Abstract

We review recent progresses on digital self-coherent detection of differential phase-shift keyed (DPSK) signal using orthogonal differential direct detection followed by high-speed analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing (DSP). Techniques such as data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation for receiver sensitivity enhancement, unified detection scheme for multi-level DPSK signals, and optical field reconstruction are described. The availability of signal field information brings the possibility to compensate for some linear and nonlinear transmission impairments through further DSP. An adaptive DSP algorithm for simultaneous electronic polarization de-multiplexing and polarization-mode dispersion compensation is also presented.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).
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2007 (2)

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, "Generalized data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation for improving receiver sensitivity in direct-detection optical m-ary DPSK," Opt. Express 15, 2927-2939 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-2927
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

G. Goldfarb and G. Li, "BER estimation of QPSK homodyne detection with carrier phase estimation using digital signal processing," Opt. Express 14, 8043-8053 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8043
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First Real-Time Data Recovery for Synchronous QPSK Transmission With Standard DFB Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907 - 1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi, "Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 563-570 (2006).

2005 (2)

R. Noe, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck and P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281 - 293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightwave Technol 22, 779 - 783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1992 (1)

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

R. C. Giles and K. C. Reichmann, "Optical self-homodyne DPSK transmission at 1-Gbit/s and 2-Gbit/s over 86km of fiber," Electron. Lett. 23, 1180-1181 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

D. N. Godard, "Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 28, 1867-1875 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Achiam, Y.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First Real-Time Data Recovery for Synchronous QPSK Transmission With Standard DFB Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907 - 1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adamczyk, O.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First Real-Time Data Recovery for Synchronous QPSK Transmission With Standard DFB Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907 - 1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhandare, S.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First Real-Time Data Recovery for Synchronous QPSK Transmission With Standard DFB Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907 - 1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Christen, L.

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Wilner, "Self-coherent optical detection of multisymbol differential phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. (accepted for publication).

Derr, F.

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system: Concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Giles, R. C.

R. C. Giles and K. C. Reichmann, "Optical self-homodyne DPSK transmission at 1-Gbit/s and 2-Gbit/s over 86km of fiber," Electron. Lett. 23, 1180-1181 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

Godard, D. N.

D. N. Godard, "Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 28, 1867-1875 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Goldfarb, G.

Gordon, J. P.

Ho, K.-P.

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightwave Technol 22, 779 - 783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, S.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First Real-Time Data Recovery for Synchronous QPSK Transmission With Standard DFB Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907 - 1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, S.K.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First Real-Time Data Recovery for Synchronous QPSK Transmission With Standard DFB Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907 - 1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, J. M.

K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightwave Technol 22, 779 - 783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaneda, N.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi, "Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 563-570 (2006).

Klein, A.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koc, U.-V.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leven, A.

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, "Generalized data-aided multi-symbol phase estimation for improving receiver sensitivity in direct-detection optical m-ary DPSK," Opt. Express 15, 2927-2939 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-2927
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281 - 293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Wei, R. E. Slusher, and C. J. McKinstrie, "Improving transmission performance in differential phase-shift-keyed systems by use of lumped nonlinear phase-shift compensation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1616-1618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Wilner, "Self-coherent optical detection of multisymbol differential phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. (accepted for publication).

Lize, Y.

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Wilner, "Self-coherent optical detection of multisymbol differential phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. (accepted for publication).

McKinstrie, C. J.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Nazarathy, M.

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Wilner, "Self-coherent optical detection of multisymbol differential phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. (accepted for publication).

Noe, R.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First Real-Time Data Recovery for Synchronous QPSK Transmission With Standard DFB Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907 - 1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Noe, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peveling, R.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First Real-Time Data Recovery for Synchronous QPSK Transmission With Standard DFB Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907 - 1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfau, T.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First Real-Time Data Recovery for Synchronous QPSK Transmission With Standard DFB Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907 - 1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Porrmann, M.

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First Real-Time Data Recovery for Synchronous QPSK Transmission With Standard DFB Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907 - 1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reichmann, K. C.

R. C. Giles and K. C. Reichmann, "Optical self-homodyne DPSK transmission at 1-Gbit/s and 2-Gbit/s over 86km of fiber," Electron. Lett. 23, 1180-1181 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Taylor, M.

M. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281 - 293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Wei, R. E. Slusher, and C. J. McKinstrie, "Improving transmission performance in differential phase-shift-keyed systems by use of lumped nonlinear phase-shift compensation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1616-1618 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A.

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wilner, A.

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Wilner, "Self-coherent optical detection of multisymbol differential phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightwave Technol. (accepted for publication).

Winzer, P. J.

Xu, C.

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281 - 293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. C. Giles and K. C. Reichmann, "Optical self-homodyne DPSK transmission at 1-Gbit/s and 2-Gbit/s over 86km of fiber," Electron. Lett. 23, 1180-1181 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, A. Klein, U.-V. Koc, and Y.-K. Chen, "Real-time implementation of 4.4 Gbit/s QPSK intradyne receiver using field programmable gate array," Electron. Lett. 42, 1421-1422 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Xu, X. Liu, and X. Wei, "Differential phase-shift keying for high spectral efficiency optical transmissions," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 281 - 293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Kikuchi, "Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 563-570 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

M. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Noe, "PLL-free synchronous QPSK polarization multiplex/diversity receiver concept with digital I&Q baseband processing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 887-889 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, and A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK Receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfau, S. Hoffmann, R. Peveling, S. Bhandare, S.K. Ibrahim, O. Adamczyk, M. Porrmann, R. Noe, and Y. Achiam, "First Real-Time Data Recovery for Synchronous QPSK Transmission With Standard DFB Lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1907 - 1909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

D. N. Godard, "Self-recovering equalization and carrier tracking in two-dimensional data communication systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 28, 1867-1875 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol (1)

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A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U. -V. Koch, and Y. -K. Chen, " Coherent Receivers for Practical Optical Communication Systems," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OThK4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2007-OThK4.

G. Charlet, N. Maaref, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, and S. Bigo, "Transmission of 40Gb/s QPSK with coherent detection over ultra long haul distance improved by nonlinearity mitigation," in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications 2006, Post-deadline Paper Th4.3.4, 2006.

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X. Liu and S. Chandrasekhar, "Measurement of constellation diagrams for 40-Gb/s DQPSK and 60-Gb/s 8ary-DPSK using sampled orthogonal differential direct-detection", in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications 2007, Paper 7.2.7, 2007

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic DSCD architecture based on orthogonal differential direct-detection followed by ADC and DSP. OA: optical pre-amplifier; OF: optical filter; ODI: optical delay interferometer; BD: balanced detector; ADC: analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured BER performance of the 40-Gb/s DQPSK signal received with and without the data-aided MSPE [21].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup for reconstructing the constellation diagrams of a 40-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK and a 60-Gb/s RZ-8ary-DPSK signal using DSCD [24]. Inset shows simultaneously measured I/Q eye diagrams of a 40-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK signal. Time scale: 20 ps/division.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured differential-phase constellation diagrams of the 40-Gb/s DQPSK signal at OSNR=35 dB (left) and 21 dB (center) and measured differential-phase variance as a function of OSNR (right). The dashed line is calculated.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured differential-phase constellations of the 40-Gb/s DQPSK signal after transmission with 6 dBm (left) and 8 dBm (center) signal launch powers, and measured differential-phase constellation diagram of a 60-Gb/s 8ary-DPSK signal (right).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic of two dual-polarization DSCD configurations for receiving a polarization-multiplexed DPSK signal using two orthogonal ODI pairs (upper) and one shared ODI pair (lower). PBS: polarization beam splitter.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Polarization evolution of an optical signal over a typical fiber transmission link having PMD. “‖” and “⊥” represent the orientations of the two PSP axes of the fiber PMD.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

A parallel structure of the DSP circuit for EPDMUX and electronic PMDC.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Block diagram of a processing unit for EPDMUX and electronic PMDC.

Equations (20)

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u ( t ) = u I ( t ) + j · u Q ( t ) = e j · θ r ( t ) · r * ( t τ ) .
u ( t ) e j · ϕ e u ( t ) .
x ( n ) = u ( n ) + p = 1 N { w p e jp π / m u ( n ) q = 1 p [ u ( n q ) · e j Δ ϕ ( n q ) ] }
exp [ j · Δ ϕ ( n ) ] = c I ( n ) c Q ( n ) ¯ · ( 1 ) c I ( n ) ¯ + j · c I ( n ) c Q ( n ) · ( 1 ) c I ( n ) ¯ ,
v ( πp m ) = cos ( p 1 m π ) u I sin ( p 1 m π ) u Q .
v ( πp m π 2 ) = sin ( p 1 m π ) u I + cos ( p 1 m π ) u Q .
c 1 = c I = [ u ( π m ) > 0 ] , c 2 = c Q = [ u ( π m π 2 ) > 0 ] ,
c 3 = [ u ( π m + π 4 ) > 0 ] [ u ( π m π 4 ) > 0 ] ,
c log 2 ( m ) = [ u ( 3 m π ) > 0 ] [ u ( 7 m π ) > 0 ] [ u ( m 2 1 m π ) > 0 ]
        [ u ( 3 m π π 2 ) > 0 ] [ u ( 7 m π 2 ) > 0 ] [ u ( m 2 1 m π π 2 ) > 0 ] .
e j · [ ϕ ( t ) ϕ ( t τ ) ] = u ( t ) e j · θ u ( t ) e j · θ .
r ( t 0 + n · τ ) = r ( t 0 + n · τ ) e j · ϕ ( t 0 ) m = 1 n e j · Δ ϕ ( t 0 + m · τ ) ,
r ( t 0 + n · τ ) u ( t 0 + n · τ ) · u ( t 0 + n · τ + τ ) 1 4 .
σ Δ ϕ 2 1 2 NEB · ( 0.1 nm · OSNR 0.1 nm ) 1 ,
v ( n ) = u ( n ) · exp { j · 1 2 c NL · [ P ( n ) P ( n 1 ) ] } ,
[ E x E y ] = T · [ E x E y ] = P · R 2 · PMD ( ω ) · R 1 · [ E x E y ] ,
R 1 = [ cos ( θ 1 ) sin ( θ 1 ) sin ( θ 1 ) cos ( θ 1 ) ] , PMD ( Δ f ) = [ 1 0 0 e j ( 2 π · Δ f · τ DGD + δ ϕ PMD ) ] ,
R 2 = [ cos ( θ 2 ) sin ( θ 2 ) sin ( θ 2 ) cos ( θ 2 ) ] , P = [ 1 0 0 e j · δ ϕ PBS ] ,
[ E x E y ] = T 1 · [ E x ( t ) E y ( t ) ] = R 1 1 · PMD 1 ( Δ f ) · R 2 1 · P 1 [ E x E y ] .
[ E x ( t ) E y ( t ) ] = [ cos ( θ 1 ) [ cos ( θ 2 ) E x ( t ) + sin ( θ 2 ) E y ( t ) e j · δϕ PBS ] sin ( θ 1 ) [ sin ( θ 2 ) E x ( t + τ DGD ) + cos ( θ 2 ) E y ( t + τ DGD ) e j · δϕ PBS ] e j · δϕ PMD sin ( θ 1 ) [ cos ( θ 2 ) E x ( t ) + sin ( θ 2 ) E y ( t ) e j · δϕ PBS ] + cos ( θ 1 ) [ sin ( θ 2 ) E x ( t + τ DGD ) + cos ( θ 2 ) E y ( t + τ DGD ) e j · δϕ PBS ] e j · δϕ PMD ] .

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