Abstract

In this paper, we report a direct-write technique for three-dimensional control of waveguide fabrication in silicon. Here, a focused beam of 250 keV protons is used to selectively slow down the rate of porous silicon formation during subsequent anodization, producing a silicon core surrounded by porous silicon cladding. The etch rate is found to depend on the irradiated dose, increasing the size of the core from 2.5 µm to 3.5 µm in width, and from 1.5 µm to 2.6 µm in height by increasing the dose by an order of magnitude. This ability to accurately control the waveguide profile with the ion dose at high spatial resolution provides a means of producing three-dimensional silicon waveguide tapers. Propagation losses of 6.7 dB/cm for TE and 6.8 dB/cm for TM polarization were measured in linear waveguides at the wavelength of 1550 nm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, "Free standing waveguides in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol and D. Blackwood, "Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,"Phys. Rev. B 73,035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu and D.J. Blackwood, "Three-dimensional micromachining of silicon using a nuclear microprobe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,3202-3204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt and L. C. Alves, "High quality ion-induced secondary electron imaging for MeV nuclear microprobe applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22,560-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, "Direct measurement of proton-beam-written polymer optical waveguide sidewall morphorlogy using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,1398-1400 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu and D. W. Prather, "Total internal reflection-evanescent coupler for fiber-to-waveguide integration of planar optoelectric devices,"Opt. Lett. 29,1748-1750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai and D. W. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 11,3555-3561 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Z. Mashanovich, V. M. N. Passaro and G. T. Reed, "Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15,1395-1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, J.A. Van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, T. Osipowicz, "The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: performance tests," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 210,14-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

G. Amato, L. Boarino, S. Borini and A. M. Rossi, "Hybrid approach to porous silicon integrated waveguides," Phys. Status Solidi A 182,425-430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferrand and R. Romestain, "Optical losses in porous silicon waveguides in the near-infrared: effects of scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77,3535-3537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell and A. Loni, "Optical waveguides in porous silicon pre-patterned by localized nitrogen implantation,"J. Lumin. 80,199-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. Loni, R. J. Bozeat, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Kruger, M. Thonissen and H. Luth, "The applications of porous silicon to optical waveguiding technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4,975-982 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

L. Pavesi, "Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities," Riv. Nuovo Cimento 20, 1-78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Lerondel, R. Romestain, and S. Barret, "Roughness of the porous silicon dissolution interface," J. Appl. Phys. 81,6171-6178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Brenner and H. Melchior, "Integrated optical modeshape adapters in InGaAsP/InGaAsP tapers for efficient fiber-waveguide coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 50,1053-1056 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28,2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Chien, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien and G. Raybon, "Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3418-420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

K. Imai, "A new dielectric isolation method using porous silicon," Solid State Electron. 24,150-164 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. C. Day, W. E. Horne. and I. Arimura, "Proton damage annealing for use in extended life solar arrays," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 27, 1665-1671 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

Alves, L. C.

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt and L. C. Alves, "High quality ion-induced secondary electron imaging for MeV nuclear microprobe applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22,560-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Amato, G.

G. Amato, L. Boarino, S. Borini and A. M. Rossi, "Hybrid approach to porous silicon integrated waveguides," Phys. Status Solidi A 182,425-430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arens-Fischer, R.

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. Loni, R. J. Bozeat, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Kruger, M. Thonissen and H. Luth, "The applications of porous silicon to optical waveguiding technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4,975-982 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arimura, I.

A. C. Day, W. E. Horne. and I. Arimura, "Proton damage annealing for use in extended life solar arrays," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 27, 1665-1671 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Arrand, H. F.

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell and A. Loni, "Optical waveguides in porous silicon pre-patterned by localized nitrogen implantation,"J. Lumin. 80,199-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. Loni, R. J. Bozeat, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Kruger, M. Thonissen and H. Luth, "The applications of porous silicon to optical waveguiding technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4,975-982 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, M.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28,2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barret, S.

G. Lerondel, R. Romestain, and S. Barret, "Roughness of the porous silicon dissolution interface," J. Appl. Phys. 81,6171-6178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. M.

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell and A. Loni, "Optical waveguides in porous silicon pre-patterned by localized nitrogen implantation,"J. Lumin. 80,199-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. Loni, R. J. Bozeat, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Kruger, M. Thonissen and H. Luth, "The applications of porous silicon to optical waveguiding technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4,975-982 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, "Free standing waveguides in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol and D. Blackwood, "Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,"Phys. Rev. B 73,035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt and L. C. Alves, "High quality ion-induced secondary electron imaging for MeV nuclear microprobe applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22,560-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, "Direct measurement of proton-beam-written polymer optical waveguide sidewall morphorlogy using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,1398-1400 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu and D.J. Blackwood, "Three-dimensional micromachining of silicon using a nuclear microprobe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,3202-3204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, J.A. Van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, T. Osipowicz, "The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: performance tests," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 210,14-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blackwood, D.

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol and D. Blackwood, "Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,"Phys. Rev. B 73,035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blackwood, D. J.

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, "Free standing waveguides in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blackwood, D.J.

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu and D.J. Blackwood, "Three-dimensional micromachining of silicon using a nuclear microprobe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,3202-3204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boarino, L.

G. Amato, L. Boarino, S. Borini and A. M. Rossi, "Hybrid approach to porous silicon integrated waveguides," Phys. Status Solidi A 182,425-430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borini, S.

G. Amato, L. Boarino, S. Borini and A. M. Rossi, "Hybrid approach to porous silicon integrated waveguides," Phys. Status Solidi A 182,425-430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bozeat, R. J.

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. Loni, R. J. Bozeat, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Kruger, M. Thonissen and H. Luth, "The applications of porous silicon to optical waveguiding technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4,975-982 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Breese, M. B. H.

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, "Free standing waveguides in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol and D. Blackwood, "Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,"Phys. Rev. B 73,035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt and L. C. Alves, "High quality ion-induced secondary electron imaging for MeV nuclear microprobe applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22,560-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu and D.J. Blackwood, "Three-dimensional micromachining of silicon using a nuclear microprobe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,3202-3204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, J.A. Van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, T. Osipowicz, "The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: performance tests," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 210,14-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, T.

T. Brenner and H. Melchior, "Integrated optical modeshape adapters in InGaAsP/InGaAsP tapers for efficient fiber-waveguide coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 50,1053-1056 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28,2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

Champeaux, F. J. T.

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol and D. Blackwood, "Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,"Phys. Rev. B 73,035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chien, M.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien and G. Raybon, "Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3418-420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Chien, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien and G. Raybon, "Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3418-420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Choo, T. F.

F. Watt, J.A. Van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, T. Osipowicz, "The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: performance tests," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 210,14-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Day, A. C.

A. C. Day, W. E. Horne. and I. Arimura, "Proton damage annealing for use in extended life solar arrays," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 27, 1665-1671 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, T.

Ferrand, P.

P. Ferrand and R. Romestain, "Optical losses in porous silicon waveguides in the near-infrared: effects of scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77,3535-3537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Morilla, I.

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, "Free standing waveguides in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guekos, G.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28,2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Headley, W. R.

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, "Free standing waveguides in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horne, W. E.

A. C. Day, W. E. Horne. and I. Arimura, "Proton damage annealing for use in extended life solar arrays," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 27, 1665-1671 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, W.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28,2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Imai, K.

K. Imai, "A new dielectric isolation method using porous silicon," Solid State Electron. 24,150-164 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Koch, T. L.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien and G. Raybon, "Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3418-420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien and G. Raybon, "Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3418-420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kruger, M.

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. Loni, R. J. Bozeat, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Kruger, M. Thonissen and H. Luth, "The applications of porous silicon to optical waveguiding technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4,975-982 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Lerondel, G.

G. Lerondel, R. Romestain, and S. Barret, "Roughness of the porous silicon dissolution interface," J. Appl. Phys. 81,6171-6178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

Lin, C.

Liu, M. H.

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu and D.J. Blackwood, "Three-dimensional micromachining of silicon using a nuclear microprobe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,3202-3204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loni, A.

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell and A. Loni, "Optical waveguides in porous silicon pre-patterned by localized nitrogen implantation,"J. Lumin. 80,199-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. Loni, R. J. Bozeat, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Kruger, M. Thonissen and H. Luth, "The applications of porous silicon to optical waveguiding technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4,975-982 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.

Luth, H.

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. Loni, R. J. Bozeat, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Kruger, M. Thonissen and H. Luth, "The applications of porous silicon to optical waveguiding technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4,975-982 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G. Z.

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, "Free standing waveguides in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Mashanovich, V. M. N. Passaro and G. T. Reed, "Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15,1395-1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

T. Brenner and H. Melchior, "Integrated optical modeshape adapters in InGaAsP/InGaAsP tapers for efficient fiber-waveguide coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 50,1053-1056 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28,2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. I.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien and G. Raybon, "Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3418-420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

Osipowicz, T.

F. Watt, J.A. Van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, T. Osipowicz, "The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: performance tests," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 210,14-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, V. M. N.

G. Z. Mashanovich, V. M. N. Passaro and G. T. Reed, "Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15,1395-1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi, "Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities," Riv. Nuovo Cimento 20, 1-78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

Pustai, D.

Rajta, I.

F. Watt, J.A. Van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, T. Osipowicz, "The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: performance tests," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 210,14-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien and G. Raybon, "Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3418-420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, "Free standing waveguides in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Mashanovich, V. M. N. Passaro and G. T. Reed, "Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15,1395-1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romestain, R.

P. Ferrand and R. Romestain, "Optical losses in porous silicon waveguides in the near-infrared: effects of scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77,3535-3537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Lerondel, R. Romestain, and S. Barret, "Roughness of the porous silicon dissolution interface," J. Appl. Phys. 81,6171-6178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, A. M.

G. Amato, L. Boarino, S. Borini and A. M. Rossi, "Hybrid approach to porous silicon integrated waveguides," Phys. Status Solidi A 182,425-430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seng, H. L.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, "Direct measurement of proton-beam-written polymer optical waveguide sidewall morphorlogy using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,1398-1400 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, P.

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell and A. Loni, "Optical waveguides in porous silicon pre-patterned by localized nitrogen implantation,"J. Lumin. 80,199-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. Loni, R. J. Bozeat, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Kruger, M. Thonissen and H. Luth, "The applications of porous silicon to optical waveguiding technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4,975-982 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

Smit, M.

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28,2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sum, T. C.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, "Direct measurement of proton-beam-written polymer optical waveguide sidewall morphorlogy using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,1398-1400 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sure, A.

Tavernier, E. P.

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu and D.J. Blackwood, "Three-dimensional micromachining of silicon using a nuclear microprobe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,3202-3204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teo, E. J.

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, "Free standing waveguides in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol and D. Blackwood, "Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,"Phys. Rev. B 73,035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu and D.J. Blackwood, "Three-dimensional micromachining of silicon using a nuclear microprobe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,3202-3204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt and L. C. Alves, "High quality ion-induced secondary electron imaging for MeV nuclear microprobe applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22,560-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thonissen, M.

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. Loni, R. J. Bozeat, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Kruger, M. Thonissen and H. Luth, "The applications of porous silicon to optical waveguiding technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4,975-982 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

van Kan, J. A.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, "Direct measurement of proton-beam-written polymer optical waveguide sidewall morphorlogy using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,1398-1400 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Kan, J.A.

F. Watt, J.A. Van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, T. Osipowicz, "The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: performance tests," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 210,14-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watt, F.

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, "Direct measurement of proton-beam-written polymer optical waveguide sidewall morphorlogy using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,1398-1400 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu and D.J. Blackwood, "Three-dimensional micromachining of silicon using a nuclear microprobe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,3202-3204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt and L. C. Alves, "High quality ion-induced secondary electron imaging for MeV nuclear microprobe applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22,560-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, J.A. Van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, T. Osipowicz, "The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: performance tests," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 210,14-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. Y.

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, "Free standing waveguides in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Young, M. G.

M. Chien, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien and G. Raybon, "Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3418-420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, H. L. Seng, J. A. van Kan, and F. Watt, "Direct measurement of proton-beam-written polymer optical waveguide sidewall morphorlogy using an atomic force microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85,1398-1400 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, E. P. Tavernier, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt, M. H. Liu and D.J. Blackwood, "Three-dimensional micromachining of silicon using a nuclear microprobe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,3202-3204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, I. Gomez-Morilla, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, E. J. Teo, D. J. Blackwood, M. B. H. Breese, and A. A. Bettiol, "Free standing waveguides in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,241109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferrand and R. Romestain, "Optical losses in porous silicon waveguides in the near-infrared: effects of scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77,3535-3537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Brenner, W. Hunziker, M. Smit, M. Bachmann, G. Guekos and H. Melchior, "Vertical InP/InGaAsP tapers for low-loss optical fiber-waveguide coupling," Electron. Lett. 28,2040-2041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell, A. Loni, R. J. Bozeat, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Kruger, M. Thonissen and H. Luth, "The applications of porous silicon to optical waveguiding technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4,975-982 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Chien, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, M. Chien and G. Raybon, "Short cavity distributed Bragg reflector laser with an integrated tapered output waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3418-420 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Brenner and H. Melchior, "Integrated optical modeshape adapters in InGaAsP/InGaAsP tapers for efficient fiber-waveguide coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 50,1053-1056 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Mashanovich, V. M. N. Passaro and G. T. Reed, "Dual grating-assisted directional coupling between fibers and thin semiconductor waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15,1395-1397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

A. C. Day, W. E. Horne. and I. Arimura, "Proton damage annealing for use in extended life solar arrays," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 27, 1665-1671 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Lerondel, R. Romestain, and S. Barret, "Roughness of the porous silicon dissolution interface," J. Appl. Phys. 81,6171-6178 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

H. F. Arrand, T. M. Benson, P. Sewell and A. Loni, "Optical waveguides in porous silicon pre-patterned by localized nitrogen implantation,"J. Lumin. 80,199-202 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

E. J. Teo, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, F. Watt and L. C. Alves, "High quality ion-induced secondary electron imaging for MeV nuclear microprobe applications," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22,560-564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B (1)

F. Watt, J.A. Van Kan, I. Rajta, A. A. Bettiol, T. F. Choo, M. B. H. Breese, T. Osipowicz, "The National University of Singapore high energy ion nano-probe facility: performance tests," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 210,14-20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol and D. Blackwood, "Hole transport through proton-irradiated p-type silicon wafers during electrochemical anodisation,"Phys. Rev. B 73,035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

G. Amato, L. Boarino, S. Borini and A. M. Rossi, "Hybrid approach to porous silicon integrated waveguides," Phys. Status Solidi A 182,425-430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Riv. Nuovo Cimento (1)

L. Pavesi, "Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities," Riv. Nuovo Cimento 20, 1-78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Electron. (1)

K. Imai, "A new dielectric isolation method using porous silicon," Solid State Electron. 24,150-164 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, (Pergamon Press, New York 1985).

http://www.rsoftdesign.com,

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights in Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (Wiley, England, 2004).
[CrossRef]

www.confluentphotonics.com

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic diagram of the fabrication process (b) SRIM simulation of the defect density profile of 250 keV protons in silicon.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross sectional SEM of the waveguides irradiated with a dose of (a) 7×1013, (b) 1×1014 and (c) 8×1014/cm2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plot of the core height and width as a function of dose.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Top view of the scattered light from the waveguide (b) Plot of the output power of the waveguide as a function of guiding length, where the output power is defined as 10×log (Pout). Inset picture shows the output mode of the waveguide.

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