Abstract

The authors report the investigation of surface plasmon waves (SPW) generated by single nanohole and nanohole arrays. Scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy is used to directly observe near-field distribution. The images after Fourier transformation display characteristic patterns that match with the derived analytic formula. The correspondence helps to identify the role of the scanning tip in generating SPW, making possible of the removal of this tip-induced effect. This study provides a means to perform in-depth investigation on surface plasmon polaritons.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (4)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Hall, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. K. Gray, S. -H. Chang, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy on periodic gold nanowells," Opt. Express 15,4098-4105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, T. Pakizeh, M. Kall, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and F. J. Javier Garcia de Abajo, "Nanohole plasmons in optically thin gold films," Phys. Chem. C 111,1207-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, J. -T. Yeh, M. -W. Lin, Y. -C. Chang, and J. -K. Wang, "Near-field observation of plasmon excitation and propagation on ordered elliptical hole arrays," Appl. Phys. A 89,387-390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2,551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct evidence for surface plasmon-mediated enhanced light transmission through metallic nanohole arrays," Nano Lett. 6,2104-08 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Dvoynenko, I. I. Samoylenko, and J.-K. Wang, "Suppressed light transmission through corrugated metal films at normal incidence," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 2315-2319 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van der Berger, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, " Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5,2144-48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362,787-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Gerard, L. Salomon, F. de Fornel, and A. Zayats, "Analysis of the Bloch mode spectra of surface polaritonic crystals in the weak and strong coupling regimes: grating-enhanced transmission at oblique incidence and suppression of SPP radiative losses," Opt. Express 12,3652-3663 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Bonod, S. Enoch, L. Li, E. Popov, and M. Neviere, "Resonant optical transmission through thin metallic films with and without holes," Opt. Express 11,482-490 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

V. N. Konopsky, K. E. Kouyanov, and N. N. Novikova, "Investigations of the interference of surface plasmons on rough silver surface by scanning plasmon near-field microscope," Ultramicroscopy 88,127-138 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

I. Amidror, "The Fourier-spectrum of circular sine and cosine gratings with arbitrary radial phases," Opt. Commun. 149,127-134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-92 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizpurua, J.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, T. Pakizeh, M. Kall, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and F. J. Javier Garcia de Abajo, "Nanohole plasmons in optically thin gold films," Phys. Chem. C 111,1207-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alaverdyan, Y.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, T. Pakizeh, M. Kall, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and F. J. Javier Garcia de Abajo, "Nanohole plasmons in optically thin gold films," Phys. Chem. C 111,1207-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amidror, I.

I. Amidror, "The Fourier-spectrum of circular sine and cosine gratings with arbitrary radial phases," Opt. Commun. 149,127-134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-92 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonod, N.

Brown, D. B.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. -H.

J. E. Hall, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. K. Gray, S. -H. Chang, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy on periodic gold nanowells," Opt. Express 15,4098-4105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. -C.

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, J. -T. Yeh, M. -W. Lin, Y. -C. Chang, and J. -K. Wang, "Near-field observation of plasmon excitation and propagation on ordered elliptical hole arrays," Appl. Phys. A 89,387-390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, Y. -C. Chang, Y. -J. Lu, M. -W. Lin, J. -T. Yeh, and J. -K. Wang, "Multi-wavelength heterodyne-detected scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy, (in press).
[PubMed]

Chu, J. -Y.

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, J. -T. Yeh, M. -W. Lin, Y. -C. Chang, and J. -K. Wang, "Near-field observation of plasmon excitation and propagation on ordered elliptical hole arrays," Appl. Phys. A 89,387-390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, Y. -C. Chang, Y. -J. Lu, M. -W. Lin, J. -T. Yeh, and J. -K. Wang, "Multi-wavelength heterodyne-detected scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy, (in press).
[PubMed]

de Fornel, F.

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dvoynenko, M. M.

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

Escalante, M.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van der Berger, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, " Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5,2144-48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct evidence for surface plasmon-mediated enhanced light transmission through metallic nanohole arrays," Nano Lett. 6,2104-08 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerard, D.

Gray, S. K.

J. E. Hall, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. K. Gray, S. -H. Chang, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy on periodic gold nanowells," Opt. Express 15,4098-4105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. E.

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-92 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henzie, J.

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct evidence for surface plasmon-mediated enhanced light transmission through metallic nanohole arrays," Nano Lett. 6,2104-08 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, T. Pakizeh, M. Kall, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and F. J. Javier Garcia de Abajo, "Nanohole plasmons in optically thin gold films," Phys. Chem. C 111,1207-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362,787-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2,551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-92 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javier Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, T. Pakizeh, M. Kall, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and F. J. Javier Garcia de Abajo, "Nanohole plasmons in optically thin gold films," Phys. Chem. C 111,1207-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

Kall, M.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, T. Pakizeh, M. Kall, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and F. J. Javier Garcia de Abajo, "Nanohole plasmons in optically thin gold films," Phys. Chem. C 111,1207-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362,787-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Konopsky, V. N.

V. N. Konopsky, K. E. Kouyanov, and N. N. Novikova, "Investigations of the interference of surface plasmons on rough silver surface by scanning plasmon near-field microscope," Ultramicroscopy 88,127-138 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korterik, J. P.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van der Berger, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, " Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5,2144-48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kouyanov, K. E.

V. N. Konopsky, K. E. Kouyanov, and N. N. Novikova, "Investigations of the interference of surface plasmons on rough silver surface by scanning plasmon near-field microscope," Ultramicroscopy 88,127-138 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2,551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Lin, M. -W.

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, J. -T. Yeh, M. -W. Lin, Y. -C. Chang, and J. -K. Wang, "Near-field observation of plasmon excitation and propagation on ordered elliptical hole arrays," Appl. Phys. A 89,387-390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, Y. -C. Chang, Y. -J. Lu, M. -W. Lin, J. -T. Yeh, and J. -K. Wang, "Multi-wavelength heterodyne-detected scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy, (in press).
[PubMed]

Lu, Y. -J.

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, Y. -C. Chang, Y. -J. Lu, M. -W. Lin, J. -T. Yeh, and J. -K. Wang, "Multi-wavelength heterodyne-detected scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy, (in press).
[PubMed]

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neviere, M.

Novikova, N. N.

V. N. Konopsky, K. E. Kouyanov, and N. N. Novikova, "Investigations of the interference of surface plasmons on rough silver surface by scanning plasmon near-field microscope," Ultramicroscopy 88,127-138 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-92 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odom, T. W.

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct evidence for surface plasmon-mediated enhanced light transmission through metallic nanohole arrays," Nano Lett. 6,2104-08 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Offerhaus, H. L.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van der Berger, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, " Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5,2144-48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pakizeh, T.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, T. Pakizeh, M. Kall, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and F. J. Javier Garcia de Abajo, "Nanohole plasmons in optically thin gold films," Phys. Chem. C 111,1207-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-92 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, E.

Rindzevicius, T.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, T. Pakizeh, M. Kall, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and F. J. Javier Garcia de Abajo, "Nanohole plasmons in optically thin gold films," Phys. Chem. C 111,1207-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

Royer, P.

Rydh, A.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, L.

Samoylenko, I. I.

Schatz, G. C.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van der Berger, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, " Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5,2144-48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sepulveda, B.

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, T. Pakizeh, M. Kall, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and F. J. Javier Garcia de Abajo, "Nanohole plasmons in optically thin gold films," Phys. Chem. C 111,1207-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Berger, B.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van der Berger, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, " Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5,2144-48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van der Berger, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, " Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5,2144-48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. -K.

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, J. -T. Yeh, M. -W. Lin, Y. -C. Chang, and J. -K. Wang, "Near-field observation of plasmon excitation and propagation on ordered elliptical hole arrays," Appl. Phys. A 89,387-390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, Y. -C. Chang, Y. -J. Lu, M. -W. Lin, J. -T. Yeh, and J. -K. Wang, "Multi-wavelength heterodyne-detected scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy, (in press).
[PubMed]

Wang, J.-K.

Wang, T. -J.

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, J. -T. Yeh, M. -W. Lin, Y. -C. Chang, and J. -K. Wang, "Near-field observation of plasmon excitation and propagation on ordered elliptical hole arrays," Appl. Phys. A 89,387-390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, Y. -C. Chang, Y. -J. Lu, M. -W. Lin, J. -T. Yeh, and J. -K. Wang, "Multi-wavelength heterodyne-detected scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy, (in press).
[PubMed]

Weeber, J. C.

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

Yeh, J. -T.

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, J. -T. Yeh, M. -W. Lin, Y. -C. Chang, and J. -K. Wang, "Near-field observation of plasmon excitation and propagation on ordered elliptical hole arrays," Appl. Phys. A 89,387-390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, Y. -C. Chang, Y. -J. Lu, M. -W. Lin, J. -T. Yeh, and J. -K. Wang, "Multi-wavelength heterodyne-detected scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy, (in press).
[PubMed]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A.

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, J. -T. Yeh, M. -W. Lin, Y. -C. Chang, and J. -K. Wang, "Near-field observation of plasmon excitation and propagation on ordered elliptical hole arrays," Appl. Phys. A 89,387-390 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, "Launching and decoupling surface plasmons via micro-gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83,4936-4938 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S. -H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,467-469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano Lett. (3)

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct evidence for surface plasmon-mediated enhanced light transmission through metallic nanohole arrays," Nano Lett. 6,2104-08 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. L. Offerhaus, B. van der Berger, M. Escalante, F. B. Segerink, J. P. Korterik, and N. F. van Hulst, " Creating focused plasmons by noncollinear phasematching on functional gratings," Nano Lett. 5,2144-48 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, "Interaction between optical nano-objects at metallo-dielectric interfaces," Nat. Phys. 2,551-556 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature 445, 39-46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. Amidror, "The Fourier-spectrum of circular sine and cosine gratings with arbitrary radial phases," Opt. Commun. 149,127-134 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362,787-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. C (1)

T. Rindzevicius, Y. Alaverdyan, B. Sepulveda, T. Pakizeh, M. Kall, R. Hillenbrand, J. Aizpurua, and F. J. Javier Garcia de Abajo, "Nanohole plasmons in optically thin gold films," Phys. Chem. C 111,1207-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, "Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons," Phys. Rep. 408, 131-314 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, L. Novotny, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, "Local excitation, scattering, and interference of surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77,1889-92 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85,3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (2)

J. -Y. Chu, T. -J. Wang, Y. -C. Chang, Y. -J. Lu, M. -W. Lin, J. -T. Yeh, and J. -K. Wang, "Multi-wavelength heterodyne-detected scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy, (in press).
[PubMed]

V. N. Konopsky, K. E. Kouyanov, and N. N. Novikova, "Investigations of the interference of surface plasmons on rough silver surface by scanning plasmon near-field microscope," Ultramicroscopy 88,127-138 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902-1-153902-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Darmanyan, M. Niviere, and A. V. Zayats, "Analytical theory of optical transmission through periodically structured metal films via tunnel-coupled surface polariton modes," Phys. Rev. B 70, 075103-1-075103-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, "Negative role of surface plasmons in the transmission of metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403-1 - 057403-4 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 1988).

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation" Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103-1-081103-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGrawHill, Boston Burr Ridge, 2000).

D. W. Lynch and W. R. Hunter, "Comments on the optical constants of metals and an introduction to the data for several metals," Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, e.d. (Academic, Press, New York, 1985).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two scattering field contributions of surface plasmon waves: (a) the one generated by the nanohole and (b) the one generated by the tip. k 0, the wave vector of the incident light wave; k SC , the wave vector of the scattering light wave; k SPW , the wave vector of the surface plasmon wave.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Near-field images of single nanohole: (a) amplitude image, (b) Fourier transformed image, (c) amplitude image without the tip-induced contribution, and (d) distribution of the vertical field component calculated by FDTD method. The hole diameter is 150 nm and the excitation wavelength is 532 nm. The nanoholes are marked as open black circles. The scale bar represents 1 µm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Near-field images of nanohole arrays: (a) amplitude image with a period of 535 nm. (b) amplitude image with a period of 750 nm. (c) and (d) are the Fourier-transformed images of (a) and (b), respectively. (e) and (f) are the predicted k-space patterns of (c) and (d), respectively. The green and blue circles are the tip- and nanohole-generated contributions, respectively. Black crosses represent the positions defined by the structure function of the arrays, while the red crosses symbolize the intersection of the three circles and the black crosses.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 2 = A 2 ( r ) exp [ i ( k 0 sin θ i · r + k SPW r + ϕ ) ] ,
E 3 = A 3 ( r ) exp [ i ( 2 k SPW r + ϕ ) ] ,
R ( r ) = E 1 + E 2 + E 3
A 1 + A 2 ( r ) cos ( k 0 sin θ i · r + k SPW r + ϕ ) + A 3 ( r ) cos ( 2 k SPW r + ϕ ) .
R ( k ) = FT [ R ( r ) ]
A 1 δ 2 ( k ) + A 2 ( k ) F 2 ( k ) + A 3 ( k ) F 3 ( k ) ,
F 2 ( k ) = FT [ cos ( k 0 sin θ i · r + k SPW r + ϕ ) ]
= 1 2 [ e i ϕ h 1 ( k ) + e i ϕ h 2 ( k ) ] ,
h 1 ( k ) = 2 π k SPW 2 [ 1 g 1 ( k ) 2 ] 3 2 rect [ g 1 ( k ) 2 ] i 2 π k SPW 2 [ g 1 ( k ) 2 1 ] 3 2 step [ g 1 ( k ) 2 ] ,
h 2 ( k ) = 2 π k SPW 2 [ 1 g 2 ( k ) 2 ] 3 2 rect [ g 2 ( k ) 2 ] + i 2 π k SPW 2 [ g 2 ( k ) 2 1 ] 3 2 step [ g 2 ( k ) 2 ] ,
F 3 ( k ) = FT [ cos ( 2 k SPW r + ϕ ) ]
= 4 π k SPW [ cos ϕ ( 4 k SPW 2 k 2 ) 3 2 rect ( k 4 k SPW ) sin ϕ ( k 2 4 k SPW 2 ) 3 2 step ( k 4 k SPW ) ] ,
E 2 HA = m , n E 2 ( r + ma x + na y ) ,
E 3 HA m , n E 3 ( r + ma x + na y ) ,
R HA ( r ) A 1 + m , n Re [ E 2 ( r + ma x + na y ) ] + Re [ E 3 ( r + ma x + na y ) ] .
R HA ( k ) A 1 δ 2 ( k ) + [ A 2 ( k ) F 2 ( k ) + A 3 ( k ) F 3 ( k ) ] × S ( k ) ,
S ( k ) = m , n exp ( ik x ma + ik y na ) .

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