Abstract

We report on the electro-optic and nonlinear optical properties of waveguides produced by low fluence (ϕ=1.25×1014 ions/cm2) H+ ion implantation in the organic nonlinear optic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST). The profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility has been determined by measuring the reflected second-harmonic generation efficiency from a wedged-polished sample at a fundamental wavelength of λω=1176nm. In the waveguide core region the nonlinear optical susceptibility is shown to be preserved to more than 90% of its bulk value. A model which relates the molecular changes to the measured macroscopic alteration of the refractive index and the nonlinear coefficient has been introduced to quantify the fraction of molecules modified by ion implantation. Furthermore, a first electro-optic modulation in ion implanted DAST waveguides has been demonstrated.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
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2007 (4)

2006 (1)

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, P. and Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N, Ndimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, "Development of ion implantation for optical applications," Vacuum 51, 301-304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1962 (1)

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, "Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. 128, 606-622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Agullo-Lopez, F.

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, "Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. 128, 606-622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bösch, M.

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N, Ndimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, P. and Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N, Ndimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, O.

Cai, B.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, D. R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carrascosa, M.

Chen, B. Q.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalton, L.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deneault, S. J.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Derose, C. T.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, D.

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Follonier, S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, G.

Garcia-Cabanes, A.

Garcia-Navarro, A.

Garmire, E.

Geis, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghatak, A. K.

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

Günter, P.

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinˇsek, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, "Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, M. Koechlin, M. Jazbinšek, and P. Günter, "Direct electron beam writing of channel waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 16828-16838 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guarino, P. Günter, "Nondestructive method for the characterization of ion-implanted waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2412-2414 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N, Ndimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harvard, K.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jazbin?sek, M.

Jazbinšek, M.

L. Mutter, M. Koechlin, M. Jazbinšek, and P. Günter, "Direct electron beam writing of channel waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 16828-16838 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, P. and Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Knöpfle, G.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koechlin, M.

Krohn, K. E.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Küpfer, M.

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, R.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyszczarz, T.M.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marchant, M. F.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, P. and Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N, Ndimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, A.

Mowers, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mutter, L.

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

Pan, F.

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N, Ndimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P. S.

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, "Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. 128, 606-622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pliska, T.

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramadas, M. R.

Scherer, A.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shearn, M.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shenoy, M. R.

Shi, Z.W.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinta, R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spreiter, R.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takayama, K.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thyagarajan, K.

Tian, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, "Development of ion implantation for optical applications," Vacuum 51, 301-304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. X.

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M.

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbinˇsek, M. Zgonik, and P. Günter, "Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, P. and Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault,M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T.M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Fluck, T. Pliska, M. Küpfer, and P. Günter, "Depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility of ionimplanted KNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 748-750 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

U. Meier, M. Bösch, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "Parametric interactions in the organic salt 4-N, Ndimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate at telecommunication wavelengths," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3486-3489 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, P. and Günter, "Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. X. Wang, M. Shearn, K. Harvard, J. D. Luo, B. Q. Chen, Z.W. Shi, R. Lawson, P. Sullivan, A. K. Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, "Terahertz all-optical modulation in a silicon-polymer hybrid system," Nat. Mater. 5, 703-709 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1 (3), 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

N. Bloembergen and P. S. Pershan, "Light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. 128, 606-622 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Vacuum (1)

P. D. Townsend, "Development of ion implantation for optical applications," Vacuum 51, 301-304 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation, (Cambridge U. Press, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Prêtre, J. Hulliger, M. Flörsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P. Günter, Organic Nonlinar Optical Materials, (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers SA, 1995).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Refractive index profile of ion implanted DAST waveguides at a wavelength of 1.55 µm (solid curve) for an ion fluence of ϕ=1.25×1014 ions/cm2, and corresponding optical field amplitude of the first (dashed curve) and second mode (dotted curve), which have calculated tunneling losses of below 1 dB/cm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup for measuring the depth profile of the nonlinear optical susceptibility. The second-harmonic light generated on a wedged sample surface is measured while the sample is scanned in η direction. The profile as a function of the implantation depth z is finally obtained by a projection of the η to the z direction.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured normalized second-harmonic power of an implanted DAST waveguide as a function of the implantation depth z at a second-harmonic wavelength of λ 2ω =588nm. The open circles represent the measured data points. The full curve is a guide to the eye.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Open circles represent the normalized susceptibility profile of a waveguide structure produced by 1MeV H+ implantation with a fluence of ϕ=1.25×1014 ions/cm2. The full curve corresponds best the theoretical model based on Eq. (12). The dashed curve is the fraction of unmodified molecules calculated with Eq. (8).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup with reference arm for electro-optic modulation. BS: beamsplitter, L: lens, A: aperture, PD: photodiode.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Model parameters of Eq. (12), which correspond best to the experimental data shown in Fig. 4 obtained by a least-square theoretical analysis.

Equations (17)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 2 ω R = 1 ε 0 P 2 ω NLS ( n 2 ω + 1 ) ( n 2 ω + n ω ) = d 111 t ω 2 E ω 2 ( n 2 ω + 1 ) ( n 2 ω + n ω ) ,
n ω 2 1 = N f ω α ( ω )
d = 1 2 N f ω 2 f 2 ω β ( 2 ω , ω , ω ) ,
α ~ ( ω ) = k ω α ( ω ) ,
β ~ ( 2 ω , ω , ω ) < < β ( 2 ω , ω , ω ) ,
n ~ ω 2 ( z ) 1 = Np ( z ) f ~ ω ( z ) α ( ω ) + N [ 1 p ( z ) ] f ~ ω ( z ) α ~ ( ω )
d ~ ( z ) 1 2 Np ( z ) f ~ ω 2 ( z ) f ~ 2 ω ( z ) β ( 2 ω , ω , ω ) ,
p ( z ) = d ~ ( z ) d bulk f ω 2 f 2 ω f ~ ω 2 ( z ) f ~ 2 ω ( z ) .
d ~ ( z ) d bulk = P ( z ) P bulk [ n ~ 2 ω ( z ) + 1 ] [ n ~ 2 ω ( z ) + n ~ ω ( z ) ] [ n 2 ω + 1 ] [ n 2 ω + n ω ] t ω 2 t ~ ω 2 ( z ) ,
p ( z ) = n ~ ω 2 ( z ) 1 n ~ ω 2 ( z ) + 2 n ω 2 + 2 n ω 2 1 k ω 1 k ω .
n ~ ω 2 ( z ) 1 n ~ ω 2 ( z ) + 2 n ω 2 + 2 n ω 2 1 k ω 1 k ω = n ~ ω 2 ( z ) 1 n ~ ω 2 ( z ) + 2 n ω 2 + 2 n ω 2 1 k ω 1 k ω .
Δ d ~ ( z ) d bulk = Δ d max d bulk [ 1 e ( ϕ G el ( μ z ) G el , 0 ) γ el ] ,
Δ φ = π r 111 n 1 3 λ L o D U ,
δ I = I max I min 2 π r 111 n 1 3 λ L o D δ U ,
r e = 2 N f ω 2 f 0 n ω 4 β ( ω , ω , 0 )
r ~ e ( z ) 2 N p ( z ) f ~ ω 2 ( z ) f ~ 0 ( z ) n ~ ω 4 ( z ) β ( ω , ω , 0 )
r ~ e ( z ) r e = p ( z ) f ~ ω 2 ( z ) f ~ 0 ( z ) f ω 2 f 0 n ω 4 n ~ ω 4 ( z ) .

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