Abstract

Continuous silver microstructures were produced by three-dimensional (3-D) direct laser writing using a femtosecond-pulsed laser beam with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) films containing silver ions. The lines drawn by scanning a tightly focused laser beam ranged from 200 nm to 1.7 µm. Using a sample solution of high density of silver nitrate, a continuous silver line with a resistivity of 3.48×10-7 Ωm was produced. Not only 3-D microstructures such as pyramidal models but also hybrid microstructures comprising polymer and silver lines were demonstrated. The 3-D direct laser writing of metallic microstructures has potential for application to 3-D electrical wiring of electronic devices and MEMS devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton polymerization,” Materials Today 10, 30–37 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  6. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144101 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven viscous micropump using a rotating microdisk,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 084101 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133–135 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography,” J. of Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533–539 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426–1428 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Baldacchini, A. C. Pons, J. Pons, C. N. LaFratta, and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton laser direct writing of two dimensional silver structures,” Opt. Express 13, 1275–1280 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photo-chemical Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12, 909–912 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. C.N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O’Malley, T. Baldacchini, and J. T. Fourkas, “Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures,” Chem. of Mater. 18, 2038–2042 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. R.A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J.T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796–1797 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton polymerization,” Materials Today 10, 30–37 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven viscous micropump using a rotating microdisk,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 084101 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144101 (2006).
[Crossref]

C.N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O’Malley, T. Baldacchini, and J. T. Fourkas, “Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures,” Chem. of Mater. 18, 2038–2042 (2006).
[Crossref]

R.A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J.T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796–1797 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (3)

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426–1428 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133–135 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography,” J. of Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533–539 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release,” Macromolecules 33, 1514–1523 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photo-chemical Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12, 909–912 (1996).
[Crossref]

Alain, V.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Baldacchini, T.

C.N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O’Malley, T. Baldacchini, and J. T. Fourkas, “Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures,” Chem. of Mater. 18, 2038–2042 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Baldacchini, A. C. Pons, J. Pons, C. N. LaFratta, and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton laser direct writing of two dimensional silver structures,” Opt. Express 13, 1275–1280 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barlow, S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bauer, C. A.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

Campagnola, P. J.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release,” Macromolecules 33, 1514–1523 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chew, C. H.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photo-chemical Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12, 909–912 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Deng, J. F.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photo-chemical Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12, 909–912 (1996).
[Crossref]

Duan, Xuan-Ming

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426–1428 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ehrlich, J. E.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Epling, G. A.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release,” Macromolecules 33, 1514–1523 (2000).
[Crossref]

Erskine, L. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Farrer, R.A.

R.A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J.T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796–1797 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fourkas, J. T.

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton polymerization,” Materials Today 10, 30–37 (2007).
[Crossref]

C.N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O’Malley, T. Baldacchini, and J. T. Fourkas, “Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures,” Chem. of Mater. 18, 2038–2042 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Baldacchini, A. C. Pons, J. Pons, C. N. LaFratta, and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton laser direct writing of two dimensional silver structures,” Opt. Express 13, 1275–1280 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fourkas, J.T.

R.A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J.T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796–1797 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001).
[Crossref]

Goodman, S. L.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release,” Macromolecules 33, 1514–1523 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heikal, A. A.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huang, H. H.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photo-chemical Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12, 909–912 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ikuta, K.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133–135 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography,” J. of Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533–539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Inoue, H.

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven viscous micropump using a rotating microdisk,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 084101 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, A.

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, K.

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426–1428 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426–1428 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon absorbed photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 22, 132–134 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korogi, H.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography,” J. of Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533–539 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133–135 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuebler, S. M.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

LaFratta, C. N.

R.A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J.T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796–1797 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baldacchini, A. C. Pons, J. Pons, C. N. LaFratta, and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton laser direct writing of two dimensional silver structures,” Opt. Express 13, 1275–1280 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

LaFratta, C.N.

C.N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O’Malley, T. Baldacchini, and J. T. Fourkas, “Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures,” Chem. of Mater. 18, 2038–2042 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, I.-Y. Sandy

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton polymerization,” Materials Today 10, 30–37 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, L. J.

R.A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J.T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796–1797 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, D.

C.N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O’Malley, T. Baldacchini, and J. T. Fourkas, “Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures,” Chem. of Mater. 18, 2038–2042 (2006).
[Crossref]

Loh, F. C.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photo-chemical Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12, 909–912 (1996).
[Crossref]

Loy, G. L.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photo-chemical Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12, 909–912 (1996).
[Crossref]

Marder, S. R.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Maruo, S.

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven viscous micropump using a rotating microdisk,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 084101 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144101 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133–135 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography,” J. of Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533–539 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon absorbed photopolymerization,” Opt. Lett. 22, 132–134 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCord-Maughon, D.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meyer-Friedrichsen, T.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, O.

Naughton, M. J.

R.A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J.T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796–1797 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, X. P.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photo-chemical Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12, 909–912 (1996).
[Crossref]

O’Malley, K.

C.N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O’Malley, T. Baldacchini, and J. T. Fourkas, “Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures,” Chem. of Mater. 18, 2038–2042 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ormos, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001).
[Crossref]

Perry, J. W.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pitts, J. D.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release,” Macromolecules 33, 1514–1523 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pond, S. J. K.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pons, A. C.

Pons, J.

Praino, J.

R.A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J.T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796–1797 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, J.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Röckel, H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rumi, M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Saleh, B. E. A.

R.A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J.T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796–1797 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stellacci, F.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. B.

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426–1428 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, K. L.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photo-chemical Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12, 909–912 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teich, M. C.

R.A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J.T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796–1797 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wenseleers, W.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wu, X. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xu, G. Q.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photo-chemical Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12, 909–912 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning,” Adv. Mater. 14, 194–198 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426–1428 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, “Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, “Complex micromachines produced and driven by light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249–251 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144101 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, “Optically driven viscous micropump using a rotating microdisk,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 084101 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133–135 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chem. of Mater. (1)

C.N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O’Malley, T. Baldacchini, and J. T. Fourkas, “Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures,” Chem. of Mater. 18, 2038–2042 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

R.A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J.T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796–1797 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. of Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta, and H. Korogi, “Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography,” J. of Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533–539 (2003).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng, and G. Q. Xu, “Photo-chemical Formation of Silver Nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone),” Langmuir 12, 909–912 (1996).
[Crossref]

Macromolecules (1)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, “Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release,” Macromolecules 33, 1514–1523 (2000).
[Crossref]

Materials Today (1)

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton polymerization,” Materials Today 10, 30–37 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication,” Nature 398, 51–54 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412, 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental procedure for sample preparation and 3-D laser drawing of metallic microstructures.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Laser power dependence of line width of silver lines.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scanning microscopic images of silver lines drawn by two-photon-induced photoreduction. (a) Aggregation of silver nanoparticles at low laser power, (b) Continuous silver line drawn at sufficient laser power

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Silver line attached to four electrodes for the measurement of resistivity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relationship between current and applied voltage of silver lines. (a) Sample solution of 3.8 wt% of silver nitrate (b) Sample solution of 7.3 wt% of silver nitrate

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

3-D microstructures made by 3-D laser direct writing. (a) Pyramidal microstructure (b) Hybrid microstructure consisting of silver lines and polymer lines.

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