Abstract

By utilizing a racetrack resonator topography, an on-chip mode locked silicon evanescent laser (ML-SEL) is realized that is independent of facet polishing. This enables integration with other devices on silicon and precise control of the ML-SEL’s repetition rate through lithographic definition of the cavity length. Both passive and hybrid mode-locking have been achieved with transform limited, 7 ps pulses emitted at a repetition rate of 30 GHz. Jitter and locking range are measured under hybrid mode locking with a minimum absolute jitter and maximum locking range of 364 fs, and 50 MHz, respectively.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. T. Reed, "The Optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 615−618 (2004).
  2. G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, 2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004).
  4. D. A. Miller, "Optical interconnects to silicon," IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum. Electron. 6, 1312−1317 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 14, 9203-9210 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "40 C Continuous-Wave Electrically Pumped Hybrid Silicon Evanescent Laser," International Semiconductor Laser Conference 2006 (ISLC 2006), post deadline paper, September 2006.
  7. B. R. Koch, A. W. Fang, O. Cohen, and J. E. Bowers, "Mode -locked silicon evanescent lasers," Opt. Express 15, 11225-11233 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Ohno, H. Ishii, S. Matsuo, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y, kondo, T. Furata, H. Ito, and Y. Yoshikuni, "Hybrid modelocking of semiconductor ring lasers incorporating passive deep-ridge waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 884-886 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Barbarin, E. A. J. M. Bente, M. J. R. Heck, Y. S. Oei, R. Nötzel and M. K. Smit, "Characterization of a 15 GHz integrated bulk InGaAsP passively modelocked ring laser at 1.53μm," Opt. Express 14, 9716 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. R. Laybourn, "Mode Locking in large monolithic semiconductor ring lasers," Proc. SPIE 3278, 139-148 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Electrical isolation n of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment," J. Appl. Phys. 89-10, 5343-5347 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent waveguide photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 6044-6052 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

G. T. Reed, "The Optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 615−618 (2004).

2002 (1)

T. Ohno, H. Ishii, S. Matsuo, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y, kondo, T. Furata, H. Ito, and Y. Yoshikuni, "Hybrid modelocking of semiconductor ring lasers incorporating passive deep-ridge waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 884-886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. A. Miller, "Optical interconnects to silicon," IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum. Electron. 6, 1312−1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Avrutin, J. H. Marsh, and E. L. Portnoi, "Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode locked semiconductor lasers: constructions, experiments, models, and applications," IEE Proc: Optoelectron. 147, 251-278 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. R. Laybourn, "Mode Locking in large monolithic semiconductor ring lasers," Proc. SPIE 3278, 139-148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, E. A.

E. A. Avrutin, J. H. Marsh, and E. L. Portnoi, "Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode locked semiconductor lasers: constructions, experiments, models, and applications," IEE Proc: Optoelectron. 147, 251-278 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barbarin, Y.

Bente, E. A. J. M.

Bowers, J. E.

Cohen, O.

Fang, A. W.

Heck, M. J. R.

Ishii, H.

T. Ohno, H. Ishii, S. Matsuo, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y, kondo, T. Furata, H. Ito, and Y. Yoshikuni, "Hybrid modelocking of semiconductor ring lasers incorporating passive deep-ridge waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 884-886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Kawaguchi, Y.

T. Ohno, H. Ishii, S. Matsuo, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y, kondo, T. Furata, H. Ito, and Y. Yoshikuni, "Hybrid modelocking of semiconductor ring lasers incorporating passive deep-ridge waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 884-886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B. R.

Krauss, T. F.

S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. R. Laybourn, "Mode Locking in large monolithic semiconductor ring lasers," Proc. SPIE 3278, 139-148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. R. Laybourn, "Mode Locking in large monolithic semiconductor ring lasers," Proc. SPIE 3278, 139-148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, J. H.

E. A. Avrutin, J. H. Marsh, and E. L. Portnoi, "Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode locked semiconductor lasers: constructions, experiments, models, and applications," IEE Proc: Optoelectron. 147, 251-278 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

T. Ohno, H. Ishii, S. Matsuo, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y, kondo, T. Furata, H. Ito, and Y. Yoshikuni, "Hybrid modelocking of semiconductor ring lasers incorporating passive deep-ridge waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 884-886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A.

D. A. Miller, "Optical interconnects to silicon," IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum. Electron. 6, 1312−1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

Oei, Y. S.

Ohno, T.

T. Ohno, H. Ishii, S. Matsuo, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y, kondo, T. Furata, H. Ito, and Y. Yoshikuni, "Hybrid modelocking of semiconductor ring lasers incorporating passive deep-ridge waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 884-886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

T. Ohno, H. Ishii, S. Matsuo, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y, kondo, T. Furata, H. Ito, and Y. Yoshikuni, "Hybrid modelocking of semiconductor ring lasers incorporating passive deep-ridge waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 884-886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Portnoi, E. L.

E. A. Avrutin, J. H. Marsh, and E. L. Portnoi, "Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode locked semiconductor lasers: constructions, experiments, models, and applications," IEE Proc: Optoelectron. 147, 251-278 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, "The Optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 615−618 (2004).

Smit, M. K.

Yu, S.

S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. R. Laybourn, "Mode Locking in large monolithic semiconductor ring lasers," Proc. SPIE 3278, 139-148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Ohno, H. Ishii, S. Matsuo, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y, kondo, T. Furata, H. Ito, and Y. Yoshikuni, "Hybrid modelocking of semiconductor ring lasers incorporating passive deep-ridge waveguides," Electron. Lett. 38, 884-886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.: Optoelectron. (1)

E. A. Avrutin, J. H. Marsh, and E. L. Portnoi, "Monolithic and multi-gigahertz mode locked semiconductor lasers: constructions, experiments, models, and applications," IEE Proc: Optoelectron. 147, 251-278 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. T. Reed, "The Optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 615−618 (2004).

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Yu, T. F. Krauss, and P. J. R. Laybourn, "Mode Locking in large monolithic semiconductor ring lasers," Proc. SPIE 3278, 139-148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Quantum. Electron. (1)

D. A. Miller, "Optical interconnects to silicon," IEEE J. Sel. Top Quantum. Electron. 6, 1312−1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. Boudinov, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, "Electrical isolation n of n-type and p-type InP layers by proton bombardment," J. Appl. Phys. 89-10, 5343-5347 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Park, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "40 C Continuous-Wave Electrically Pumped Hybrid Silicon Evanescent Laser," International Semiconductor Laser Conference 2006 (ISLC 2006), post deadline paper, September 2006.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, Silicon Photonics: An Introduction (John Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, 2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, Silicon Photonics, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scanning electron micrograph of a racetrack mode locked silicon evanescent laser.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Racetrack ML-SEL experimental set up.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Passive mode-locked and hybrid mode-locked autocorrelation trace.(b) Deconvolved pulse width versus saturable absorber bias.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The passive and hybrid mode-locked optical spectrum. The spectrum does not change noticeably between the two mode-locking modes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). RF spectrum of passively and hybridly locked mode locked laser measured with a 10 kHz resolution bandwidth. (b). Wide RF spectrum of the MLL under passive locking (green) and hybrid locking (blue).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Jitter shown for single side band integration ranges from 1 kHz to 100 MHz.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Jitter measured with a 1 kHz-100 MHz integration range and locking range versus RF powers for fundamental and sub-harmonic synchronization.

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