Abstract

We present results from our recent research into carbon-fibre composite (CFC) mirror fabrication for optical and infra-red applications. In particular this research is aimed towards the next generation of extremely large telescopes to offer an alternative to thin glass shell adaptive secondary mirrors. We address the issues involved with CFC mirror production, in particular the accuracy of the form replication process, a suitable surface for polishing to optical quality, no fibre print-through, environmental stability (shape change due to thermal and moisture variations), material uniformity and lifetime. We have performed experiments into the effectiveness of cold electroplating thick nickel coatings to totally encapsulate the CFC base substrate; the manufacturing procedure and properties of the Ni-CFC mirror are described here.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, "MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary," Proc. SPIE 5490, 23-33 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Arsenault, N. Hubin, M. Le Louarn, G. Monnet, and M. Sarazin, "Towards an adaptive secondary for the VLT?" The Messenger 115, 11-14 (2004).
  3. D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, A. Ripamonti, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Veronese, and W. Ponzo, "LBT adaptive secondary units construction: a progress report," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1600-1605 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Iye and Wg. JELT, "Concept study of Japan extremely large telescope," Proc. SPIE 5489, 417-428 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Advanced Composites Group Ltd, "ACG LTM 123 Cyanate Ester Component Prepreg," data sheet, http://www.advanced-composites.co.uk/Data sheet catalogue/catalogue%20files/pds/pds1129-LTM123-issue2.pdf.
  6. Toray Carbon Fibers America Inc, "M55J Data Sheet," technical data sheet No. CFA-017, http://www.torayusa.com/cfa/pdfs/M55JDataSheet.pdf.
  7. J. Cheng, "Carbon Fiber Composite: Structural and Thermal Properties," private project report (1999), http://www.tuc.nrao.edu/ jcheng/cfrp.ps.
  8. A. P. Doel, S. Kendrew, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. Richardson, and G. Evans, "Development of an active carbon fibre composite mirror," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1526-1533 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Kendrew, P. Doel, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. M. Richardson, G. Evans, "Development of a carbon fiber composite active mirror: design and testing," Opt. Eng. 45, 033401 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006

S. Kendrew, P. Doel, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. M. Richardson, G. Evans, "Development of a carbon fiber composite active mirror: design and testing," Opt. Eng. 45, 033401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, "MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary," Proc. SPIE 5490, 23-33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Arsenault, N. Hubin, M. Le Louarn, G. Monnet, and M. Sarazin, "Towards an adaptive secondary for the VLT?" The Messenger 115, 11-14 (2004).

D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, A. Ripamonti, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Veronese, and W. Ponzo, "LBT adaptive secondary units construction: a progress report," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1600-1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Iye and Wg. JELT, "Concept study of Japan extremely large telescope," Proc. SPIE 5489, 417-428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Doel, S. Kendrew, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. Richardson, and G. Evans, "Development of an active carbon fibre composite mirror," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1526-1533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anaclerio, V.

D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, A. Ripamonti, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Veronese, and W. Ponzo, "LBT adaptive secondary units construction: a progress report," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1600-1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andrighettoni, M.

D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, A. Ripamonti, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Veronese, and W. Ponzo, "LBT adaptive secondary units construction: a progress report," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1600-1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arsenault, R.

R. Arsenault, N. Hubin, M. Le Louarn, G. Monnet, and M. Sarazin, "Towards an adaptive secondary for the VLT?" The Messenger 115, 11-14 (2004).

Biasi, R.

D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, A. Ripamonti, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Veronese, and W. Ponzo, "LBT adaptive secondary units construction: a progress report," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1600-1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, D.

S. Kendrew, P. Doel, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. M. Richardson, G. Evans, "Development of a carbon fiber composite active mirror: design and testing," Opt. Eng. 45, 033401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Doel, S. Kendrew, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. Richardson, and G. Evans, "Development of an active carbon fibre composite mirror," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1526-1533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brusa, G.

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, "MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary," Proc. SPIE 5490, 23-33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doel, A. P.

A. P. Doel, S. Kendrew, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. Richardson, and G. Evans, "Development of an active carbon fibre composite mirror," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1526-1533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doel, P.

S. Kendrew, P. Doel, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. M. Richardson, G. Evans, "Development of a carbon fiber composite active mirror: design and testing," Opt. Eng. 45, 033401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, C.

S. Kendrew, P. Doel, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. M. Richardson, G. Evans, "Development of a carbon fiber composite active mirror: design and testing," Opt. Eng. 45, 033401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Doel, S. Kendrew, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. Richardson, and G. Evans, "Development of an active carbon fibre composite mirror," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1526-1533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dwan, R. M.

S. Kendrew, P. Doel, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. M. Richardson, G. Evans, "Development of a carbon fiber composite active mirror: design and testing," Opt. Eng. 45, 033401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Doel, S. Kendrew, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. Richardson, and G. Evans, "Development of an active carbon fibre composite mirror," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1526-1533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Evans, G.

S. Kendrew, P. Doel, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. M. Richardson, G. Evans, "Development of a carbon fiber composite active mirror: design and testing," Opt. Eng. 45, 033401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Doel, S. Kendrew, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. Richardson, and G. Evans, "Development of an active carbon fibre composite mirror," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1526-1533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, D. L.

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, "MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary," Proc. SPIE 5490, 23-33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gallieni, D.

D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, A. Ripamonti, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Veronese, and W. Ponzo, "LBT adaptive secondary units construction: a progress report," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1600-1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hubin, N.

R. Arsenault, N. Hubin, M. Le Louarn, G. Monnet, and M. Sarazin, "Towards an adaptive secondary for the VLT?" The Messenger 115, 11-14 (2004).

Iye, M.

M. Iye and Wg. JELT, "Concept study of Japan extremely large telescope," Proc. SPIE 5489, 417-428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kendrew, S.

S. Kendrew, P. Doel, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. M. Richardson, G. Evans, "Development of a carbon fiber composite active mirror: design and testing," Opt. Eng. 45, 033401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Doel, S. Kendrew, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. Richardson, and G. Evans, "Development of an active carbon fibre composite mirror," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1526-1533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kenworthy, M. A.

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, "MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary," Proc. SPIE 5490, 23-33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le Louarn, M.

R. Arsenault, N. Hubin, M. Le Louarn, G. Monnet, and M. Sarazin, "Towards an adaptive secondary for the VLT?" The Messenger 115, 11-14 (2004).

Miller, D. L.

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, "MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary," Proc. SPIE 5490, 23-33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monnet, G.

R. Arsenault, N. Hubin, M. Le Louarn, G. Monnet, and M. Sarazin, "Towards an adaptive secondary for the VLT?" The Messenger 115, 11-14 (2004).

Ponzo, W.

D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, A. Ripamonti, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Veronese, and W. Ponzo, "LBT adaptive secondary units construction: a progress report," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1600-1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Riccardi, A.

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, "MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary," Proc. SPIE 5490, 23-33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, I.

A. P. Doel, S. Kendrew, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. Richardson, and G. Evans, "Development of an active carbon fibre composite mirror," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1526-1533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, I. M.

S. Kendrew, P. Doel, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. M. Richardson, G. Evans, "Development of a carbon fiber composite active mirror: design and testing," Opt. Eng. 45, 033401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ripamonti, A.

D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, A. Ripamonti, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Veronese, and W. Ponzo, "LBT adaptive secondary units construction: a progress report," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1600-1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sarazin, M.

R. Arsenault, N. Hubin, M. Le Louarn, G. Monnet, and M. Sarazin, "Towards an adaptive secondary for the VLT?" The Messenger 115, 11-14 (2004).

Veronese, D.

D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, A. Ripamonti, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Veronese, and W. Ponzo, "LBT adaptive secondary units construction: a progress report," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1600-1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yates, C.

S. Kendrew, P. Doel, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. M. Richardson, G. Evans, "Development of a carbon fiber composite active mirror: design and testing," Opt. Eng. 45, 033401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Doel, S. Kendrew, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. Richardson, and G. Evans, "Development of an active carbon fibre composite mirror," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1526-1533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

S. Kendrew, P. Doel, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. M. Richardson, G. Evans, "Development of a carbon fiber composite active mirror: design and testing," Opt. Eng. 45, 033401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A. P. Doel, S. Kendrew, D. Brooks, C. Dorn, C. Yates, R. M. Dwan, I. Richardson, and G. Evans, "Development of an active carbon fibre composite mirror," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1526-1533 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusa, D. L. Miller, M. A. Kenworthy, D. L. Fisher, and A. Riccardi, "MMT-AO: two years of operation with the first adaptive secondary," Proc. SPIE 5490, 23-33 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Gallieni, V. Anaclerio, A. Ripamonti, R. Biasi, M. Andrighettoni, D. Veronese, and W. Ponzo, "LBT adaptive secondary units construction: a progress report," Proc. SPIE 5490, 1600-1605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Iye and Wg. JELT, "Concept study of Japan extremely large telescope," Proc. SPIE 5489, 417-428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

The Messenger

R. Arsenault, N. Hubin, M. Le Louarn, G. Monnet, and M. Sarazin, "Towards an adaptive secondary for the VLT?" The Messenger 115, 11-14 (2004).

Other

Advanced Composites Group Ltd, "ACG LTM 123 Cyanate Ester Component Prepreg," data sheet, http://www.advanced-composites.co.uk/Data sheet catalogue/catalogue%20files/pds/pds1129-LTM123-issue2.pdf.

Toray Carbon Fibers America Inc, "M55J Data Sheet," technical data sheet No. CFA-017, http://www.torayusa.com/cfa/pdfs/M55JDataSheet.pdf.

J. Cheng, "Carbon Fiber Composite: Structural and Thermal Properties," private project report (1999), http://www.tuc.nrao.edu/ jcheng/cfrp.ps.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Cross section through the thickness of a completed mirror. Note that the nickel layer totally encapsulates the CFC core.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Basic model construct to investigate effect of lay-up errors on mirror form. (b) 5° error for a 45° lay-up pattern, the P-V=2.25×10-6m. (c) 5° error for a 90° lay-up pattern, the P-V=19.68×10-6m.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Graphs showing maximum deformation of a flat mirror on curing when the ply immediately below the surface ply is misaligned by 5°. The number of pattern repeats is increasing as θ increases. Left: 32 ply lay-up, with θ increments as even fractions of 45°; right: 24 ply lay-up, θ increments mostly fractions of 60° and a 45° set for comparison.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) OSL’s nickel sulphamate plating bath for coating the CFC mirror samples. The tank is a 60cm cube with two titanium anode baskets containing the nickel, and the cathode (mirror sample) is suspended in-between them. (b) The electrode rig - the mirror is supported at 3 points, the bottom support is a spinning titanium conductive contact which supplies the plating current to the mirror, the mirror is rotated in the vertical plane via a motor driven gear system attached to a spinning silicone rubber contact.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The setup used to test the optic during grinding and polishing. The 633nm laser beam from the interferometer is brought down onto the optic via a 700mm diameter flat mirror to allow the flexible test optics to be supported in a horizontal, gravitationally symmetric position.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Left: original surface Ra (note fibres are visible) prior to plating surface preparation. Right: surface post plating and polishing (note, the finest grade polish was not used here); fibres are not visible and small, random polishing scratches are present.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The 27cm diameter polished Ni-CFC mirror prior to mounting on an actuated base-plate.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Showing how the theoretical elastic and thermal properties of a composite mirror of base CFC thickness of 3mm (fibre type and layup as specified in §2) changes with the thickness of nickel deposited. The nickel is deposited on the front and back of the mirror.

Equations (1)

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θ = [ 0 / 90 / 15 / - 75 / 30 / - 60 / 45 / 60 / - 30 / 75 / - 15 ] S

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