Abstract

Refractive index (RI) sensors based on optical resonance techniques are receiving a high degree of attention because of the need to develop simple, low-cost, high-throughput detection technologies for a number of applications. While the sensing mechanism of most of the reported RI sensors is similar, the construction is quite different from technique to technique. It is desirable to have a uniform mechanism for comparing the various RI sensing techniques, but to date there exists a degree of variation as to how the sensing performance is quantified. Here we set forth a rigorous definition for the detection limit of resonant RI sensors that accounts for all parameters that affect the detection performance. Our work will enable a standard approach for quantifying and comparing the performance of optical resonance-based RI sensors. Additionally, it will lead to design strategies for performance improvement of RI sensors.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Z. Wang and D. J. Bornhop, "Dual-capillary backscatter interferometry for high-sensitivity nanoliter-volume refractive index detection with density gradient compensation," Anal. Chem. 77, 7872-7877 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Lee and P. M. Fauchet, "Two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal based biosensing platform for protein detection," Opt. Express 15, 4530-4535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals - enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid.Nanofluid. 3 (2007). DOI: 10.1007/s10404-007-0203-2

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale and X. Fan, "Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors," Opt. Express 15, 9139-9146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Zamora, A. Díez, M. V. Andrés and B. Gimeno, "Refractometric sensor based on whispering-gallery modes of thin capillaries," Opt. Express 15, 12011-12016 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Allsop, R. Neal, S. Rehman, D. J. Webb, D. Mapps, and I. Bennion, "Generation of infrared surface plasmon resonances with high refractive index sensitivity utilizing tilted fiber Bragg gratings," Appl. Opt. 46, 5456-5460 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sumetsky, R. S. Windeler, Y. Dulashko and X. Fan, "Optical liquid ring resonator sensor," Opt. Express 15, 14376-14381 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström and M. Holgado, "Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor," Opt. Lett. 32, 3080-3082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Suter, I. M. White, H. Zhu and X. Fan, "Thermal characterization of liquid core optical ring resonator sensors," App. Opt. 46, 389-396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Han and A. Wang, "Temperature compensation of optical microresonators using a surface layer with negative thermo-optic coefficient," Opt. Lett. 32, 1800-1802 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob and X. Fan, "Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis," Anal. Chem. 79, 930-937 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. M. Armani and K. J. Vahala, "Heavy water detection using ultra-high-Q microcavities," Opt. Lett. 31, 1896-1898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, A. Hale and D. J. DiGiovanni, "The microfiber loop rresonator: theory, experiment, and application," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 242-250 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby and O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Express 14, 8224-8231 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ksendzov and Y. Lin, "Integrated optics ring-resonator sensors for protein detection," Opt. Lett. 30, 3344-3346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang and D. J. Bornhop, "Dual-capillary backscatter interferometry for high-sensitivity nanoliter-volume refractive index detection with density gradient compensation," Anal. Chem. 77, 7872-7877 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, "Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity," Opt. Lett. 29, 1093-1095 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

D. Markov, D. Begari and D. J. Bornhop, "Breaking the 10-7 Barrier for RI measurements in nanoliter volumes," Anal. Chem. 74, 5438-5441 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, I. Koudela and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Pfeifer, U. Aldinger, G. Schwotzer, S. Diekmann and P. Steinrucke, "Real time sensing of specific molecular binding using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 54, 166-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993

Aldinger, U.

P. Pfeifer, U. Aldinger, G. Schwotzer, S. Diekmann and P. Steinrucke, "Real time sensing of specific molecular binding using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 54, 166-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aldridge, O. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

Andrés, M. V.

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

Arnold, S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Barrios, C. A.

Begari, D.

D. Markov, D. Begari and D. J. Bornhop, "Breaking the 10-7 Barrier for RI measurements in nanoliter volumes," Anal. Chem. 74, 5438-5441 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

Bornhop, D. J.

Z. Wang and D. J. Bornhop, "Dual-capillary backscatter interferometry for high-sensitivity nanoliter-volume refractive index detection with density gradient compensation," Anal. Chem. 77, 7872-7877 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Markov, D. Begari and D. J. Bornhop, "Breaking the 10-7 Barrier for RI measurements in nanoliter volumes," Anal. Chem. 74, 5438-5441 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chao, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chow, E.

Chu, S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

Dale, P. S.

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diekmann, S.

P. Pfeifer, U. Aldinger, G. Schwotzer, S. Diekmann and P. Steinrucke, "Real time sensing of specific molecular binding using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 54, 166-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Díez, A.

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Dufva, M.

Dulashko, Y.

Fan, X.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale and X. Fan, "Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors," Opt. Express 15, 9139-9146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sumetsky, R. S. Windeler, Y. Dulashko and X. Fan, "Optical liquid ring resonator sensor," Opt. Express 15, 14376-14381 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Suter, I. M. White, H. Zhu and X. Fan, "Thermal characterization of liquid core optical ring resonator sensors," App. Opt. 46, 389-396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob and X. Fan, "Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis," Anal. Chem. 79, 930-937 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

Fini, J. M.

Fung, W.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gimeno, B.

Girolami, G.

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Griol, A.

Grot, A.

Guo, L. J.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

Hale, A.

Han, M.

Hanumegowda, N. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoiby, P. E.

Holgado, M.

Holler, S.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, I. Koudela and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

Khoshsima, M.

King, O.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kou, L.

Koudela, I.

J. Homola, I. Koudela and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ksendzov, A.

Labrie, D.

Lee, M.

Lin, Y.

Little, B. E.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mapps, D.

Markov, D.

D. Markov, D. Begari and D. J. Bornhop, "Breaking the 10-7 Barrier for RI measurements in nanoliter volumes," Anal. Chem. 74, 5438-5441 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Mortensen, N. A.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals - enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid.Nanofluid. 3 (2007). DOI: 10.1007/s10404-007-0203-2

Neal, R.

Patel, B. C.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals - enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid.Nanofluid. 3 (2007). DOI: 10.1007/s10404-007-0203-2

Pedersen, L. H.

Pfeifer, P.

P. Pfeifer, U. Aldinger, G. Schwotzer, S. Diekmann and P. Steinrucke, "Real time sensing of specific molecular binding using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 54, 166-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rehman, S.

Rindorf, L.

Sánchez, B.

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwotzer, G.

P. Pfeifer, U. Aldinger, G. Schwotzer, S. Diekmann and P. Steinrucke, "Real time sensing of specific molecular binding using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 54, 166-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M.

Sohlström, H.

Steinrucke, P.

P. Pfeifer, U. Aldinger, G. Schwotzer, S. Diekmann and P. Steinrucke, "Real time sensing of specific molecular binding using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 54, 166-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stica, C. J.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Suter, J. D.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale and X. Fan, "Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors," Opt. Express 15, 9139-9146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob and X. Fan, "Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis," Anal. Chem. 79, 930-937 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Suter, I. M. White, H. Zhu and X. Fan, "Thermal characterization of liquid core optical ring resonator sensors," App. Opt. 46, 389-396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

Unlu, M. S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

Walker, C.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and D. J. Bornhop, "Dual-capillary backscatter interferometry for high-sensitivity nanoliter-volume refractive index detection with density gradient compensation," Anal. Chem. 77, 7872-7877 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, D. J.

White, I. M.

J. D. Suter, I. M. White, H. Zhu and X. Fan, "Thermal characterization of liquid core optical ring resonator sensors," App. Opt. 46, 389-396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob and X. Fan, "Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis," Anal. Chem. 79, 930-937 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale and X. Fan, "Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors," Opt. Express 15, 9139-9146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Xiao, S.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals - enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid.Nanofluid. 3 (2007). DOI: 10.1007/s10404-007-0203-2

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, I. Koudela and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zamora, V.

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, P. S. Dale and X. Fan, "Analysis of biomolecule detection with optofluidic ring resonator sensors," Opt. Express 15, 9139-9146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Suter, I. M. White, H. Zhu and X. Fan, "Thermal characterization of liquid core optical ring resonator sensors," App. Opt. 46, 389-396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob and X. Fan, "Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis," Anal. Chem. 79, 930-937 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zourob, M.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob and X. Fan, "Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis," Anal. Chem. 79, 930-937 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

H. Zhu, I. M. White, J. D. Suter, M. Zourob and X. Fan, "Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis," Anal. Chem. 79, 930-937 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Markov, D. Begari and D. J. Bornhop, "Breaking the 10-7 Barrier for RI measurements in nanoliter volumes," Anal. Chem. 74, 5438-5441 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang and D. J. Bornhop, "Dual-capillary backscatter interferometry for high-sensitivity nanoliter-volume refractive index detection with density gradient compensation," Anal. Chem. 77, 7872-7877 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

App. Opt.

J. D. Suter, I. M. White, H. Zhu and X. Fan, "Thermal characterization of liquid core optical ring resonator sensors," App. Opt. 46, 389-396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker and A. Scherer, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. M. White and X. Fan, "Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C.-Y. Chao, W. Fung and L. J. Guo, "Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 134-142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, O. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu and B. B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 148-155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nanofluid.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals - enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid.Nanofluid. 3 (2007). DOI: 10.1007/s10404-007-0203-2

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators B

J. Homola, I. Koudela and S. S. Yee, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors based on diffraction gratings and prism couplers: sensitivity comparison," Sens. Actuators B 54, 16-24 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Pfeifer, U. Aldinger, G. Schwotzer, S. Diekmann and P. Steinrucke, "Real time sensing of specific molecular binding using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Sens. Actuators B 54, 166-175 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(A). Optical RI sensors typically utilize an optical resonance that has a resonant wavelength dependent upon the RI of the sample. When the sample RI changes, the mode shifts spectrally. (B). The RI sensitivity is determined by measuring the spectral shift of the resonant mode for known changes in sample RI.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(A). Lorentzian mode amplitude with Gaussian noise added for SNR of 40 dB and 60 dB (SNR=peak power of signal divided by variance of noise distribution). (B). Results of Monte Carlo simulations over a range of Q-factors and amplitude noise variances. Circles are the results of the numerical simulations; lines are the approximation given by Eq. (3). Simulation was run for 400,000 iterations for each Q-factor and SNR. Spectral precision in the simulation is the 0.001 of the mode linewidth (results change very little when using an improved resolution of 0.0005 of the mode linewidth).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(A). Lorentzian mode of a ring resonator with η=0.01 or η=0.05. λ=1550, Q0=108, α=1000 m-1. (B) Calculated DL using Eqs. (3) and (4) for η=0.01, η=0.05, and η=0.1. For solid lines, only the mode amplitude noise is considered. For the dashed lines, temperature-induced spectral fluctuation with σ=10 fm is also considered. λ=1550, Q0=108, SNR=60 dB.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Examples of demonstrated RI sensitivity for various RI sensing technologies.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of the detection limit of two different resonant modes with largely differing Q-factor and RI sensitivity.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ λ = η Δ n s λ n eff
DL = R S .
σ Δ λ 4.5 ( SNR 0.25 )
ηα = 2 π n λ Q α
δ λ λ = σ p α ex 2 π n m 2 n s 2 ε 0 λ 2 n m n s 2 S .
S B = δ λ σ p .

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