Abstract

A “hierarchical hologram” and experiments using it are described. This type of hologram works both in optical far-fields and near-fields. We exploit the physical difference between the propagating light and optical near-field, where the former is associated with conventional holographic patterns obtained in optical far-fields, whereas the latter is associated with nanometric structure accessible only via optical near-fields. We also describe an experimental demonstration of the basic principles with our prototype optical elements.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. F. Fagan, ed., Optical Security and Anti-Counterfeiting Systems, (Society of Photo Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 1990).
  2. B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Refregier and B. Javidi, "Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding," Opt. Lett. 20, 767-769 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. A. Rakuljic, V. Leyva, and A. Yariv, "Optical data storage by using orthogonal wavelength-multiplexed volume holograms," Opt. Lett. 17, 1471-1473 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. L. Van Renesse, ed., Optical Document Scanning, 69-225 (Altech House Optoelectronics Library, 1998).
  6. S. P. McGrew, "Hologram counterfeiting: problems and solutions," in Proc. SPIE, Optical Security and Anticounterfeiting Systems, William F. Fagan, ed., 1210, 66-76 (1990).
  7. M. Ohtsu, "Near-field nano-optics toward nano/atom deposition," Tech. Digest 18th Congr. Int. Commission for Optics, Proc. SPIE 3749, 478-479 (1999).
  8. M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Yatsui, K. Itsumi, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Metallized pyramidal silicon probe with extremely high throughput and resolution capability for optical near-field technology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2257-2259 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. S. Zhdanov, M. N. Libenson, and G. A. Martsinovskii, "Optics in the diffraction limit: principles, results, and problems," Phys.-Usp. 41, 719-722 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Naruse, T. Yatsui, W. Nomura, N. Hirose, and M. Ohtsu, "Hierarchy in optical nearfields and its application to memory retrieval," Opt. Express 13, 9265-9271 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Naruse, T. Inoue, and H. Hori, "Analysis and synthesis of hierarchy in optical near-field interactions at the nanoscale based on angular spectrum," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6095-6103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Lancaster, ed., Holopack Holoprint Guide Book, (Reconnaissance International Publishers and Consultants, 2000) pp. 139-154.

2007 (1)

M. Naruse, T. Inoue, and H. Hori, "Analysis and synthesis of hierarchy in optical near-field interactions at the nanoscale based on angular spectrum," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6095-6103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2002 (2)

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, K. Itsumi, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Metallized pyramidal silicon probe with extremely high throughput and resolution capability for optical near-field technology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2257-2259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Ohtsu, "Near-field nano-optics toward nano/atom deposition," Tech. Digest 18th Congr. Int. Commission for Optics, Proc. SPIE 3749, 478-479 (1999).

1998 (1)

G. S. Zhdanov, M. N. Libenson, and G. A. Martsinovskii, "Optics in the diffraction limit: principles, results, and problems," Phys.-Usp. 41, 719-722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Hirose, N.

Hori, H.

M. Naruse, T. Inoue, and H. Hori, "Analysis and synthesis of hierarchy in optical near-field interactions at the nanoscale based on angular spectrum," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6095-6103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horner, J. L.

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

M. Naruse, T. Inoue, and H. Hori, "Analysis and synthesis of hierarchy in optical near-field interactions at the nanoscale based on angular spectrum," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6095-6103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Itsumi, K.

T. Yatsui, K. Itsumi, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Metallized pyramidal silicon probe with extremely high throughput and resolution capability for optical near-field technology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2257-2259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

P. Refregier and B. Javidi, "Optical image encryption based on input plane and Fourier plane random encoding," Opt. Lett. 20, 767-769 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, T.

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kourogi, M.

T. Yatsui, K. Itsumi, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Metallized pyramidal silicon probe with extremely high throughput and resolution capability for optical near-field technology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2257-2259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leyva, V.

Libenson, M. N.

G. S. Zhdanov, M. N. Libenson, and G. A. Martsinovskii, "Optics in the diffraction limit: principles, results, and problems," Phys.-Usp. 41, 719-722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martsinovskii, G. A.

G. S. Zhdanov, M. N. Libenson, and G. A. Martsinovskii, "Optics in the diffraction limit: principles, results, and problems," Phys.-Usp. 41, 719-722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naruse, M.

M. Naruse, T. Inoue, and H. Hori, "Analysis and synthesis of hierarchy in optical near-field interactions at the nanoscale based on angular spectrum," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6095-6103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Naruse, T. Yatsui, W. Nomura, N. Hirose, and M. Ohtsu, "Hierarchy in optical nearfields and its application to memory retrieval," Opt. Express 13, 9265-9271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomura, W.

Ohtsu, M.

M. Naruse, T. Yatsui, W. Nomura, N. Hirose, and M. Ohtsu, "Hierarchy in optical nearfields and its application to memory retrieval," Opt. Express 13, 9265-9271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, K. Itsumi, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Metallized pyramidal silicon probe with extremely high throughput and resolution capability for optical near-field technology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2257-2259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohtsu, "Near-field nano-optics toward nano/atom deposition," Tech. Digest 18th Congr. Int. Commission for Optics, Proc. SPIE 3749, 478-479 (1999).

Rakuljic, G. A.

Refregier, P.

Sangu, S.

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yatsui, T.

M. Naruse, T. Yatsui, W. Nomura, N. Hirose, and M. Ohtsu, "Hierarchy in optical nearfields and its application to memory retrieval," Opt. Express 13, 9265-9271 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Yatsui, K. Itsumi, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Metallized pyramidal silicon probe with extremely high throughput and resolution capability for optical near-field technology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2257-2259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhdanov, G. S.

G. S. Zhdanov, M. N. Libenson, and G. A. Martsinovskii, "Optics in the diffraction limit: principles, results, and problems," Phys.-Usp. 41, 719-722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Yatsui, K. Itsumi, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, "Metallized pyramidal silicon probe with extremely high throughput and resolution capability for optical near-field technology," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2257-2259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Naruse, T. Inoue, and H. Hori, "Analysis and synthesis of hierarchy in optical near-field interactions at the nanoscale based on angular spectrum," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 6095-6103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Javidi and J. L. Horner, "Optical pattern recognition for validation and security verification," Opt. Eng. 33, 1752-1756 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys.-Usp. (1)

G. S. Zhdanov, M. N. Libenson, and G. A. Martsinovskii, "Optics in the diffraction limit: principles, results, and problems," Phys.-Usp. 41, 719-722 (1998).
[CrossRef]

SPIE (1)

M. Ohtsu, "Near-field nano-optics toward nano/atom deposition," Tech. Digest 18th Congr. Int. Commission for Optics, Proc. SPIE 3749, 478-479 (1999).

Other (4)

R. L. Van Renesse, ed., Optical Document Scanning, 69-225 (Altech House Optoelectronics Library, 1998).

S. P. McGrew, "Hologram counterfeiting: problems and solutions," in Proc. SPIE, Optical Security and Anticounterfeiting Systems, William F. Fagan, ed., 1210, 66-76 (1990).

W. F. Fagan, ed., Optical Security and Anti-Counterfeiting Systems, (Society of Photo Optical Instrumentation Engineers, 1990).

I. Lancaster, ed., Holopack Holoprint Guide Book, (Reconnaissance International Publishers and Consultants, 2000) pp. 139-154.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Basic concept of functional hierarchy of hierarchical hologram. In principle, no interference occurs between the two layers, “far-mode” and “near-mode”.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Observed CCD image of sample hologram. Magnified image of (b) non-fabricated hologram and (c) fabricated hologram. The marked region in (a) corresponds with the magnified region at (b) and (c).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Schematic diagram of near-mode observation using NOM and composition of sample hologram. (b) SEM images of fiber probe.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) SEM image of fabricated nanometric holes on hologram. (b)–(d) Magnified images of each hole at (a) (left), and corresponding optical response observed by NOM (right).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Composition of fabricated grating, and (b) magnified SEM images of nanometric fabrication.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Diffraction efficiencies of (a) non-fabricated grating and (b) fabricated grating.

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