 ) j sin ( 2 π f VCO t + φ 1 ) ] · e j 2 π f t = A 0 · k · e j [ 2 π ( f f VCO ) t φ 1 ]

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