Abstract

Ultrafast differential transmission spectroscopy is used to explore temperature-dependent carrier dynamics in an InAs/InGaAs quantum dots-in-a-well heterostructure. Electron-hole pairs are optically injected into the three dimensional GaAs barriers, after which we monitor carrier relaxation into the two dimensional InGaAs quantum wells and the zero dimensional InAs quantum dots by tuning the probe photon energy. We find that carrier capture and relaxation are dominated by Auger carrier-carrier scattering at low temperatures, with thermal emission playing an increasing role with temperature. Our experiments provide essential insight into carrier relaxation across multiple spatial dimensions.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Raghavan, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, S. Krishna, C. Morath, D. A. Cardimona, and S. W. Kennerly, "High-responsivity, normal-incidence long-wave infrared (λ~7.2 μm) InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1369 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, A. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, "The influence of quantum-well composition on the performance of quantum dot lasers using InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structures," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 1272 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer, New York, 1999).
  6. V. I. Klimov, "Spectral and dynamical properties of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 635 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. S. Lenihan, M. V. G. Dutt, D. G. Steel, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Ghosh, "Biexcitonic resonance in the nonlinear optical response of an InAs quantum dot ensemble," Phys. Rev. B 69, 045306 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Observation of phonon bottleneck in quantum dot electronic relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4930 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Differential transmission measurement of phonon bottleneck in self-assembled quantum dot intersubband relaxation," Physica B 316-317, 74 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2142 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, "Optical characteristics of 1.24-um InAs quantum-dot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 991 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Fiore, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 um," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3430 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Pulizzi, A. J. Kent, A. Patane, L. Eaves, and M. Henini, "Time-resolved photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots in a GaAs quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3046 (2004).
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  14. X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, B. S. Ooi, and M. Hopkinson, "Investigation of carrier dynamics on InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells based on time-resolved pump and probe differential photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181924 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. I. Tartakovskii, R. S. Kolodka, H. Y. Liu, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, M. N. Makhonin, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, "Exciton fine structure splitting in dot-in-a-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Raino, G. Visimberga, A. Salhi, M. De Vittorio, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Giorgi, "Simultaneous filling of InAs quantum dot states from the GaAs barrier under nonresonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111907 (2007).
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  17. T. Piwonski, I. O'Driscoll, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, and A. V. Uskov, "Carrier capture dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C.-F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, "Electron and hole dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Krishna, S. Raghavan, G. von Winckel, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, C. P. Morath, D. Le, and S. W. Kennerly, "Two color InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well detector with background-limited performance at 91 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2574 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, K. Kamath, and P. Bhattacharya, "Rapid carrier relaxation in In0.4Ga0.6As/GaAs quantum dots characterized by differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 57, R9423 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. B. Norris, K. Kim, J. Urayama, Z. K. Wu, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2077 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Jiang and J. Singh, "Strain distribution and electronic spectra of InAs/GaAs self-assembled dots: An eight-band study," Phys. Rev. B 56, 4696 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. L. Efros, V. A. Kharchenko, and M. Rosen, "Breaking the phonon bottleneck in nanometer quantum dots: role of Auger-like processes," Solid State Commun. 93, 281 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. V. I. Klimov, "Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6112 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  26. V. I. Klimov and D. W. McBranch, "Auger-process-induced charge separation in semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13173 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Toda, O. Moriwaki, M. Nishioka, and Y. Arakawa, "Efficient carrier relaxation mechanism in InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots based on the existence of continuum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4114 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  28. U. Bockelmann and T. Egeler, "Electron relaxation in quantum dots by means of Auger processes," Phys. Rev. B 46, 15574 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  29. B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, "Unbound states in quantum heterostructures," Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. V. Uskov, J. McInerney, F. Adler, H. Schweizer, and M. H. Pilkuhn, "Auger carrier capture kinetics in self-assembled quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 58 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. W. Bogaart, J. E. M. Haverkort, T. Mano, T. van Lippen, R. Notzel, and J. H. Wolter, "Role of the continuum background for carrier relaxation in InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Vasanelli, R. Ferreira, and G. Bastard, "Continuous absorption background and decoherence in quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 216804 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, "Phonon-assisted capture and intradot Auger relaxation in quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2818 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. Jiang and J. Singh, "Radiative and non-radiative inter-subband transition in self-assembled quantum dots," Physica E 2, 720 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Temperature-dependent carrier dynamics in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2162 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  37. J. Siegert, S. Marcinkevicius, and Q. X. Zhao, "Carrier dynamics in modulation-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 085316 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  38. Z.-K. Wu, H. Choi, X. Su, S. Chakrabarti, P. Bhattacharya, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast electronic dynamics in unipolar n-doped InGaAs-GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 43, 486 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  39. H. Lim, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, "High-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown on InP substrate operating at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (6)

V. I. Klimov, "Spectral and dynamical properties of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 635 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Raino, G. Visimberga, A. Salhi, M. De Vittorio, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Giorgi, "Simultaneous filling of InAs quantum dot states from the GaAs barrier under nonresonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Piwonski, I. O'Driscoll, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, and A. V. Uskov, "Carrier capture dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C.-F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, "Electron and hole dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z.-K. Wu, H. Choi, X. Su, S. Chakrabarti, P. Bhattacharya, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast electronic dynamics in unipolar n-doped InGaAs-GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 43, 486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Lim, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, "High-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown on InP substrate operating at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, B. S. Ooi, and M. Hopkinson, "Investigation of carrier dynamics on InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells based on time-resolved pump and probe differential photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Tartakovskii, R. S. Kolodka, H. Y. Liu, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, M. N. Makhonin, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, "Exciton fine structure splitting in dot-in-a-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, "Unbound states in quantum heterostructures," Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

E. W. Bogaart, J. E. M. Haverkort, T. Mano, T. van Lippen, R. Notzel, and J. H. Wolter, "Role of the continuum background for carrier relaxation in InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Norris, K. Kim, J. Urayama, Z. K. Wu, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2077 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2142 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Siegert, S. Marcinkevicius, and Q. X. Zhao, "Carrier dynamics in modulation-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 085316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

A. S. Lenihan, M. V. G. Dutt, D. G. Steel, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Ghosh, "Biexcitonic resonance in the nonlinear optical response of an InAs quantum dot ensemble," Phys. Rev. B 69, 045306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Bhattacharya, S. Ghosh, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts, "Quantum dot opto-electronic devices," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 34, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Pulizzi, A. J. Kent, A. Patane, L. Eaves, and M. Henini, "Time-resolved photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots in a GaAs quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Krishna, S. Raghavan, G. von Winckel, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, C. P. Morath, D. Le, and S. W. Kennerly, "Two color InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well detector with background-limited performance at 91 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Differential transmission measurement of phonon bottleneck in self-assembled quantum dot intersubband relaxation," Physica B 316-317, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Raghavan, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, S. Krishna, C. Morath, D. A. Cardimona, and S. W. Kennerly, "High-responsivity, normal-incidence long-wave infrared (λ~7.2 μm) InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasanelli, R. Ferreira, and G. Bastard, "Continuous absorption background and decoherence in quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 216804 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Temperature-dependent carrier dynamics in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Observation of phonon bottleneck in quantum dot electronic relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4930 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, A. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, "The influence of quantum-well composition on the performance of quantum dot lasers using InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structures," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 1272 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 um," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, "Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6112 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

Y. Toda, O. Moriwaki, M. Nishioka, and Y. Arakawa, "Efficient carrier relaxation mechanism in InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots based on the existence of continuum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, "Phonon-assisted capture and intradot Auger relaxation in quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, "Optical characteristics of 1.24-um InAs quantum-dot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, K. Kamath, and P. Bhattacharya, "Rapid carrier relaxation in In0.4Ga0.6As/GaAs quantum dots characterized by differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 57, R9423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and J. Singh, "Radiative and non-radiative inter-subband transition in self-assembled quantum dots," Physica E 2, 720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Uskov, J. McInerney, F. Adler, H. Schweizer, and M. H. Pilkuhn, "Auger carrier capture kinetics in self-assembled quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

V. I. Klimov and D. W. McBranch, "Auger-process-induced charge separation in semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and J. Singh, "Strain distribution and electronic spectra of InAs/GaAs self-assembled dots: An eight-band study," Phys. Rev. B 56, 4696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. L. Efros, V. A. Kharchenko, and M. Rosen, "Breaking the phonon bottleneck in nanometer quantum dots: role of Auger-like processes," Solid State Commun. 93, 281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

U. Bockelmann and T. Egeler, "Electron relaxation in quantum dots by means of Auger processes," Phys. Rev. B 46, 15574 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adler, F.

A. V. Uskov, J. McInerney, F. Adler, H. Schweizer, and M. H. Pilkuhn, "Auger carrier capture kinetics in self-assembled quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M.

B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

Y. Toda, O. Moriwaki, M. Nishioka, and Y. Arakawa, "Efficient carrier relaxation mechanism in InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots based on the existence of continuum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bastard, G.

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, "Unbound states in quantum heterostructures," Nanoscale Res. Lett. 1, 120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasanelli, R. Ferreira, and G. Bastard, "Continuous absorption background and decoherence in quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 216804 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, "Phonon-assisted capture and intradot Auger relaxation in quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

Z.-K. Wu, H. Choi, X. Su, S. Chakrabarti, P. Bhattacharya, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast electronic dynamics in unipolar n-doped InGaAs-GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 43, 486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Norris, K. Kim, J. Urayama, Z. K. Wu, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2077 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Bhattacharya, S. Ghosh, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts, "Quantum dot opto-electronic devices," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 34, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Lenihan, M. V. G. Dutt, D. G. Steel, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Ghosh, "Biexcitonic resonance in the nonlinear optical response of an InAs quantum dot ensemble," Phys. Rev. B 69, 045306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Differential transmission measurement of phonon bottleneck in self-assembled quantum dot intersubband relaxation," Physica B 316-317, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Temperature-dependent carrier dynamics in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Observation of phonon bottleneck in quantum dot electronic relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4930 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, K. Kamath, and P. Bhattacharya, "Rapid carrier relaxation in In0.4Ga0.6As/GaAs quantum dots characterized by differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 57, R9423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bockelmann, U.

U. Bockelmann and T. Egeler, "Electron relaxation in quantum dots by means of Auger processes," Phys. Rev. B 46, 15574 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bogaart, E. W.

E. W. Bogaart, J. E. M. Haverkort, T. Mano, T. van Lippen, R. Notzel, and J. H. Wolter, "Role of the continuum background for carrier relaxation in InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Borri, P.

A. Fiore, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 um," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cardimona, D. A.

S. Raghavan, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, S. Krishna, C. Morath, D. A. Cardimona, and S. W. Kennerly, "High-responsivity, normal-incidence long-wave infrared (λ~7.2 μm) InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, S.

Z.-K. Wu, H. Choi, X. Su, S. Chakrabarti, P. Bhattacharya, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast electronic dynamics in unipolar n-doped InGaAs-GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 43, 486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

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A. S. Lenihan, M. V. G. Dutt, D. G. Steel, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Ghosh, "Biexcitonic resonance in the nonlinear optical response of an InAs quantum dot ensemble," Phys. Rev. B 69, 045306 (2004).
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F. Pulizzi, A. J. Kent, A. Patane, L. Eaves, and M. Henini, "Time-resolved photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots in a GaAs quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3046 (2004).
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L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, "Optical characteristics of 1.24-um InAs quantum-dot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 991 (1999).
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A. S. Lenihan, M. V. G. Dutt, D. G. Steel, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Ghosh, "Biexcitonic resonance in the nonlinear optical response of an InAs quantum dot ensemble," Phys. Rev. B 69, 045306 (2004).
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G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, A. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, "The influence of quantum-well composition on the performance of quantum dot lasers using InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structures," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 1272 (2000).
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E. W. Bogaart, J. E. M. Haverkort, T. Mano, T. van Lippen, R. Notzel, and J. H. Wolter, "Role of the continuum background for carrier relaxation in InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195301 (2005).
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F. Pulizzi, A. J. Kent, A. Patane, L. Eaves, and M. Henini, "Time-resolved photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots in a GaAs quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3046 (2004).
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X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, B. S. Ooi, and M. Hopkinson, "Investigation of carrier dynamics on InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells based on time-resolved pump and probe differential photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181924 (2006).
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A. I. Tartakovskii, R. S. Kolodka, H. Y. Liu, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, M. N. Makhonin, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, "Exciton fine structure splitting in dot-in-a-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131115 (2006).
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A. Fiore, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 um," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3430 (2000).
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T. Piwonski, I. O'Driscoll, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, and A. V. Uskov, "Carrier capture dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122108 (2007).
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I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C.-F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, "Electron and hole dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
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I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C.-F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, "Electron and hole dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
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T. Piwonski, I. O'Driscoll, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, and A. V. Uskov, "Carrier capture dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122108 (2007).
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A. Fiore, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 um," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3430 (2000).
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A. Fiore, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 um," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3430 (2000).
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J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Temperature-dependent carrier dynamics in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2162 (2002).
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J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Differential transmission measurement of phonon bottleneck in self-assembled quantum dot intersubband relaxation," Physica B 316-317, 74 (2002).
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S. Krishna, S. Raghavan, G. von Winckel, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, C. P. Morath, D. Le, and S. W. Kennerly, "Two color InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well detector with background-limited performance at 91 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2574 (2003).
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S. Raghavan, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, S. Krishna, C. Morath, D. A. Cardimona, and S. W. Kennerly, "High-responsivity, normal-incidence long-wave infrared (λ~7.2 μm) InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1369 (2002).
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F. Pulizzi, A. J. Kent, A. Patane, L. Eaves, and M. Henini, "Time-resolved photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots in a GaAs quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kharchenko, V. A.

A. L. Efros, V. A. Kharchenko, and M. Rosen, "Breaking the phonon bottleneck in nanometer quantum dots: role of Auger-like processes," Solid State Commun. 93, 281 (1995).
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T. B. Norris, K. Kim, J. Urayama, Z. K. Wu, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2077 (2005).
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V. I. Klimov, "Spectral and dynamical properties of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 635 (2007).
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A. I. Tartakovskii, R. S. Kolodka, H. Y. Liu, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, M. N. Makhonin, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, "Exciton fine structure splitting in dot-in-a-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131115 (2006).
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S. Krishna, S. Raghavan, G. von Winckel, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, C. P. Morath, D. Le, and S. W. Kennerly, "Two color InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well detector with background-limited performance at 91 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Raghavan, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, S. Krishna, C. Morath, D. A. Cardimona, and S. W. Kennerly, "High-responsivity, normal-incidence long-wave infrared (λ~7.2 μm) InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. Fiore, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 um," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Le, D.

S. Krishna, S. Raghavan, G. von Winckel, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, C. P. Morath, D. Le, and S. W. Kennerly, "Two color InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well detector with background-limited performance at 91 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lenihan, A. S.

A. S. Lenihan, M. V. G. Dutt, D. G. Steel, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Ghosh, "Biexcitonic resonance in the nonlinear optical response of an InAs quantum dot ensemble," Phys. Rev. B 69, 045306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lester, L. F.

G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, A. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, "The influence of quantum-well composition on the performance of quantum dot lasers using InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structures," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 1272 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, "Optical characteristics of 1.24-um InAs quantum-dot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, A. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, "The influence of quantum-well composition on the performance of quantum dot lasers using InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structures," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 1272 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, "Optical characteristics of 1.24-um InAs quantum-dot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 991 (1999).
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H. Lim, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, "High-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown on InP substrate operating at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131112 (2007).
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G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, A. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, "The influence of quantum-well composition on the performance of quantum dot lasers using InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structures," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 1272 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. Y.

A. I. Tartakovskii, R. S. Kolodka, H. Y. Liu, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, M. N. Makhonin, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, "Exciton fine structure splitting in dot-in-a-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Makhonin, M. N.

A. I. Tartakovskii, R. S. Kolodka, H. Y. Liu, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, M. N. Makhonin, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, "Exciton fine structure splitting in dot-in-a-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, A. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, "The influence of quantum-well composition on the performance of quantum dot lasers using InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structures," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 1272 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, "Optical characteristics of 1.24-um InAs quantum-dot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Manning, R. J.

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C.-F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, "Electron and hole dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Piwonski, I. O'Driscoll, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, and A. V. Uskov, "Carrier capture dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mano, T.

E. W. Bogaart, J. E. M. Haverkort, T. Mano, T. van Lippen, R. Notzel, and J. H. Wolter, "Role of the continuum background for carrier relaxation in InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195301 (2005).
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J. Siegert, S. Marcinkevicius, and Q. X. Zhao, "Carrier dynamics in modulation-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 085316 (2005).
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V. I. Klimov and D. W. McBranch, "Auger-process-induced charge separation in semiconductor nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 55, 13173 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McInerney, J.

A. V. Uskov, J. McInerney, F. Adler, H. Schweizer, and M. H. Pilkuhn, "Auger carrier capture kinetics in self-assembled quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 58 (1998).
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Migliorato, M. A.

A. I. Tartakovskii, R. S. Kolodka, H. Y. Liu, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, M. N. Makhonin, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, "Exciton fine structure splitting in dot-in-a-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morath, C.

S. Raghavan, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, S. Krishna, C. Morath, D. A. Cardimona, and S. W. Kennerly, "High-responsivity, normal-incidence long-wave infrared (λ~7.2 μm) InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morath, C. P.

S. Krishna, S. Raghavan, G. von Winckel, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, C. P. Morath, D. Le, and S. W. Kennerly, "Two color InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well detector with background-limited performance at 91 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moriwaki, O.

Y. Toda, O. Moriwaki, M. Nishioka, and Y. Arakawa, "Efficient carrier relaxation mechanism in InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots based on the existence of continuum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mowbray, D. J.

A. I. Tartakovskii, R. S. Kolodka, H. Y. Liu, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, M. N. Makhonin, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, "Exciton fine structure splitting in dot-in-a-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mu, X.

X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, B. S. Ooi, and M. Hopkinson, "Investigation of carrier dynamics on InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells based on time-resolved pump and probe differential photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993).
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G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, A. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, "The influence of quantum-well composition on the performance of quantum dot lasers using InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structures," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 1272 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, "Optical characteristics of 1.24-um InAs quantum-dot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, M.

Y. Toda, O. Moriwaki, M. Nishioka, and Y. Arakawa, "Efficient carrier relaxation mechanism in InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots based on the existence of continuum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Norris, D. J.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

Z.-K. Wu, H. Choi, X. Su, S. Chakrabarti, P. Bhattacharya, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast electronic dynamics in unipolar n-doped InGaAs-GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 43, 486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Norris, K. Kim, J. Urayama, Z. K. Wu, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2077 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Temperature-dependent carrier dynamics in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Differential transmission measurement of phonon bottleneck in self-assembled quantum dot intersubband relaxation," Physica B 316-317, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Observation of phonon bottleneck in quantum dot electronic relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4930 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, K. Kamath, and P. Bhattacharya, "Rapid carrier relaxation in In0.4Ga0.6As/GaAs quantum dots characterized by differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 57, R9423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Notzel, R.

E. W. Bogaart, J. E. M. Haverkort, T. Mano, T. van Lippen, R. Notzel, and J. H. Wolter, "Role of the continuum background for carrier relaxation in InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O'Driscoll, I.

T. Piwonski, I. O'Driscoll, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, and A. V. Uskov, "Carrier capture dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C.-F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, "Electron and hole dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oesterle, U.

A. Fiore, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 um," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ohnesorge, B.

B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ooi, B. S.

X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, B. S. Ooi, and M. Hopkinson, "Investigation of carrier dynamics on InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells based on time-resolved pump and probe differential photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oshinowo, J.

B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Passaseo, A.

G. Raino, G. Visimberga, A. Salhi, M. De Vittorio, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Giorgi, "Simultaneous filling of InAs quantum dot states from the GaAs barrier under nonresonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patane, A.

F. Pulizzi, A. J. Kent, A. Patane, L. Eaves, and M. Henini, "Time-resolved photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots in a GaAs quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pease, E. A.

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, "Optical characteristics of 1.24-um InAs quantum-dot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pilkuhn, M. H.

A. V. Uskov, J. McInerney, F. Adler, H. Schweizer, and M. H. Pilkuhn, "Auger carrier capture kinetics in self-assembled quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Piwonski, T.

T. Piwonski, I. O'Driscoll, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, and A. V. Uskov, "Carrier capture dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C.-F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, "Electron and hole dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pulizzi, F.

F. Pulizzi, A. J. Kent, A. Patane, L. Eaves, and M. Henini, "Time-resolved photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots in a GaAs quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raghavan, S.

S. Krishna, S. Raghavan, G. von Winckel, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, C. P. Morath, D. Le, and S. W. Kennerly, "Two color InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well detector with background-limited performance at 91 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Raghavan, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, S. Krishna, C. Morath, D. A. Cardimona, and S. W. Kennerly, "High-responsivity, normal-incidence long-wave infrared (λ~7.2 μm) InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raino, G.

G. Raino, G. Visimberga, A. Salhi, M. De Vittorio, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Giorgi, "Simultaneous filling of InAs quantum dot states from the GaAs barrier under nonresonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

H. Lim, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, "High-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown on InP substrate operating at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, M.

A. L. Efros, V. A. Kharchenko, and M. Rosen, "Breaking the phonon bottleneck in nanometer quantum dots: role of Auger-like processes," Solid State Commun. 93, 281 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rotella, P.

S. Krishna, S. Raghavan, G. von Winckel, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, C. P. Morath, D. Le, and S. W. Kennerly, "Two color InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well detector with background-limited performance at 91 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Raghavan, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, S. Krishna, C. Morath, D. A. Cardimona, and S. W. Kennerly, "High-responsivity, normal-incidence long-wave infrared (λ~7.2 μm) InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salhi, A.

G. Raino, G. Visimberga, A. Salhi, M. De Vittorio, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Giorgi, "Simultaneous filling of InAs quantum dot states from the GaAs barrier under nonresonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schleussner, C.-F.

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C.-F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, "Electron and hole dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, H.

A. V. Uskov, J. McInerney, F. Adler, H. Schweizer, and M. H. Pilkuhn, "Auger carrier capture kinetics in self-assembled quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Siegert, J.

J. Siegert, S. Marcinkevicius, and Q. X. Zhao, "Carrier dynamics in modulation-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 085316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J.

T. B. Norris, K. Kim, J. Urayama, Z. K. Wu, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2077 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Temperature-dependent carrier dynamics in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Differential transmission measurement of phonon bottleneck in self-assembled quantum dot intersubband relaxation," Physica B 316-317, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Observation of phonon bottleneck in quantum dot electronic relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4930 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, K. Kamath, and P. Bhattacharya, "Rapid carrier relaxation in In0.4Ga0.6As/GaAs quantum dots characterized by differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 57, R9423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and J. Singh, "Radiative and non-radiative inter-subband transition in self-assembled quantum dots," Physica E 2, 720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang and J. Singh, "Strain distribution and electronic spectra of InAs/GaAs self-assembled dots: An eight-band study," Phys. Rev. B 56, 4696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Skolnick, M. S.

A. I. Tartakovskii, R. S. Kolodka, H. Y. Liu, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, M. N. Makhonin, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, "Exciton fine structure splitting in dot-in-a-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sosnowski, T. S.

T. S. Sosnowski, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, K. Kamath, and P. Bhattacharya, "Rapid carrier relaxation in In0.4Ga0.6As/GaAs quantum dots characterized by differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 57, R9423 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, R. P.

A. Fiore, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 um," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steel, D. G.

A. S. Lenihan, M. V. G. Dutt, D. G. Steel, P. Bhattacharya, and S. Ghosh, "Biexcitonic resonance in the nonlinear optical response of an InAs quantum dot ensemble," Phys. Rev. B 69, 045306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stiff-Roberts, A. D.

P. Bhattacharya, S. Ghosh, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts, "Quantum dot opto-electronic devices," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 34, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stintz, A.

S. Krishna, S. Raghavan, G. von Winckel, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, C. P. Morath, D. Le, and S. W. Kennerly, "Two color InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well detector with background-limited performance at 91 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Raghavan, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, S. Krishna, C. Morath, D. A. Cardimona, and S. W. Kennerly, "High-responsivity, normal-incidence long-wave infrared (λ~7.2 μm) InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, A. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, "The influence of quantum-well composition on the performance of quantum dot lasers using InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structures," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 1272 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, "Optical characteristics of 1.24-um InAs quantum-dot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Su, X.

Z.-K. Wu, H. Choi, X. Su, S. Chakrabarti, P. Bhattacharya, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast electronic dynamics in unipolar n-doped InGaAs-GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 43, 486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tartakovskii, A. I.

A. I. Tartakovskii, R. S. Kolodka, H. Y. Liu, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, M. N. Makhonin, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, "Exciton fine structure splitting in dot-in-a-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toda, Y.

Y. Toda, O. Moriwaki, M. Nishioka, and Y. Arakawa, "Efficient carrier relaxation mechanism in InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots based on the existence of continuum states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, S.

H. Lim, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, "High-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown on InP substrate operating at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Urayama, J.

T. B. Norris, K. Kim, J. Urayama, Z. K. Wu, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2077 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Temperature-dependent carrier dynamics in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Differential transmission measurement of phonon bottleneck in self-assembled quantum dot intersubband relaxation," Physica B 316-317, 74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Observation of phonon bottleneck in quantum dot electronic relaxation," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4930 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uskov, A. V.

T. Piwonski, I. O'Driscoll, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, and A. V. Uskov, "Carrier capture dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Uskov, J. McInerney, F. Adler, H. Schweizer, and M. H. Pilkuhn, "Auger carrier capture kinetics in self-assembled quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Lippen, T.

E. W. Bogaart, J. E. M. Haverkort, T. Mano, T. van Lippen, R. Notzel, and J. H. Wolter, "Role of the continuum background for carrier relaxation in InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varangis, P. M.

G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, A. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, "The influence of quantum-well composition on the performance of quantum dot lasers using InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structures," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 1272 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vasanelli, A.

A. Vasanelli, R. Ferreira, and G. Bastard, "Continuous absorption background and decoherence in quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 216804 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visimberga, G.

G. Raino, G. Visimberga, A. Salhi, M. De Vittorio, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Giorgi, "Simultaneous filling of InAs quantum dot states from the GaAs barrier under nonresonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

von Winckel, G.

S. Krishna, S. Raghavan, G. von Winckel, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, C. P. Morath, D. Le, and S. W. Kennerly, "Two color InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well detector with background-limited performance at 91 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

West, K. W.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Coulomb and carrier-activation dynamics of resonantly excited InAs/GaAs quantum dots in two-color pump-probe experiments," Phys. Rev. B 67, 235323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolter, J. H.

E. W. Bogaart, J. E. M. Haverkort, T. Mano, T. van Lippen, R. Notzel, and J. H. Wolter, "Role of the continuum background for carrier relaxation in InAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. K.

T. B. Norris, K. Kim, J. Urayama, Z. K. Wu, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Density and temperature dependence of carrier dynamics in self-organized InGaAs quantum dots," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2077 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.-K.

Z.-K. Wu, H. Choi, X. Su, S. Chakrabarti, P. Bhattacharya, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast electronic dynamics in unipolar n-doped InGaAs-GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 43, 486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

H. Lim, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, "High-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown on InP substrate operating at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q. X.

J. Siegert, S. Marcinkevicius, and Q. X. Zhao, "Carrier dynamics in modulation-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 72, 085316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

P. Bhattacharya, S. Ghosh, and A. D. Stiff-Roberts, "Quantum dot opto-electronic devices," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 34, 1 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

V. I. Klimov, "Spectral and dynamical properties of multiexcitons in semiconductor nanocrystals," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58, 635 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

S. Raghavan, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, B. Fuchs, S. Krishna, C. Morath, D. A. Cardimona, and S. W. Kennerly, "High-responsivity, normal-incidence long-wave infrared (λ~7.2 μm) InAs/In0.15Ga0.85As dots-in-a-well detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1369 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, U. Oesterle, R. Houdre, R. P. Stanley, and M. Ilegems, "Time-resolved optical characterization of InAs/InGaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 um," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3430 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Pulizzi, A. J. Kent, A. Patane, L. Eaves, and M. Henini, "Time-resolved photoluminescence of InAs quantum dots in a GaAs quantum well," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3046 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Mu, Y. J. Ding, B. S. Ooi, and M. Hopkinson, "Investigation of carrier dynamics on InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells based on time-resolved pump and probe differential photoluminescence," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 181924 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Tartakovskii, R. S. Kolodka, H. Y. Liu, M. A. Migliorato, M. Hopkinson, M. N. Makhonin, D. J. Mowbray, and M. S. Skolnick, "Exciton fine structure splitting in dot-in-a-well structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Raino, G. Visimberga, A. Salhi, M. De Vittorio, A. Passaseo, R. Cingolani, and M. De Giorgi, "Simultaneous filling of InAs quantum dot states from the GaAs barrier under nonresonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111907 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Piwonski, I. O'Driscoll, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, R. J. Manning, and A. V. Uskov, "Carrier capture dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 122108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C.-F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, "Electron and hole dynamics of InAs/GaAs quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Krishna, S. Raghavan, G. von Winckel, P. Rotella, A. Stintz, C. P. Morath, D. Le, and S. W. Kennerly, "Two color InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well detector with background-limited performance at 91 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Uskov, J. McInerney, F. Adler, H. Schweizer, and M. H. Pilkuhn, "Auger carrier capture kinetics in self-assembled quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 58 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, "Phonon-assisted capture and intradot Auger relaxation in quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2818 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Urayama, T. B. Norris, H. Jiang, J. Singh, and P. Bhattacharya, "Temperature-dependent carrier dynamics in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 2162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Lim, S. Tsao, W. Zhang, and M. Razeghi, "High-performance InAs quantum-dot infrared photodetectors grown on InP substrate operating at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Elect. (2)

Z.-K. Wu, H. Choi, X. Su, S. Chakrabarti, P. Bhattacharya, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast electronic dynamics in unipolar n-doped InGaAs-GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 43, 486 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Liu, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, A. L. Gray, P. M. Varangis, K. J. Malloy, and L. F. Lester, "The influence of quantum-well composition on the performance of quantum dot lasers using InAs/InGaAs dots-in-a-well (DWELL) structures," IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 36, 1272 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. F. Lester, A. Stintz, H. Li, T. C. Newell, E. A. Pease, B. A. Fuchs, and K. J. Malloy, "Optical characteristics of 1.24-um InAs quantum-dot laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse CdE (E=S, Se, Te) semiconductor nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

V. I. Klimov, "Optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 6112 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (2)

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Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

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Phys. Rev. B (9)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic of the DWELL structure. (b). PL spectrum at 77 K. (c). PL spectrum at 295 K. (d). Energy level schematic at 77 K.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Differential transmission spectrum taken at 30 K. The approximate positions of the QW n=1, QD n=2, and QD n=1 states are indicated by the dotted, dot-dashed, and dashed lines, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized 30 K time-dependent DT signals at the QW n=1 (977 nm) state, QD n=2 (1047 nm) and QD n=1 (1135 nm) states at (a) short and (b) long time delays.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Differential transmission spectrum taken at 295 K. The approximate positions of the QW n=1, QD n=2, and QD n=1 states are indicated by the dotted, dot-dashed, and dashed lines, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Normalized time-dependent DT signals at the (a) QW n=1, (b) QD n=2, and (c) QD n=1 states at 30 and 295 K.

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