Abstract

We develop and demonstrate high-quality white light generation that relies on the use of a single-type simple conjugated polymer of polyfluorene functionalized with azide groups (PFA) integrated on a near-UV LED platform. The high-quality white emission from the polyfluorene is achieved by using the azide functionalization to facilitate cross-linking intentionally when cast into solid-state form. Hybridized on n-UV InGaN/GaN LED at 378 nm, the PFA emitters collectively generate a very broad down-converting photoluminescence at longer wavelengths across the entirety of the visible spectrum, yielding high color rendering indices up to 91.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  6. B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater 16, 624-628 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Liu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence," Adv. Mater. 17, 2974-2978 (2005).
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  13. J. Liu, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Molecular design on highly efficient white electroluminescence from a single-polymer system with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission," Adv. Mater. 19, 531-535 (2007).
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  15. G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Jiang, y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light-emitting devices from a single polymer by mixing singlet and triplet emission," Adv. Mater. 18, 1769-1773 (2006).
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  19. L. Romaner, A. Pogantsch, P. S. De Freitas, U. Scherf, M. Gaal, E. Zojer, and E. J. W. List, "The origin of green emission in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers: On-chain defect fluorescence," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 597-601 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. Gong, P. K. Iyer, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, A. J. Heeger, and S. S. Xiao, "Stabilized blue emission from polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes: Elimination of fluorenone defects," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 325-330 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. J. W. List, R. Guenter, P. S. De Freitas, and U. Scherf, "The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 374-378 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, "On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: The roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 783-790 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. A. Murray, A. B. Holmes, S. C. Moratti, and G. Rumbles, "Conformational changes in regioregular polythiopenes due to thermal crosslinking," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2109-2115 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. R. Grisoria, G. P. Suranna, P. Mastrorilli, and C. F. Nobile, "Inside into the role of oxidation in the thermally induced green band in fluorene-based systems," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 538-548 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Pierce, "Light sources and conditions of aryl azide crosslinking and labeling reagents," http://www.piercenet.com/files/TR0011dh5-Photoactivate-aryl-azides.pdf.
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    [CrossRef]
  29. PFB, bromide functionalized polyfluorene, poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-co-alt-(9,9-bis-(6-bromohexyl)fluorene)] Yield: 1.1 g, 64%. IR (KBr, cm-1): 3065 (CH-), 2935 (CH-), 2859 (CH-), 1613 (C= C-), 1571 (C=C-), 727 (C-Br). 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δH 7.85 (m, 12H), 3.32 (t, 4H, J=6 Hz), 2.16 (m, 4H), 1.71 (m, 4H), 1.22 (m, 24H), 0.84 (m, 14H). Gel-permeation chromatography (GPC): Mn= 3.87 x 103, Mw= 2.04 x 104 (Polystyrene as standard). Fluorescence quantum yield (FQY): 0.88 (Quinine sulfate as the standard).
  30. PFA, azide functionalized polyfluorene, poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-co-alt-(9,9-bis-(6-azidohexyl)fluorene)] Yield: 205 mg, 75%. IR (KBr, cm-1): 3065 (CH-), 2935 (CH-), 2859 (CH-), 2100 (-N3), 1613 (C=C-), 1571 (C=C-). 1H-NMR (400 MHZ, CDCl3) δH 7.78 (m, 12H), 3.17 (m, 4H), 1.95 (m, 4H), 1.7 (m, 4H), 1.20 (m, 8H), 0.65 (m, 4H, f). Gel-permeation chromatography (GPC): Mn= 3.61 x 103, Mw= 2.04 x 104 (Polystyrene as standard). Fluorescence quantum yield (FQY): 0.86 (Quinine sulfate as the standard).
  31. E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J. F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305-2307 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (10)

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S419-S424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, X. Li, Q. Hou, J. Peng, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light emission from a single copolymer: Fluorescent blue, green, and red chromophores on a conjugated polymer backbone," Adv. Mater. 19, 1113-1117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Molecular design on highly efficient white electroluminescence from a single-polymer system with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission," Adv. Mater. 19, 531-535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species," Adv. Mater. 19, 1859-1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Grisoria, G. P. Suranna, P. Mastrorilli, and C. F. Nobile, "Inside into the role of oxidation in the thermally induced green band in fluorene-based systems," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 538-548 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Jiang, y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light-emitting devices from a single polymer by mixing singlet and triplet emission," Adv. Mater. 18, 1769-1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. Liu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence," Adv. Mater. 17, 2974-2978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. D. Sala, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, G. Sotgiu, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white organic light-emitting devices from a single active molecular material," Adv. Mater. 17, 34-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

X.-H. Zhou, J.-C. Yan, and J. Pei, "Exploiting an Imidazole-Functionalized Polyfluorene Derivative as a Chemosensory Material," Macromolecules 37, 7078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J. F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305-2307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater 16, 624-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, "On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: The roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 783-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Romaner, A. Pogantsch, P. S. De Freitas, U. Scherf, M. Gaal, E. Zojer, and E. J. W. List, "The origin of green emission in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers: On-chain defect fluorescence," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 597-601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, P. K. Iyer, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, A. J. Heeger, and S. S. Xiao, "Stabilized blue emission from polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes: Elimination of fluorenone defects," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 325-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. J. W. List, R. Guenter, P. S. De Freitas, and U. Scherf, "The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 374-378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Leclerc, "Polyfluorenes: Twenty years of progress," J. Polym. Sci. Part A: Polym. Chem. 39, 2867-2873 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. A. Murray, A. B. Holmes, S. C. Moratti, and G. Rumbles, "Conformational changes in regioregular polythiopenes due to thermal crosslinking," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2109-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Kraft, C. Grimsdale, and A. B. Holmes, "Electroluminescent conjugated polymers—Seeing polymers in a new light, "Angew. Chem. 37, 402-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars and A. Heeger, "White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2664-2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anni, M.

M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. D. Sala, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, G. Sotgiu, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white organic light-emitting devices from a single active molecular material," Adv. Mater. 17, 34-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barbarella, G.

M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. D. Sala, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, G. Sotgiu, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white organic light-emitting devices from a single active molecular material," Adv. Mater. 17, 34-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bazan, G. C.

X. Gong, P. K. Iyer, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, A. J. Heeger, and S. S. Xiao, "Stabilized blue emission from polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes: Elimination of fluorenone defects," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 325-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, T.

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, "On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: The roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 783-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

J. Luo, X. Li, Q. Hou, J. Peng, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light emission from a single copolymer: Fluorescent blue, green, and red chromophores on a conjugated polymer backbone," Adv. Mater. 19, 1113-1117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species," Adv. Mater. 19, 1859-1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

J. Liu, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Molecular design on highly efficient white electroluminescence from a single-polymer system with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission," Adv. Mater. 19, 531-535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species," Adv. Mater. 19, 1859-1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence," Adv. Mater. 17, 2974-2978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. D. Sala, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, G. Sotgiu, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white organic light-emitting devices from a single active molecular material," Adv. Mater. 17, 34-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater 16, 624-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Freitas, P. S.

L. Romaner, A. Pogantsch, P. S. De Freitas, U. Scherf, M. Gaal, E. Zojer, and E. J. W. List, "The origin of green emission in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers: On-chain defect fluorescence," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 597-601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. W. List, R. Guenter, P. S. De Freitas, and U. Scherf, "The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 374-378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S419-S424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J. F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305-2307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars and A. Heeger, "White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2664-2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Favaretto, L.

M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. D. Sala, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, G. Sotgiu, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white organic light-emitting devices from a single active molecular material," Adv. Mater. 17, 34-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fidaner, O.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J. F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305-2307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Findaner, O.

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater 16, 624-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, M.

L. Romaner, A. Pogantsch, P. S. De Freitas, U. Scherf, M. Gaal, E. Zojer, and E. J. W. List, "The origin of green emission in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers: On-chain defect fluorescence," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 597-601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geng, Y.

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species," Adv. Mater. 19, 1859-1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Molecular design on highly efficient white electroluminescence from a single-polymer system with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission," Adv. Mater. 19, 531-535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence," Adv. Mater. 17, 2974-2978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. D. Sala, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, G. Sotgiu, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white organic light-emitting devices from a single active molecular material," Adv. Mater. 17, 34-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X.

X. Gong, P. K. Iyer, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, A. J. Heeger, and S. S. Xiao, "Stabilized blue emission from polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes: Elimination of fluorenone defects," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 325-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, C.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grimsdale, C.

A. Kraft, C. Grimsdale, and A. B. Holmes, "Electroluminescent conjugated polymers—Seeing polymers in a new light, "Angew. Chem. 37, 402-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grisoria, R.

R. Grisoria, G. P. Suranna, P. Mastrorilli, and C. F. Nobile, "Inside into the role of oxidation in the thermally induced green band in fluorene-based systems," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 538-548 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guenter, R.

E. J. W. List, R. Guenter, P. S. De Freitas, and U. Scherf, "The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 374-378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J. F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305-2307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A.

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars and A. Heeger, "White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2664-2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, P. K. Iyer, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, A. J. Heeger, and S. S. Xiao, "Stabilized blue emission from polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes: Elimination of fluorenone defects," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 325-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heliotis, G.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hide, F.

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars and A. Heeger, "White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2664-2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holder, E.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

K. A. Murray, A. B. Holmes, S. C. Moratti, and G. Rumbles, "Conformational changes in regioregular polythiopenes due to thermal crosslinking," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2109-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Kraft, C. Grimsdale, and A. B. Holmes, "Electroluminescent conjugated polymers—Seeing polymers in a new light, "Angew. Chem. 37, 402-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater 16, 624-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Q.

J. Luo, X. Li, Q. Hou, J. Peng, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light emission from a single copolymer: Fluorescent blue, green, and red chromophores on a conjugated polymer backbone," Adv. Mater. 19, 1113-1117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Houng, Y. M.

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huyal, I. O.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, P. K.

X. Gong, P. K. Iyer, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, A. J. Heeger, and S. S. Xiao, "Stabilized blue emission from polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes: Elimination of fluorenone defects," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 325-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, C. W.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light-emitting devices from a single polymer by mixing singlet and triplet emission," Adv. Mater. 18, 1769-1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jing, X.

J. Liu, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Molecular design on highly efficient white electroluminescence from a single-polymer system with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission," Adv. Mater. 19, 531-535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species," Adv. Mater. 19, 1859-1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence," Adv. Mater. 17, 2974-2978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kozodoy, P.

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars and A. Heeger, "White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2664-2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kraft, A.

A. Kraft, C. Grimsdale, and A. B. Holmes, "Electroluminescent conjugated polymers—Seeing polymers in a new light, "Angew. Chem. 37, 402-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, M.

M. Leclerc, "Polyfluorenes: Twenty years of progress," J. Polym. Sci. Part A: Polym. Chem. 39, 2867-2873 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, N.

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

J. Luo, X. Li, Q. Hou, J. Peng, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light emission from a single copolymer: Fluorescent blue, green, and red chromophores on a conjugated polymer backbone," Adv. Mater. 19, 1113-1117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

List, E. J. W.

L. Romaner, A. Pogantsch, P. S. De Freitas, U. Scherf, M. Gaal, E. Zojer, and E. J. W. List, "The origin of green emission in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers: On-chain defect fluorescence," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 597-601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. W. List, R. Guenter, P. S. De Freitas, and U. Scherf, "The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 374-378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Molecular design on highly efficient white electroluminescence from a single-polymer system with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission," Adv. Mater. 19, 531-535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species," Adv. Mater. 19, 1859-1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence," Adv. Mater. 17, 2974-2978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

J. Luo, X. Li, Q. Hou, J. Peng, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light emission from a single copolymer: Fluorescent blue, green, and red chromophores on a conjugated polymer backbone," Adv. Mater. 19, 1113-1117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D.

G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence," Adv. Mater. 17, 2974-2978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mastrorilli, P.

R. Grisoria, G. P. Suranna, P. Mastrorilli, and C. F. Nobile, "Inside into the role of oxidation in the thermally induced green band in fluorene-based systems," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 538-548 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mazzeo, M.

M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. D. Sala, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, G. Sotgiu, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white organic light-emitting devices from a single active molecular material," Adv. Mater. 17, 34-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mei, C.

G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J. F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305-2307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moratti, S. C.

K. A. Murray, A. B. Holmes, S. C. Moratti, and G. Rumbles, "Conformational changes in regioregular polythiopenes due to thermal crosslinking," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2109-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

X. Gong, P. K. Iyer, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, A. J. Heeger, and S. S. Xiao, "Stabilized blue emission from polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes: Elimination of fluorenone defects," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 325-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murray, K. A.

K. A. Murray, A. B. Holmes, S. C. Moratti, and G. Rumbles, "Conformational changes in regioregular polythiopenes due to thermal crosslinking," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2109-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mutlugun, E.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nizamoglu, S.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S419-S424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nobile, C. F.

R. Grisoria, G. P. Suranna, P. Mastrorilli, and C. F. Nobile, "Inside into the role of oxidation in the thermally induced green band in fluorene-based systems," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 538-548 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ozel, T.

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pei, J.

X.-H. Zhou, J.-C. Yan, and J. Pei, "Exploiting an Imidazole-Functionalized Polyfluorene Derivative as a Chemosensory Material," Macromolecules 37, 7078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.

J. Luo, X. Li, Q. Hou, J. Peng, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light emission from a single copolymer: Fluorescent blue, green, and red chromophores on a conjugated polymer backbone," Adv. Mater. 19, 1113-1117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pogantsch, A.

L. Romaner, A. Pogantsch, P. S. De Freitas, U. Scherf, M. Gaal, E. Zojer, and E. J. W. List, "The origin of green emission in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers: On-chain defect fluorescence," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 597-601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romaner, L.

L. Romaner, A. Pogantsch, P. S. De Freitas, U. Scherf, M. Gaal, E. Zojer, and E. J. W. List, "The origin of green emission in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers: On-chain defect fluorescence," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 597-601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rumbles, G.

K. A. Murray, A. B. Holmes, S. C. Moratti, and G. Rumbles, "Conformational changes in regioregular polythiopenes due to thermal crosslinking," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2109-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sabnis, V. A.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J. F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305-2307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sala, F. D.

M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. D. Sala, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, G. Sotgiu, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white organic light-emitting devices from a single active molecular material," Adv. Mater. 17, 34-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sari, E.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

L. Romaner, A. Pogantsch, P. S. De Freitas, U. Scherf, M. Gaal, E. Zojer, and E. J. W. List, "The origin of green emission in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers: On-chain defect fluorescence," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 597-601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. W. List, R. Guenter, P. S. De Freitas, and U. Scherf, "The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 374-378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shao, S.

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species," Adv. Mater. 19, 1859-1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sotgiu, G.

M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. D. Sala, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, G. Sotgiu, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white organic light-emitting devices from a single active molecular material," Adv. Mater. 17, 34-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stavrinou, P. N.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suranna, G. P.

R. Grisoria, G. P. Suranna, P. Mastrorilli, and C. F. Nobile, "Inside into the role of oxidation in the thermally induced green band in fluorene-based systems," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 538-548 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, N.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tu, G.

G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vitale, V.

M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. D. Sala, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, G. Sotgiu, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white organic light-emitting devices from a single active molecular material," Adv. Mater. 17, 34-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species," Adv. Mater. 19, 1859-1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Molecular design on highly efficient white electroluminescence from a single-polymer system with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission," Adv. Mater. 19, 531-535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence," Adv. Mater. 17, 2974-2978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

J. Liu, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Molecular design on highly efficient white electroluminescence from a single-polymer system with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission," Adv. Mater. 19, 531-535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species," Adv. Mater. 19, 1859-1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence," Adv. Mater. 17, 2974-2978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, J. M.

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, "On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: The roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 783-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T. C.

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S. S.

X. Gong, P. K. Iyer, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, A. J. Heeger, and S. S. Xiao, "Stabilized blue emission from polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes: Elimination of fluorenone defects," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 325-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

J. Liu, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Molecular design on highly efficient white electroluminescence from a single-polymer system with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission," Adv. Mater. 19, 531-535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species," Adv. Mater. 19, 1859-1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.-C.

X.-H. Zhou, J.-C. Yan, and J. Pei, "Exploiting an Imidazole-Functionalized Polyfluorene Derivative as a Chemosensory Material," Macromolecules 37, 7078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W.

J. Luo, X. Li, Q. Hou, J. Peng, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light emission from a single copolymer: Fluorescent blue, green, and red chromophores on a conjugated polymer backbone," Adv. Mater. 19, 1113-1117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, "On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: The roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 783-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. F.

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J. F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305-2307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.-F.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence," Adv. Mater. 17, 2974-2978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.-H.

X.-H. Zhou, J.-C. Yan, and J. Pei, "Exploiting an Imidazole-Functionalized Polyfluorene Derivative as a Chemosensory Material," Macromolecules 37, 7078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zojer, E.

L. Romaner, A. Pogantsch, P. S. De Freitas, U. Scherf, M. Gaal, E. Zojer, and E. J. W. List, "The origin of green emission in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers: On-chain defect fluorescence," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 597-601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (5)

G. Tu, C. Mei, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Highly efficient pure-white-light-emitting diodes from a single polymer: Polyfluorene with naphthalimide moieties," Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 101-106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Romaner, A. Pogantsch, P. S. De Freitas, U. Scherf, M. Gaal, E. Zojer, and E. J. W. List, "The origin of green emission in polyfluorene-based conjugated polymers: On-chain defect fluorescence," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 597-601 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, P. K. Iyer, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, A. J. Heeger, and S. S. Xiao, "Stabilized blue emission from polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes: Elimination of fluorenone defects," Adv. Funct. Mater. 13, 325-330 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhao, T. Cao, and J. M. White, "On the origin of green emission in polyfluorene polymers: The roles of thermal oxidation degradation and crosslinking," Adv. Funct. Mater. 14, 783-790 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Grisoria, G. P. Suranna, P. Mastrorilli, and C. F. Nobile, "Inside into the role of oxidation in the thermally induced green band in fluorene-based systems," Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 538-548 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater (1)

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, "Efficient organic electrophosphorescent white-light-emitting device with a triple doped emissive layer," Adv. Mater 16, 624-628 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (7)

J. Jiang, y. Xu, W. Yang, R. Guan, Z. Liu, H. Zhen, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light-emitting devices from a single polymer by mixing singlet and triplet emission," Adv. Mater. 18, 1769-1773 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazzeo, V. Vitale, F. D. Sala, M. Anni, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, G. Sotgiu, R. Cingolani, and G. Gigli, "Bright white organic light-emitting devices from a single active molecular material," Adv. Mater. 17, 34-39 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, X. Li, Q. Hou, J. Peng, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, "High-efficiency white-light emission from a single copolymer: Fluorescent blue, green, and red chromophores on a conjugated polymer backbone," Adv. Mater. 19, 1113-1117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. Zhou, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, D. Ma, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "The first single polymer with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission for white electroluminescence," Adv. Mater. 17, 2974-2978 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "Molecular design on highly efficient white electroluminescence from a single-polymer system with simultaneous blue, green, and red emission," Adv. Mater. 19, 531-535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, S. Shao, L. Chen, Z. Xie, Y. Cheng, Y. Geng, L. Wang, X. Jing, and F. Wang, "White electroluminescence from a single polymer system: Improved performance by means of enhanced efficiency and red-shifted luminescence of the blue-light-emitting species," Adv. Mater. 19, 1859-1863 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. W. List, R. Guenter, P. S. De Freitas, and U. Scherf, "The effect of keto defect sites on the emission properties of polyfluorene-type materials," Adv. Mater. 14, 374-378 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. (1)

A. Kraft, C. Grimsdale, and A. B. Holmes, "Electroluminescent conjugated polymers—Seeing polymers in a new light, "Angew. Chem. 37, 402-428 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

F. Hide, P. Kozodoy, S. P. DenBaars and A. Heeger, "White light from InGaN/conjugated polymer hybrid light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2664-2666 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. D. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Findaner, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, J. F. Zheng, N. Li, T. C. Wu, H. T. Chen, and Y. M. Houng, "Optically-controlled electroabsorption modulators for unconstrained wavelength conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 469-471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Multifunctional integrated photonic switches," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 86 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, J. F. Zheng, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, "Scalable wavelength-converting crossbar switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2305-2307 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

K. A. Murray, A. B. Holmes, S. C. Moratti, and G. Rumbles, "Conformational changes in regioregular polythiopenes due to thermal crosslinking," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2109-2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S419-S424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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M. Leclerc, "Polyfluorenes: Twenty years of progress," J. Polym. Sci. Part A: Polym. Chem. 39, 2867-2873 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

X.-H. Zhou, J.-C. Yan, and J. Pei, "Exploiting an Imidazole-Functionalized Polyfluorene Derivative as a Chemosensory Material," Macromolecules 37, 7078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (2)

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

T. A. Skotheim and R. L. Elsenbaumer, Handbook of Conducting Polymers (Marcel Dekker, 1998).

E. F. Schubert and G. C. Frye, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Tsao, "Solid-state lighting," IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 28-37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

PFB, bromide functionalized polyfluorene, poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-co-alt-(9,9-bis-(6-bromohexyl)fluorene)] Yield: 1.1 g, 64%. IR (KBr, cm-1): 3065 (CH-), 2935 (CH-), 2859 (CH-), 1613 (C= C-), 1571 (C=C-), 727 (C-Br). 1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δH 7.85 (m, 12H), 3.32 (t, 4H, J=6 Hz), 2.16 (m, 4H), 1.71 (m, 4H), 1.22 (m, 24H), 0.84 (m, 14H). Gel-permeation chromatography (GPC): Mn= 3.87 x 103, Mw= 2.04 x 104 (Polystyrene as standard). Fluorescence quantum yield (FQY): 0.88 (Quinine sulfate as the standard).

PFA, azide functionalized polyfluorene, poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-co-alt-(9,9-bis-(6-azidohexyl)fluorene)] Yield: 205 mg, 75%. IR (KBr, cm-1): 3065 (CH-), 2935 (CH-), 2859 (CH-), 2100 (-N3), 1613 (C=C-), 1571 (C=C-). 1H-NMR (400 MHZ, CDCl3) δH 7.78 (m, 12H), 3.17 (m, 4H), 1.95 (m, 4H), 1.7 (m, 4H), 1.20 (m, 8H), 0.65 (m, 4H, f). Gel-permeation chromatography (GPC): Mn= 3.61 x 103, Mw= 2.04 x 104 (Polystyrene as standard). Fluorescence quantum yield (FQY): 0.86 (Quinine sulfate as the standard).

Pierce, "Light sources and conditions of aryl azide crosslinking and labeling reagents," http://www.piercenet.com/files/TR0011dh5-Photoactivate-aryl-azides.pdf.

J. March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, (Wiley Interscience, 1992).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

White emitting azide functionalized polyfluorene hybridized on n-UV LEDs shown with three implementations operating in the white region of CIE chromaticity diagram (inset: a photograph of high-quality white light emission from PFA).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Synthesis of poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-co-alt-(9,9-bis-(6-bromohexyl)fluorene)] (PFB) and poly[(9,9-dihexylfluorene)-co-alt-(9,9-bis-(6-azidohexyl)fluorene)] (PFA).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electroluminescence (EL) of our fully fabricated n-UV LED with its EL peak at 378 nm and a full width at half maximum of 20 nm, along with its micrograph in the inset.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Absorption and fluorescence spectra of PFA and (b) PFB in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution (dashed) and in film (solid).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Tristimulus color coordinates of (a) PFB-hybridized LED (Control) with CRI of 53 and (b) PFA-hybridized LED (Sample 3) with CRI of 91 respectively, along with their optical emission spectra in the inset when their respective integrating LEDs are electrically driven.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Successive heat treatment of PFA thin film in air.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Fluorescence spectra of (a) PF, (b) PFB, and (c) PFA when pristine (in blue) and after heat treatment at 220 °C for 2 h under argon (in red).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Chromaticity coordinates, color temperature, and color rendering index.

Equations (1)

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η c = f α η PL + ( 1 f α ) = 1 f α ( 1 η PL )

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