Abstract

We report on fs-laser micromachining of active waveguides in a new erbium-doped phospho-tellurite glass by means of a compact cavity-dumped Yb-based writing system. The spectroscopic properties of the glass were investigated, and the fs-laser written waveguides were characterized in terms of passive as well as active performance. In particular, internal gain was demonstrated in the whole C+L band of optical communications (1530–1610 nm).

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

P. Nandi, G. Jose, C. Jayakrishnan, S. Debbarma, K. Chalapathi, K. Alti, A. K. Dharmadhikari, J. A. Dharmadhikari, and D. Mathur, "Femtosecond laser written channel waveguides in tellurite glass," Opt. Express 14, 12145-12150 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer and E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

1997 (1)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

1979 (1)

J.-I. Sakai, T. Kimura, "Practical Microbending Loss Formula for Single-Mode Optical Fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 15, 497-500 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alti, K.

Arai, A.

Banyasz, I.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Barneschi, S.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Bookey, H. T.

Borrelli, N. F.

Bovatsek, J.

Brenci, M.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Cerullo, G.

Chalapathi, K.

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

Conti, G. N.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Cremona, M.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Davis, K. M.

De Silvestri, S.

Debbarma, S.

Della Valle, G.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

Dharmadhikari, J. A.

Dörring, J.

Eaton, S.

Ehrt, D.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Fallnich, C.

Ferrari, M.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, I.

Hayden, J. S.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P.

Hirao, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoshino, K.

Huser, T. R.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, H.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Itoh, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jayakrishnan, C.

Jha, A.

Jose, G.

Kanamori, T.

Kar, A. K.

Killi, A.

Kimura, T.

J.-I. Sakai, T. Kimura, "Practical Microbending Loss Formula for Single-Mode Optical Fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 15, 497-500 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

Kopf, D.

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Krol, D. M.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1559-1567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, M.

Lederer, M. J.

Marangoni, M.

Mathur, D.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer and E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

Minoshima, K.

Mitsuyu, T.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montereali, R. M.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Morgner, U.

Mori, A.

Nandi, P.

Ohishi, Y.

Oikawa, K.

Osellame, R.

Pelli, S.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Polli, D.

Psaila, N. D.

Qiu, J.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

Ramponi, R.

Righini, G. C.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Risbud, S. H.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, J.-I.

J.-I. Sakai, T. Kimura, "Practical Microbending Loss Formula for Single-Mode Optical Fibers," J. Quantum Electron. 15, 497-500 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Schaffer, C. B.

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer and E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sebastiani, S.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Shah, L.

Shen, S.

Shikano, K.

Shimizu, M.

Steinmann, A.

Streltsov, A.

Sugimoto, N.

Sundaram, S. K.

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer and E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, and O. Svelto, "Waveguide lasers in the C-band fabricated by laser inscription with a compact femtosecond oscillator," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 277-285 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

Takahashi, M.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, R. R.

Tokuda, Y.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tosello, C.

G. C. Righini, I. Banyasz, S. Barneschi, M. Brenci, M. Cremona, D. Ehrt, M. Ferrari, R. M. Montereali, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Sebastiani, and C. Tosello, "Laser irradiation, ion implantation and e-beam writing of integrated optical structures," Proc. SPIE 5840, 649-657 (2005).

Watanabe, W.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoko, T.

Y. Tokuda, M. Saito, M. Takahashi, K. Yamada, W. Watanabe, K. Itoh, and T. Yoko, "Waveguide formation in niobium tellurite glases by pico- and femtosecond laser pulses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 326, 472-475 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, F.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Phys. A (1)

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer and E. Mazur, "Microexplosions in tellurite glasses," Appl. Phys. A 76, 379-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu and K. Hirao, "Photowritten optical waveguides in various glasses with ultrashort pulse laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329-3331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Color online) (a) Absorbance spectrum of the bulk glass. (b) Absorption cross section (red) and emission cross section (black) of the 4I13/2 ←→ 4I15/2 erbium transition.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color online) (a) DIC microscope images, cross-sections and top views, of the waveguides written with a speed of 0.1 mm/s. (b) Comparison between the waveguide cross-section when the scan speed is increased from 0.1 mm/s to 1 mm/s at a constant pulse energy of 420 nJ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online) (a) 3D near-field mode pattern of the active waveguide at 1600 nm. (b) Near-field mode profiles of the waveguide (black solid lines) compared to near-field mode profiles of standard SMF-28 fiber (red dashed lines) along horizontal direction (x-axis) and vertical direction (y-axis).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Color online) Experimental setup for active waveguide characterization.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Color online) (a) Measured absorption spectrum (red) of the 25-mm long active waveguide and internal gain (blue solid line and circles) at 200 mW incident pump power. (b) Internal gain at 1555 nm (circles), 1534 nm (squares) and 1590 nm (triangles) as a function of incident pump power.

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