Abstract

Continuous silver microstructures were produced by three-dimensional (3-D) direct laser writing using a femtosecond-pulsed laser beam with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) films containing silver ions. The lines drawn by scanning a tightly focused laser beam ranged from 200 nm to 1.7 µm. Using a sample solution of high density of silver nitrate, a continuous silver line with a resistivity of 3.48×10-7 Ωm was produced. Not only 3-D microstructures such as pyramidal models but also hybrid microstructures comprising polymer and silver lines were demonstrated. The 3-D direct laser writing of metallic microstructures has potential for application to 3-D electrical wiring of electronic devices and MEMS devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Maruo, O. Nakamura and S. Kawata, "Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon absorbed photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 22, 132-134 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton polymerization," Mater. Today 10, 30-37 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Galajda and P. Ormos, "Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249-251 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven viscous micropump using a rotating microdisk," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 084101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133-135 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533-539 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa and S. Kawata, "Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka and S. Kawata, "Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan and S. Kawata, "Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426-1428 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Baldacchini, A. C. Pons, J. Pons, C. N. LaFratta and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton laser direct writing of two dimensional silver structures," Opt. Express 13, 1275-1280 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O'Malley, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, "Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures," Chem. Mater. 18, 2038-2042 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton polymerization," Mater. Today 10, 30-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven viscous micropump using a rotating microdisk," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 084101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa and S. Kawata, "Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka and S. Kawata, "Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O'Malley, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, "Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures," Chem. Mater. 18, 2038-2042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2003 (3)

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan and S. Kawata, "Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426-1428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133-135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533-539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, "Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249-251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alain, V.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baldacchini, T.

C. N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O'Malley, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, "Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures," Chem. Mater. 18, 2038-2042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Baldacchini, A. C. Pons, J. Pons, C. N. LaFratta and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton laser direct writing of two dimensional silver structures," Opt. Express 13, 1275-1280 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barlow, S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, C. A.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campagnola, P. J.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chew, C. H.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J. F.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Epling, G. A.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erskine, L. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, R. A.

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fourkas, J. T.

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton polymerization," Mater. Today 10, 30-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O'Malley, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, "Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures," Chem. Mater. 18, 2038-2042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baldacchini, A. C. Pons, J. Pons, C. N. LaFratta and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton laser direct writing of two dimensional silver structures," Opt. Express 13, 1275-1280 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galajda, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, "Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249-251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, S. L.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Heikal, A. A.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. H.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ikuta, K.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133-135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533-539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, H.

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven viscous micropump using a rotating microdisk," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 084101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, A.

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa and S. Kawata, "Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka and S. Kawata, "Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, K.

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan and S. Kawata, "Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426-1428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa and S. Kawata, "Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka and S. Kawata, "Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura and S. Kawata, "Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon absorbed photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 22, 132-134 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korogi, H.

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133-135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533-539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, S. M.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

LaFratta, C. N.

C. N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O'Malley, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, "Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures," Chem. Mater. 18, 2038-2042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baldacchini, A. C. Pons, J. Pons, C. N. LaFratta and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton laser direct writing of two dimensional silver structures," Opt. Express 13, 1275-1280 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton polymerization," Mater. Today 10, 30-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, L. J.

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, D.

C. N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O'Malley, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, "Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures," Chem. Mater. 18, 2038-2042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loh, F. C.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Loy, G. L.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, S.

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven viscous micropump using a rotating microdisk," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 084101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533-539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133-135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura and S. Kawata, "Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon absorbed photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 22, 132-134 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCord-Maughon, D.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-Friedrichsen, T.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, O.

Naughton, M. J.

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, X. P.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O'Malley, K.

C. N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O'Malley, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, "Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures," Chem. Mater. 18, 2038-2042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ormos, P.

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, "Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249-251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pitts, J. D.

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pond, S. J. K.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pons, A. C.

Pons, J.

Praino, J.

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, J.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Röckel, H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rumi, M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandy Lee, I.-Y.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stellacci, F.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan and S. Kawata, "Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426-1428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, K. L.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka and S. Kawata, "Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa and S. Kawata, "Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teich, M. C.

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenseleers, W.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. Q.

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

K. Kaneko, H. B. Sun, Xuan-Ming Duan and S. Kawata, "Two-photon photoreduction of metallic nanoparticle gratings in a polymer matrix," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1426-1428 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, A. Ishikawa and S. Kawata, "Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 081107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka and S. Kawata, "Improvement in the reduction of silver ions in aqueous solution using two-photon sensitive dye," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 113102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Galajda and P. Ormos, "Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249-251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven micropump produced by three-dimensional two-photon microfabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 144101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo and H. Inoue, "Optically driven viscous micropump using a rotating microdisk," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 084101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Submicron manipulation tools driven by light in a liquid," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 133-135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

C. N. LaFratta, D. Lim, K. O'Malley, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, "Direct laser patterning of conductive wires on three-dimensional polymeric microstructures," Chem. Mater. 18, 2038-2042 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

S. Maruo, K. Ikuta and H. Korogi, "Force-controllable, optically driven micromachines fabricated by single-step two-photon microstereolithography," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 533-539 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. J. Li, J. Praino,M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich and J. T. Fourkas, "Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 1796-1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

H. H. Huang, X. P. Ni, G. L. Loy, C. H. Chew, K. L. Tan, F. C. Loh, J. F. Deng and G. Q. Xu, "Photo-chemical formation of silver nanoparticles in Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)," Langmuir 12, 909-912 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: Studies of Reaction Efficiencies and Applications in Sustained Release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today (1)

L. Li and J. T. Fourkas, "Multiphoton polymerization," Mater. Today 10, 30-37 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y. Sandy Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental procedure for sample preparation and 3-D laser drawing of metallic microstructures.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Laser power dependence of line width of silver lines.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scanning microscopic images of silver lines drawn by two-photon-induced photoreduction. (a) Aggregation of silver nanoparticles at low laser power, (b) Continuous silver line drawn at sufficient laser power

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Silver line attached to four electrodes for the measurement of resistivity.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Relationship between current and applied voltage of silver lines. (a) Sample solution of 3.8 wt% of silver nitrate (b) Sample solution of 7.3 wt% of silver nitrate

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

3-D microstructures made by 3-D laser direct writing. (a) Pyramidal microstructure (b) Hybrid microstructure consisting of silver lines and polymer lines.

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