Abstract

We report on the fabrication and characterization of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers that do not suffer from surface mode coupling within the photonic bandgap of the cladding. This enables low attenuation over the full spectral width of the bandgap - we measured a minimum loss of 15 dB/km and less than 50 dB/km over 300 nm for a fiber operating at 1550 nm. As a result of the increased bandwidth, the fiber has reduced dispersion and dispersion slope - by a factor of almost 2 compared to previous fibers. These features are important for several applications in high-power ultrashort pulse compression and delivery. Realizing these advances has been possible due to development of a modified fabrication process which makes the production of low-loss hollow-core fibers both simpler and quicker than previously.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Shephard, J. Jones, D. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. Knight, P. Russell, and B. Mangan, "High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers," Opt. Express 12, 717- 723 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Gérôme, K. Cook, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, "Delivery of sub-100fs pulses through 8m of hollow-core fiber using soliton compression," Opt. Express 15, 7126-7131 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153- 6159 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Willliams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. J. Roberts, D. P. Willliams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Optimizing the usable bandwidth and loss through core design in realistic hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 14, 7974-7985 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Design of 7 and 19 cells core air-guiding photonic crystal fibers for low-loss, wide bandwidth and dispersion controlled operation," Opt. Express 15, 17577-17586 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Amezcua-Correa, M. N. Petrovich, N. G. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, and E. J. O’Driscoll, "Broadband infrared transmission in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre free of surface modes," in Proc. ECOC2006 (Cannes, 2006), paper We4.4.4.

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

2004 (2)

2003 (4)

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

Borrelli, N. F.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

Broderick, N. G.

Cook, K.

Couny, F.

Farr, L.

Gaeta, A. L.

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153- 6159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153- 6159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, T.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, A. K.

Gérôme, F.

Hand, D.

Hensley, C. J.

Jones, J.

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

Koch, K. W.

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153- 6159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangan, B.

Mangan, B. J.

Muller, D.

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouzounov, D. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153- 6159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrovich, M. N.

Poletti, F.

Richardson, D. J.

Roberts, P. J.

Russell, P.

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Willliams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sabert, H.

Shephard, J.

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C. M.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkateraman, N.

Wadsworth, W. J.

West, J. A.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willliams, D. P.

Nature (3)

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Smith, N. Venkataraman, T. Gallagher, D. Muller, J. A. West, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Low-loss hollow-core silica/air photonic bandgap fibre," Nature 424, 657-659 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

D. G. Ouzounov, C. J. Hensley, A. L. Gaeta, N. Venkateraman, M. T. Gallagher, and K. W. Koch, "Soliton pulse compression in photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 6153- 6159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. P. Willliams, L. Farr, M. W. Mason A. Tomlinson, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Willliams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an antiresonant core surround," Opt. Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Optimizing the usable bandwidth and loss through core design in realistic hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 14, 7974-7985 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Amezcua-Correa, N. G. Broderick, M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, D. J. Richardson, "Design of 7 and 19 cells core air-guiding photonic crystal fibers for low-loss, wide bandwidth and dispersion controlled operation," Opt. Express 15, 17577-17586 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Shephard, J. Jones, D. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. Knight, P. Russell, and B. Mangan, "High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers," Opt. Express 12, 717- 723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gérôme, K. Cook, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, "Delivery of sub-100fs pulses through 8m of hollow-core fiber using soliton compression," Opt. Express 15, 7126-7131 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Muller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers," Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Amezcua-Correa, M. N. Petrovich, N. G. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, and E. J. O’Driscoll, "Broadband infrared transmission in a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibre free of surface modes," in Proc. ECOC2006 (Cannes, 2006), paper We4.4.4.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Typical SEM image of a cane used to draw our fibers. The outer diameter shown is 3.3 millimeters, and an addition silica jacket has yet to be added during the final draw to fiber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM micrographs of 7-cell HC-PBGF designed to operate at 1550 nm, to the same scale. (a) Our fiber incorporating a thin core wall, and (b) conventional HC-PBGF similar to that available commercially. Scale bars correspond to 10 µm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured attenuation spectrum of (red) our thin core wall fiber, and (blue) old fiber. (top) Near field images of the “fundamental” air-guided mode after 50 m of our fiber at different wavelengths within the bandgap.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Group velocity dispersion measured on 25 cm of fiber and normalized transmission through 50 m of fiber. (a) Thin core wall fiber, and (b) Old fiber.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) SEM image of a low loss 7-cell HC-PBGF designed for transmission at around 1650 nm, (bar, 10 µm). (b) Attenuation spectrum obtained from a cut-back measurement using a sample of 300 m cut back to 100 m.

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