Abstract

Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy has allowed for investigation of light-matter interaction of a large variety of samples with excellent spatial resolution. Light incident on a metallic probe experiences an amplitude and phase change on scattering, which is dependent on optical sample properties. We implement phase-shifting interferometry to extract amplitude and phase information from an interferometric near-field scattering system, and compare recorded optical images with theoretical predictions. The results demonstrate our ability to measure, with nanoscale resolution, amplitude and phase distributions of optical fields on sample surfaces. The here-introduced phase-shifting method is considerably simpler than heterodyne methods and less sensitive to errors than the two-step homodyne method.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, "Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 8550-8565 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. E. Hall, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. K. Gray, S.-H. Chang, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy on periodic gold nanowells," Opt. Express 15, 4098-4105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (3)

2006 (2)

L. Novotny and S. Stranick, "Near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy with pointed probes," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 303-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, "Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101124-1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope," Opt. Exp. 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 787-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Wiederrecht, "Near-field optical imaging of noble metal nanoparticles," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 3-18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Carney, R. A. Frazin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, A. Boltasseva, and J. C. Schotland, "Computational Lens for the Near Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 163903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. Sutherland, and J. Aizpura, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, "Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Material-specific mapping of metal/semiconductor/dielectric nanosystems at 10 nm resolution by back-scattering near-field optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (4)

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, and M. Allegrini, "Artifact-free near-field optical imaging by apertureless microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621-623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 182, 321-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and D. Pohl, "Implications of high resolution to near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy 71, 341-344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1974 (1)

Aizpura, J.

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. Sutherland, and J. Aizpura, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, and M. Allegrini, "Artifact-free near-field optical imaging by apertureless microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621-623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aubert, S.

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope," Opt. Exp. 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

J. E. Hall, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. K. Gray, S.-H. Chang, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy on periodic gold nanowells," Opt. Express 15, 4098-4105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope," Opt. Exp. 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beversluis, M.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, "Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaize, S.

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope," Opt. Exp. 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

P. S. Carney, R. A. Frazin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, A. Boltasseva, and J. C. Schotland, "Computational Lens for the Near Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 163903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, "Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

P. S. Carney, R. A. Frazin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, A. Boltasseva, and J. C. Schotland, "Computational Lens for the Near Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 163903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brangaccio, D.

Bruning, J.

Bruyant, A.

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope," Opt. Exp. 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carney, P. S.

J. Sun, J. Schotland, and P. S. Carney, "Strong probe effects in near-field optics," J. Appl. Phys. (2007 (in press)).

P. S. Carney, R. A. Frazin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, A. Boltasseva, and J. C. Schotland, "Computational Lens for the Near Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 163903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-H.

Cvitkovic, A.

Frazin, R. A.

P. S. Carney, R. A. Frazin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, A. Boltasseva, and J. C. Schotland, "Computational Lens for the Near Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 163903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, J.

Gray, S. K.

Hall, J. E.

Hanarp, P.

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. Sutherland, and J. Aizpura, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hartschuh, A.

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, "Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and D. Pohl, "Implications of high resolution to near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy 71, 341-344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D.

Hillenbrand, R.

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, "Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 8550-8565 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, "Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101124-1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 787-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. Sutherland, and J. Aizpura, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Material-specific mapping of metal/semiconductor/dielectric nanosystems at 10 nm resolution by back-scattering near-field optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A.

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, "Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101124-1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

Kazantsev, D.

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

F. Keilmann and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field microscopy by elastic light scattering from a tip," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 787-805 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. Sutherland, and J. Aizpura, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Material-specific mapping of metal/semiconductor/dielectric nanosystems at 10 nm resolution by back-scattering near-field optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 25 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 182, 321-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, "Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029-3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoll, B.

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 182, 321-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Labardi, M.

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, and M. Allegrini, "Artifact-free near-field optical imaging by apertureless microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621-623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lerondel, G.

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope," Opt. Exp. 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and S. Stranick, "Near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy with pointed probes," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 303-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, M. Beversluis, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, "Near-field second-harmonic generation induced by local field enhancement," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 013903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and D. Pohl, "Implications of high resolution to near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy 71, 341-344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ocelic, N.

A. Cvitkovic, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, "Analytical model for quantitative prediction of material contrasts in scattering-type near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 8550-8565 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, "Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101124-1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Patanè, S.

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, and M. Allegrini, "Artifact-free near-field optical imaging by apertureless microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621-623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Philliion, D.

Pohl, D.

L. Novotny, B. Hecht, and D. Pohl, "Implications of high resolution to near-field optical microscopy," Ultramicroscopy 71, 341-344 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

Rosenfeld, D.

Royer, P.

J. E. Hall, G. P. Wiederrecht, S. K. Gray, S.-H. Chang, S. Jeon, J. A. Rogers, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy on periodic gold nanowells," Opt. Express 15, 4098-4105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope," Opt. Exp. 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, J.

J. Sun, J. Schotland, and P. S. Carney, "Strong probe effects in near-field optics," J. Appl. Phys. (2007 (in press)).

Schotland, J. C.

P. S. Carney, R. A. Frazin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, A. Boltasseva, and J. C. Schotland, "Computational Lens for the Near Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 163903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefanon, I.

I. Stefanon, S. Blaize, A. Bruyant, S. Aubert, G. Lerondel, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Heterodyne detection of guided waves using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope," Opt. Exp. 13, 5553-5564 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stranick, S.

L. Novotny and S. Stranick, "Near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy with pointed probes," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 303-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, J. Schotland, and P. S. Carney, "Strong probe effects in near-field optics," J. Appl. Phys. (2007 (in press)).

Surrel, Y.

Sutherland, D.

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. Sutherland, and J. Aizpura, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taubner, T.

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, and F. Keilmann, "Performance of visible and mid-infrared scattering-type near-field optical microscopes," J. Microsc. 210, 311-314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

P. S. Carney, R. A. Frazin, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, A. Boltasseva, and J. C. Schotland, "Computational Lens for the Near Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 163903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, A.

Wiederrecht, G.

G. Wiederrecht, "Near-field optical imaging of noble metal nanoparticles," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 3-18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

Wurtz, G.

G. Wurtz, R. Bachelot, and P. Royer, "Imaging a GaAlAs laser diode in operation using apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy," Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. 5, 269-275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

L. Novotny and S. Stranick, "Near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy with pointed probes," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 303-331 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

A. Huber, N. Ocelic, D. Kazantsev, and R. Hillenbrand, "Near-field imaging of mid-infrared surface phonon polariton propagation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081103 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. Sutherland, and J. Aizpura, "Coherent imaging of nanoscale plasmon patterns with a carbon nanotube optical probe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368-370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, and M. Allegrini, "Artifact-free near-field optical imaging by apertureless microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621-623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Ocelic, A. Huber, and R. Hillenbrand, "Pseudoheterodyne detection for background-free near-field spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101124-1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J.: Appl. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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J. Microsc. (2)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, and F. Keilmann, "Pure optical contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 202, 77-83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, "Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 182, 321-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the sSNOM setup. Light scattered from the tip is collected by a Michelson interferometer with a piezo-mounted reference mirror. The light is collected by a balanced photodetector and demodulated by a lock-in amplifier.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Topography, (b) demodulated optical amplitude, and (c) demodulated optical phase of laser-irradiated polystyrene spheres on glass. The white arrow represents the in-plane projection of the incident wave vector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulation of measured signal from polystyrene spheres. Amplitude and phase distributions are in good agreement with the experimental results in Fig. 2.

Equations (13)

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I = I s + I r + I s I r cos ( ϕ + δ n + Δ ) ,
I = A + R cos ( ϕ + δ n ) .
δ n = 2 π n N .
tan ( ϕ ) = n = 0 N 1 I ( n ) sin ( 2 π n N ) n = 0 N 1 I ( n ) cos ( 2 π n N ) .
R = ( ( n = 0 N 1 I ( n ) sin ( 2 π n N ) ) 2 + ( n = 0 N 1 I ( n ) cos ( 2 π n N ) ) 2 ) 1 2 .
I ( n ) = A + R cos ( ϕ + 2 π ( 1 + ε ) n N ) .
Δ ϕ = N 1 N π ε π ε N sin ( 2 π N ) sin ( 2 ϕ 2 π N ) ,
Δ ϕ min = π ε ε 2 sin ( 2 ϕ ) ,
tan ( ϕ ) = I ( 0 ) I ( N ) 2 cot ( 2 π N ) n = 1 N 1 I ( n ) sin ( 2 π n N ) I ( 0 ) + I ( N ) 2 + n = 1 N 1 I ( n ) cos ( 2 π n N ) ,
Δ ϕ min π ε + ( π ε N sin ( 2 π N ) ) 2 sin ( 2 ϕ ) ,
Δ ϕ min π ε + ( ε 2 ) 2 sin ( 2 ϕ ) ,
E scatt = E T + E ST + E TS + E TST + . . . .
signal ( x , y ) [ E o + 2 E sphere ( x , y ) ] · n z ,

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