Abstract

Metamaterial structures are artificial materials that show unconventional electromagnetic properties such as negative refraction index, perfect lenses, and invisibility. However, losses are one of the big challenges to be surpassed in order to design practical devices at optical wavelengths. Here we report negative refraction in a prism engineered by stacked sub-wavelength hole arrays. These structures exhibit inherently an extraordinary optical transmission which could offer a solution to the problem of losses at optical wavelengths. It is shown the possibility to obtain negative indices of refraction starting from near to zero values. Our work demonstrates by a direct experiment the feasibility of engineering negative refraction by just drilling sub-wavelength holes in metallic plates and stacking them.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, "Negative-index metamaterials: going optical," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106-1115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Uspekhi 10, 509-514 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, K. Gehrke, V. Moshnyaga, and K. Samwer, "Negative refraction observed in a metallic ferromagnet in the gigahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 197401-(1-4) (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,R10096-10099 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D.R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Falcone,  et al., "Babinet principle applied to metasurface and metamaterial design," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 197401-1-4 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,"Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404-1-4 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo,"Left-handed extraordinary optical transmission through a photonic crystal of subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 14, 5445-5455 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, M. Navarro-Cía, F. Falcone, I. Campillo and V. Lomakin, "Extraordinary transmission and left-handed propagation in miniaturized stacks of doubly periodic subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express,  151107-1114 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo, J.S. Dolado, L. Martín-Moreno, J. Bravo-Abad and F. J. García-Vidal, "Enhanced millimetre wave transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 2500-2502 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 0366171-(1-1) (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, K. Gehrke, V. Moshnyaga, and K. Samwer, "Negative refraction observed in a metallic ferromagnet in the gigahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 197401-(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, M. Navarro-Cía, F. Falcone, I. Campillo and V. Lomakin, "Extraordinary transmission and left-handed propagation in miniaturized stacks of doubly periodic subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express,  151107-1114 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo,"Left-handed extraordinary optical transmission through a photonic crystal of subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 14, 5445-5455 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, "Negative-index metamaterials: going optical," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106-1115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 0366171-(1-1) (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,"Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Falcone,  et al., "Babinet principle applied to metasurface and metamaterial design," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 197401-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo, J.S. Dolado, L. Martín-Moreno, J. Bravo-Abad and F. J. García-Vidal, "Enhanced millimetre wave transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 2500-2502 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,R10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Uspekhi 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Beruete, M.

Bravo-Abad, J.

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Campillo, I.

Chettiar, U. K.

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolado, J.S.

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, "Negative-index metamaterials: going optical," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106-1115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,"Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcone, F.

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

Gehrke, K.

A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, K. Gehrke, V. Moshnyaga, and K. Samwer, "Negative refraction observed in a metallic ferromagnet in the gigahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 197401-(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawakami, S.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,R10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,R10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, "Negative-index metamaterials: going optical," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106-1115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,"Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T. A.

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, "Negative-index metamaterials: going optical," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106-1115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,R10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, Th.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 0366171-(1-1) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loidl, A.

A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, K. Gehrke, V. Moshnyaga, and K. Samwer, "Negative refraction observed in a metallic ferromagnet in the gigahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 197401-(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomakin, V.

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshnyaga, V.

A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, K. Gehrke, V. Moshnyaga, and K. Samwer, "Negative refraction observed in a metallic ferromagnet in the gigahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 197401-(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navarro-Cía, M.

Nemat-Nasser, S.C.

D.R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,R10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

D.R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pimenov, A.

A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, K. Gehrke, V. Moshnyaga, and K. Samwer, "Negative refraction observed in a metallic ferromagnet in the gigahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 197401-(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Samwer, K.

A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, K. Gehrke, V. Moshnyaga, and K. Samwer, "Negative refraction observed in a metallic ferromagnet in the gigahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 197401-(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

Sato, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,R10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, "Negative-index metamaterials: going optical," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106-1115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H. K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, "Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,"Opt. Lett. 30, 3356-3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 0366171-(1-1) (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D.R.

D.R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorolla, M.

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 0366171-(1-1) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,R10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,R10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Uspekhi 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 0366171-(1-1) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D.C.

D.R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H. K.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, "Negative-index metamaterials: going optical," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106-1115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58,R10096-10099 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Phys. Rev. E 71, 0366171-(1-1) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pimenov, A. Loidl, K. Gehrke, V. Moshnyaga, and K. Samwer, "Negative refraction observed in a metallic ferromagnet in the gigahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 197401-(1-4) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D.C. Vier, S.C. Nemat-Nasser, S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity,"Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Falcone,  et al., "Babinet principle applied to metasurface and metamaterial design," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 197401-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (4)

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis and S. Linden, "Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial," Science 312, 892-894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Uspekhi (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Uspekhi 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (3011 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (2538 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (4236 KB)     

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Details of the prism structure with parameters, a=2.5 mm, dx=3 mm, dy=5 mm, and dz=1.5 mm and experimental set-up as an inset. The angle of the prism is 26.6 deg.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated dispersion diagrams. Stacked sub-wavelength hole arrays with a=2.5 mm, dx=3 mm, dy=5 mm, and dz=1.5 mm (solid red trace), and propagating hole arrays with a=4 mm, dx=5 mm, dy=5 mm, and dz=1.5 mm (solid blue trace).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated vertical electric field evolution from the inner of the prism towards the surrounding air for stacked subwavelength hole arrays (a) and propagating stacked hole arrays (b). The same for homogenized structure at 53.5 GHz (c) and for 57.5 GHz (d). [Media 1][Media 2][Media 3]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurements of the metamaterial prism constructed by stacked subwavelength hole arrays. (a) Angular power distribution for two different frequencies: f=53.5 GHz (solid blue) and f=57.5 (solid red). The spots correspond to the measurement results whereas the curves are a smoothed spline interpolation. Also shown the simulation results for comparison purposes (dashed lines). (b) Evolution of refractive index with the frequency simulation and measurements. Red spots are the experimental points along with the corresponding error bars, the black curve is the polynomial interpolation (order 3) of the experimental data and the blue one is the simulation result.

Equations (1)

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d x sinθ=mλ

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