Abstract

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) imaging is an interesting new tool for nondestructive testing and other applications. However, the current speed of image acquisition is relatively low, making it difficult to use for moving objects. In this paper, we propose a real-time THz-TDS line scanner based on electro-optical time-to-space conversion and line focusing of a THz beam. The proposed system functions as a color scanner in the terahertz spectral region with fast line-scanning and has been successfully used to image objects, which are moved on a translation stage. The achieved THz-TDS imaging rate is 23 200 pixels per second. This proposed THz-TDS line scanner has the potential to become a powerful tool for monitoring moving objects in various real-world applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007

D. Abbott and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection," Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, B. Ferguson, and D. Abbott, "Support vector machine applications in Terahertz pulsed signals feature sets," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 1597 - 1608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, K. M. Kong, J. W. Lim, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, "Enhanced T-ray signal classification using wavelet preprocessing," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 45, 611-616 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi and I. Hosako, "Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, B. Yellampalle, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, and J. H. Glownia, "Single-shot terahertz pulse characterization via two-dimensional electro-optic imaging with dual echelons," Opt. Lett. 32, 1968-1970 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Miyamaru, M. W. Takeda, T. Suzuki, and C. Otani, "Highly sensitive surface plasmon terahertz imaging with planar plasmonic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 14804-14809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

F. Miyamaru, S. Hayashi, C. Otani, K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, H. Yoshida, and E. Kato, "Terahertz surface-wave resonant sensor with a metal hole array," Opt. Lett. 31, 1118-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, "Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects," Opt. Commun. 267, 128-136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, A. Thoma, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, and M. Helm, "High-resolution THz spectrometer with kHz scan rates," Opt. Express 14, 430-437 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, "Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, "Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489-L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Dobroiu, M. Yamashita, Y. Ohshima, Y. Morita, C. Otani, and K. Kawase, "Terahertz imaging system based on a backward-wave oscillator," Appl. Opt. 43, 5637-5646 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, "Finite size effect of transmission property for metal hole arrays in subterahertz region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2742-2746 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Watanabe, K. Kawase, T. Ikari, H. Ito, Y. Ishikawa, and H. Minamide, "Component spatial pattern analysis of chemicals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 800-802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging," Microelectronics J. 33, 1043-1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1312-1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

1999

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz pulse measurement with an optical streak camera," Opt. Lett. 24, 1245-1247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945-1947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, "THz near-field imaging," Opt. Commun. 150, 22-26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Analysis of terahertz pulse measurement with a chirped probe beam," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233-2235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Abbott, D.

D. Abbott and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection," Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, B. Ferguson, and D. Abbott, "Support vector machine applications in Terahertz pulsed signals feature sets," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 1597 - 1608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, K. M. Kong, J. W. Lim, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, "Enhanced T-ray signal classification using wavelet preprocessing," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 45, 611-616 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1312-1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging," Microelectronics J. 33, 1043-1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Abraham, E.

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, "Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects," Opt. Commun. 267, 128-136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, "Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects," Opt. Commun. 267, 128-136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, "Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atakaramians, S.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, J.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Bartels, L.

Bauer, T.

Boivin, L.

Bonn, M.

Brener, I.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, "THz near-field imaging," Opt. Commun. 150, 22-26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Czasch, S.

Dekorsy, T.

Dobroiu, A.

Dreyhaupt, A.

Ferguson, B.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, B. Ferguson, and D. Abbott, "Support vector machine applications in Terahertz pulsed signals feature sets," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 1597 - 1608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, K. M. Kong, J. W. Lim, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, "Enhanced T-ray signal classification using wavelet preprocessing," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 45, 611-616 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1312-1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging," Microelectronics J. 33, 1043-1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, B. Ferguson, and D. Abbott, "Support vector machine applications in Terahertz pulsed signals feature sets," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 1597 - 1608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A.

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi and I. Hosako, "Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallot, G.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

Gray, D.

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging," Microelectronics J. 33, 1043-1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1312-1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, "Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489-L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, "Finite size effect of transmission property for metal hole arrays in subterahertz region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2742-2746 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi and I. Hosako, "Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru, S. Hayashi, C. Otani, K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, H. Yoshida, and E. Kato, "Terahertz surface-wave resonant sensor with a metal hole array," Opt. Lett. 31, 1118-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

Helm, M.

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hosako, I.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi and I. Hosako, "Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Hunsche, S.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, "THz near-field imaging," Opt. Commun. 150, 22-26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 904-906 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikari, T.

Y. Watanabe, K. Kawase, T. Ikari, H. Ito, Y. Ishikawa, and H. Minamide, "Component spatial pattern analysis of chemicals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 800-802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

Ishikawa, Y.

Y. Watanabe, K. Kawase, T. Ikari, H. Ito, Y. Ishikawa, and H. Minamide, "Component spatial pattern analysis of chemicals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 800-802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Y. Watanabe, K. Kawase, T. Ikari, H. Ito, Y. Ishikawa, and H. Minamide, "Component spatial pattern analysis of chemicals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 800-802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Janke, C.

Jeon, T.-I.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz pulse measurement with an optical streak camera," Opt. Lett. 24, 1245-1247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945-1947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Analysis of terahertz pulse measurement with a chirped probe beam," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233-2235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jones, I.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kabetani, Y.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kato, E.

Kawase, K.

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

Knoesel, E.

Koch, M.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, "THz near-field imaging," Opt. Commun. 150, 22-26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kong, K. M.

X. X. Yin, K. M. Kong, J. W. Lim, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, "Enhanced T-ray signal classification using wavelet preprocessing," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 45, 611-616 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. W.

X. X. Yin, K. M. Kong, J. W. Lim, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, "Enhanced T-ray signal classification using wavelet preprocessing," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 45, 611-616 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

McGowan, R. W.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mickan, S. P.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, K. M. Kong, J. W. Lim, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, "Enhanced T-ray signal classification using wavelet preprocessing," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 45, 611-616 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

Y. Watanabe, K. Kawase, T. Ikari, H. Ito, Y. Ishikawa, and H. Minamide, "Component spatial pattern analysis of chemicals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 800-802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

Miyamaru, F.

F. Miyamaru, M. W. Takeda, T. Suzuki, and C. Otani, "Highly sensitive surface plasmon terahertz imaging with planar plasmonic crystals," Opt. Express 15, 14804-14809 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Miyamaru, S. Hayashi, C. Otani, K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, H. Yoshida, and E. Kato, "Terahertz surface-wave resonant sensor with a metal hole array," Opt. Lett. 31, 1118-1120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, "Finite size effect of transmission property for metal hole arrays in subterahertz region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2742-2746 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, "Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489-L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morita, Y.

Nahata, A.

Ng, B. W.-H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, K. M. Kong, J. W. Lim, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, "Enhanced T-ray signal classification using wavelet preprocessing," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 45, 611-616 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, B. Ferguson, and D. Abbott, "Support vector machine applications in Terahertz pulsed signals feature sets," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 1597 - 1608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

Ogawa, Y.

Ohshima, Y.

Otani, C.

Png, G. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reider, G. A.

Rodriguez, G.

Roskos, H.

Saneyoshi, E.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, "Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Siebert, K.

Sun, F. G.

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz pulse measurement with an optical streak camera," Opt. Lett. 24, 1245-1247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Analysis of terahertz pulse measurement with a chirped probe beam," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233-2235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M. W.

Tani, M.

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, "Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489-L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Thoma, A.

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ung, B. S. Y.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1312-1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging," Microelectronics J. 33, 1043-1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, Y.

Y. Watanabe, K. Kawase, T. Ikari, H. Ito, Y. Ishikawa, and H. Minamide, "Component spatial pattern analysis of chemicals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 800-802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kawase, Y. Ogawa, Y. Watanabe, and H. Inoue, "Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints," Opt. Express 11, 2549-2554 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weling, A. S.

Winnerl, S.

Withayachumnankul, W.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, M.

Yasuda, T.

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, "Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects," Opt. Commun. 267, 128-136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, T.

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, "Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects," Opt. Commun. 267, 128-136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, "Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yellampalle, B.

Yin, X. X.

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, B. Ferguson, and D. Abbott, "Support vector machine applications in Terahertz pulsed signals feature sets," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 1597 - 1608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Yin, K. M. Kong, J. W. Lim, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, "Enhanced T-ray signal classification using wavelet preprocessing," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 45, 611-616 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, S.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yonera, T.

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, "Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489-L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

Zhang, J.

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

D. Abbott and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection," Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1312-1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging," Microelectronics J. 33, 1043-1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, and X.-C. Zhang, "Terahertz pulse measurement with an optical streak camera," Opt. Lett. 24, 1245-1247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945-1947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Analysis of terahertz pulse measurement with a chirped probe beam," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233-2235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, "Finite size effect of transmission property for metal hole arrays in subterahertz region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2742-2746 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot, J. Zhang, R. W. McGowan, T.-I. Jeon, and D. Grischkowsky, "Measurements of the THz absorption and dispersion of ZnTe and their relevance to the electro-optic detection of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3450-3452 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, F. G. Sun, Q. Chen, and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic sampling near zero optical transmission point," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1191-1193 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, E. Saneyoshi, and T. Araki, "Asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for ultrahigh spectral resolution and rapid data acquisition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multifrequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Sun, Z. Jiang, and X.-C. Zhang, "Analysis of terahertz pulse measurement with a chirped probe beam," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2233-2235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Watanabe, K. Kawase, T. Ikari, H. Ito, Y. Ishikawa, and H. Minamide, "Component spatial pattern analysis of chemicals using terahertz spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 800-802 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, "Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang and X.-C. Zhang, "Electro-optic measurement of THz field pulses with a chirped optical beam," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1945-1947 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sensors J.

X. X. Yin, B. W.-H. Ng, B. M. Fischer, B. Ferguson, and D. Abbott, "Support vector machine applications in Terahertz pulsed signals feature sets," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 1597 - 1608 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi and I. Hosako, "Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

F. Miyamaru, T. Yonera, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, "Terahertz two-dimensional electrooptic sampling using high speed complementary metal-oxide semiconductor camera," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L489-L491 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Med. Bio. Eng. Comp.

X. X. Yin, K. M. Kong, J. W. Lim, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, and D. Abbott, "Enhanced T-ray signal classification using wavelet preprocessing," Med. Bio. Eng. Comp. 45, 611-616 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Microelectronics J.

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbott, and X.-C. Zhang, "Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging," Microelectronics J. 33, 1043-1051 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Hunsche, M. Koch, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, "THz near-field imaging," Opt. Commun. 150, 22-26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Yasuda, T. Yasui, T. Araki, and E. Abraham, "Real-time two-dimensional terahertz tomography of moving objects," Opt. Commun. 267, 128-136 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B.M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Abbott and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray imaging, sensing, and retection," Proc. IEEE 95, 1509-1513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. M. Mittleman, Sensing with THz radiation (Springer, 2003).

D. E. Bray and D. McBride, Nondestructive Testing Techniques (John Wiley & Sons, 1992).

J. M. Chalmers and P. R. Griffiths, Handbook of vibrational spectroscopy (John Wiley & Sons, 2002).

Supplementary Material (6)

» Media 1: MOV (3715 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1503 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (1312 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (1073 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (1001 KB)     
» Media 6: MOV (1531 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup. BS: beam splitter; OC: optical chopper; L1: plano-concave lens; ZnTe1 and ZnTe2: zinc telluride crystals; OAP-M: off-axis parabolic mirror; IRF: infrared cutoff filter; CL1 and CL2: THz cylindrical lenses; S: sample; L2: THz plano-convex lens; BE: beam expander; P: polarizer; A: analyzer; L3: plano-convex lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Time characteristics in the absence of a sample (with a measurement time of 100 ms). (a) 2D-ST THz image and (b) temporal waveform of the pulsed THz electric field along line x in panel (a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral characteristics in the absence of a sample (with a measurement time of 100 ms). 1D-THz-TDS images of (a) the amplitude and (b) the phase. Line scans along x of (c) the amplitude and (d) the phase.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relationship between signal-to-noise ratio and measurement time or number of images integrated. The red solid line is a fit to the data in the form Y=αXβ.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Theoretical curves of (a) the transverse resolution and (b) the depth of focus for the line focusing and imaging systems of THz beam. δ line and δ image are transverse resolution for the THz line-focusing system (CL1) and the THz imaging system (L2 and CL2) while DOF line and DOF image are depth of focus for the line-focusing system and the imaging system, respectively. The actual transverse resolution, measured by a knife-edge test, is also indicated for comparison.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(3.7 MB) (a) 1D-THz-TDS image of the amplitude ratio around a knife edge. (b) Knife-edge profiles of the THz amplitude ratio at various frequencies. [Media 1]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Photograph of the 4seg-MHA and schematic of the measurement area for (b) the raster-scanning THz-TDS imaging system and (c) the THz-TDS line scanner.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Transmission spectra of each segment of the 4seg-MHA of Fig. 7(a) measured using a raster-scanning THz-TDS imaging system.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

THz-TDS images of the 4seg-MHA at four THz frequencies measured using a rasterscanning THz-TDS imaging system. Each image consists of 41 by 41 pixels.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

THz-TDS images of the 4seg-MHA at four frequencies measured by real-time THz-TDS line scanner with the sample moving at (a) (1.5 MB) 1 mm/s and (b) (1.3 MB) 10 mm/s. Each image consists of 200 by 232 pixels. [Media 2][Media 3]

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Successive THz-TDS images of the 4seg-MHA measured by (a) (1.1 MB) raster-scanning THz-TDS imaging system, (b) (1.0 MB) real-time THz-TDS line scanner (sample speed=1 mm/s), and (c) (1.5 MB) real-time THz-TDS line scanner (sample speed=10 mm/s). [Media 4][Media 5][Media 6]

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specifications of the four segments of the 4seg-MHA shown in Fig. 7(a).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ τ = ( Δ h × tan θ ) c ,
t W = ( D × tan θ ) c ,
Δ t = t W N = ( D × tan θ ) ( c N ) ,
Δ ν = 1 t W = c ( D × tan θ ) ,
ν R = Δ ν ( N 2 ) = ( c N ) ( 2 D × tan θ ) ,
δ = λ f d 0 2 ln 2 π = cf ν d 0 2 ln 2 π ,
DOF = ( d min ) 2 λ π ln 2 = ν ( d min ) 2 c π ln 2 ,
I ( x ) = I 0 1 2 1 + erf ( 2 ln 2 x x c d ) ,

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