Abstract

We introduce two nanoscale thickness dielectric layers on the top and bottom sides of a finite width and finite thickness metal microstrip and have calculated the fundamental symmetric plasmon-polariton mode of the 2D metal-dielectric layer waveguide. The dielectric nanolayers provide an additional degree of freedom to control the plasmon-polariton mode. When the dielectric constant of the nanolayers is smaller than that of the cladding dielectric, the travel range of the fundamental symmetric plasmon-polariton mode is extended with the trade-off of the mode confinement. The figure of merit of the mode increases as the travel range extends.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, "Surface plasma oscillations of a degenerate electron gas," Phys. Rev. 120, 130-136 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  3. E. N.  Economou, "Surface plasmon in thin films," Phys. Rev. 182, 539-554 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Sarid, "Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927-1930 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. I. Stegeman, J. J. Burke, and D. G. Hall, "Surface-polariton like waves guided by thin, lossy metal films," Opt. Lett. 8, 383-386 (1983).
  6. F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Berini," Plasmon polariton modes guided by a metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 24, 1011-1013 (1999).
  8. P.  Berini, "Plasmon polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B  61, 10484-10503 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersm, "Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons," Opt. Lett. 30, 473-1475 (2005).
  11. A. Degiron and D. Smith," Numerical simulations of long-range plasmons," Opt. Express 14, 1611-1625 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides in silica," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 053105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. J.  Al-Bader, "Optical transmission on metallic wires-fundamental modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 325-329 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. E. Craig, G. A. Olson, and D. Sarid, "Experimental observation of the long-range surface-plasmon polariton," Opt. Lett. 8, 380-382 (1983).
  15. R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844-846 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, "Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Express 13, 977-984 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "In-line extinction modulator based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Commun. 244, 455-459 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Wang, R. Islam, and G. V. Eleftheriades, "An ultra-short contra-directional coupler utilizing surface plasmon-polaritons at optical frequencies," Opt. Express 14, 7279-7290 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Wendler and R. Haupt, "Long-range surface plasmon-polaritons in asymmetric layer structures," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3289-3291 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Y. Kou and T. Tamir, "Range extension of surface plasmons by dielectric layers," Opt. Lett. 12, 367-369 (1987).
  21. N. M. Lyndin, I. F. Salakhutdinov, V. A. Sychugov, B. A. Usievich, F. A. Pudonin and O. Parriaux, "Long-range surface plasmons in asymmetric layered metal-dielectric structures," Sens. Actuators B 54, 37-42 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Guo and R. Adato, "Extended long range plasmon waves in finite thickness metal film and layered dielectric materials," Opt. Express 14, 12409-12418 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Adato and J. Guo, "Characteristics of ultra-long range surface plasmon waves at optical frequencies," Opt. Express 15, 5008-5017 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  25. FIMWAVE Version 4.5 Reference Manual 2006, Photon Design Ltd, Oxford, United Kingdom.
  26. A. S. Sudbo, "Film mode matching: a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 211-233 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. Berini, "Figures of merit for surface plasmon waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 13030-13042 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Robin Buckley and Pierre Berini, "Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes," Opt. Express 15, 12174-12182 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, "Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442-2446 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. I. Stegeman and J. J. Burke, "Effects of gaps on long range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Appl. Phys.  54, 4841-4843(1983).
  31. Pierre Berini, "Air gaps in metal stripe waveguides supporting long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Z. Sun, "Vertical dielectric-sandwiched thin metal layer for compact, low-loss long range surface plasmon waveguiding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, "Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes," Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (6)

P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides in silica," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 053105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pierre Berini, "Air gaps in metal stripe waveguides supporting long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, "Vertical dielectric-sandwiched thin metal layer for compact, low-loss long range surface plasmon waveguiding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, "Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes," Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Adato and J. Guo, "Characteristics of ultra-long range surface plasmon waves at optical frequencies," Opt. Express 15, 5008-5017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robin Buckley and Pierre Berini, "Figures of merit for 2D surface plasmon waveguides and application to metal stripes," Opt. Express 15, 12174-12182 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, "Demonstration of integrated optics elements based on long-ranging surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Express 13, 977-984 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "In-line extinction modulator based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Commun. 244, 455-459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersm, "Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons," Opt. Lett. 30, 473-1475 (2005).

2004 (2)

2001 (1)

B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P.  Berini, "Plasmon polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B  61, 10484-10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, "Experimental observation of plasmon polariton waves supported by a thin metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 25, 844-846 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

N. M. Lyndin, I. F. Salakhutdinov, V. A. Sychugov, B. A. Usievich, F. A. Pudonin and O. Parriaux, "Long-range surface plasmons in asymmetric layered metal-dielectric structures," Sens. Actuators B 54, 37-42 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini," Plasmon polariton modes guided by a metal film of finite width," Opt. Lett. 24, 1011-1013 (1999).

1993 (1)

A. S. Sudbo, "Film mode matching: a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 211-233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, "Long-range surface plasmon-polaritons in asymmetric layer structures," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3289-3291 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1981 (1)

D. Sarid, "Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927-1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. N.  Economou, "Surface plasmon in thin films," Phys. Rev. 182, 539-554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, "Surface plasma oscillations of a degenerate electron gas," Phys. Rev. 120, 130-136 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Adato, R.

Al-Bader, S. J.

S. J.  Al-Bader, "Optical transmission on metallic wires-fundamental modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 325-329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

Berolo, E.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "In-line extinction modulator based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Commun. 244, 455-459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bradberry, G. W.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brongersm, M. L.

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersm, "Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons," Opt. Lett. 30, 473-1475 (2005).

Brongersma, M. L.

Burke, J. J.

Catrysse, P. B.

Chandran, A.

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersm, "Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons," Opt. Lett. 30, 473-1475 (2005).

Charbonneau, R.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Craig, A. E.

Degiron, A.

Ditlbacher, H.

B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

E. N.  Economou, "Surface plasmon in thin films," Phys. Rev. 182, 539-554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Eleftheriades, G. V.

Felidj, N.

B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, R. A.

E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, "Surface plasma oscillations of a degenerate electron gas," Phys. Rev. 120, 130-136 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J.

Hall, D. G.

Haupt, R.

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, "Long-range surface plasmon-polaritons in asymmetric layer structures," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3289-3291 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Islam, R.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kou, F. Y.

Krenn, J. R.

B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lahoud, N.

Lamprecht, B.

B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "In-line extinction modulator based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Commun. 244, 455-459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lisicka-Shrzek, E.

Lyndin, N. M.

N. M. Lyndin, I. F. Salakhutdinov, V. A. Sychugov, B. A. Usievich, F. A. Pudonin and O. Parriaux, "Long-range surface plasmons in asymmetric layered metal-dielectric structures," Sens. Actuators B 54, 37-42 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mattiussi, G.

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "In-line extinction modulator based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Commun. 244, 455-459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olson, G. A.

Parriaux, O.

N. M. Lyndin, I. F. Salakhutdinov, V. A. Sychugov, B. A. Usievich, F. A. Pudonin and O. Parriaux, "Long-range surface plasmons in asymmetric layered metal-dielectric structures," Sens. Actuators B 54, 37-42 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pudonin, F. A.

N. M. Lyndin, I. F. Salakhutdinov, V. A. Sychugov, B. A. Usievich, F. A. Pudonin and O. Parriaux, "Long-range surface plasmons in asymmetric layered metal-dielectric structures," Sens. Actuators B 54, 37-42 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salakhutdinov, I. F.

N. M. Lyndin, I. F. Salakhutdinov, V. A. Sychugov, B. A. Usievich, F. A. Pudonin and O. Parriaux, "Long-range surface plasmons in asymmetric layered metal-dielectric structures," Sens. Actuators B 54, 37-42 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salerno, M.

B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, D.

A. E. Craig, G. A. Olson, and D. Sarid, "Experimental observation of the long-range surface-plasmon polariton," Opt. Lett. 8, 380-382 (1983).

D. Sarid, "Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927-1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Selker, M. D.

Smith, D.

Stegeman, G. I.

Stern, E. A.

E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, "Surface plasma oscillations of a degenerate electron gas," Phys. Rev. 120, 130-136 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Sudbo, A. S.

A. S. Sudbo, "Film mode matching: a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 211-233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, "Vertical dielectric-sandwiched thin metal layer for compact, low-loss long range surface plasmon waveguiding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sychugov, V. A.

N. M. Lyndin, I. F. Salakhutdinov, V. A. Sychugov, B. A. Usievich, F. A. Pudonin and O. Parriaux, "Long-range surface plasmons in asymmetric layered metal-dielectric structures," Sens. Actuators B 54, 37-42 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tamir, T.

Usievich, B. A.

N. M. Lyndin, I. F. Salakhutdinov, V. A. Sychugov, B. A. Usievich, F. A. Pudonin and O. Parriaux, "Long-range surface plasmons in asymmetric layered metal-dielectric structures," Sens. Actuators B 54, 37-42 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Weeber, J. C.

B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wendler, L.

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, "Long-range surface plasmon-polaritons in asymmetric layer structures," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3289-3291 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yang, F.

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersm, "Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons," Opt. Lett. 30, 473-1475 (2005).

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, "Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442-2446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B.  Lamprecht, J. R.  Krenn, G.  Schider, H.  Ditlbacher, M.  Salerno, N.  Felidj, A.  Leitner, F. R.  Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, "Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes," Appl. Phys. Lett.  79, 51-53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, "Vertical dielectric-sandwiched thin metal layer for compact, low-loss long range surface plasmon waveguiding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 111112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J.  Al-Bader, "Optical transmission on metallic wires-fundamental modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 325-329 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

L. Wendler and R. Haupt, "Long-range surface plasmon-polaritons in asymmetric layer structures," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3289-3291 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides in silica," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 053105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pierre Berini, "Air gaps in metal stripe waveguides supporting long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 033112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, and N. Lahoud, "Long-range surface plasmons on ultrathin membranes," Nano Lett. 7, 1376-1380 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "In-line extinction modulator based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Commun. 244, 455-459 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. (2)

E. A. Stern and R. A. Ferrell, "Surface plasma oscillations of a degenerate electron gas," Phys. Rev. 120, 130-136 (1960).
[CrossRef]

E. N.  Economou, "Surface plasmon in thin films," Phys. Rev. 182, 539-554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

F. Yang, J. R. Sambles, and G. W. Bradberry, "Long-range surface modes supported by thin films," Phys. Rev. B 44, 5855 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P.  Berini, "Plasmon polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B  61, 10484-10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Sarid, "Long-range surface-plasma waves on very thin metal films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927-1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. S. Sudbo, "Film mode matching: a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 211-233 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

N. M. Lyndin, I. F. Salakhutdinov, V. A. Sychugov, B. A. Usievich, F. A. Pudonin and O. Parriaux, "Long-range surface plasmons in asymmetric layered metal-dielectric structures," Sens. Actuators B 54, 37-42 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. I. Stegeman and J. J. Burke, "Effects of gaps on long range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Appl. Phys.  54, 4841-4843(1983).

FIMWAVE Version 4.5 Reference Manual 2006, Photon Design Ltd, Oxford, United Kingdom.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics