Abstract

In this study, a hollow bent waveguide with distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) in silicon substrate was presented theoretically and experimentally. We used the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method to simulate bending transmission efficiencies for arc- and cut-type 90°-bent waveguides. The air core was embedded by Si 3N4/SiO2 multilayer. The multilayer stacks were deposited by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on the top and bottom of air core. The lowest 90 degree bending loss is around 3.9dB for the arc-type bending waveguides and 0.8dB for cut-type bending waveguides, respectively. This waveguide demonstrates a possibility for higher density of integration in planar light wave circuits.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Campopiano, R. Bernini, L. Zeni, and P. M. Sarro, "Microfluidic sensor based on integrated optical hollow waveguide," Opt. Lett. 29, 1894-1896 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

S. S. Lo, C.-C. Chen, S.-C. Hsu, and C.-Y Liu, "Fabricating a hollow optical waveguide for optical communication applications," IEEE J. MEMS. 15, 584 (2006).

F. Koyama, T. Miura, and Y. Sakurai, "Tunable hollow waveguides and their applications for photonic integrated circuits," Electron. Commun. Jpn,  29, 9-19 (2006).

Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Sharp bending of on-chip silicon Bragg cladding waveguide with light guiding in low index core materials," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1345-1348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. Schmidt, Y. Dongliang, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguidearrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron,  11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Lo, H.-K. Chiu, and C.-C. Chen, "Fabricating lower loss hollow optical waveguide via amorphous silicon bonding using dilute KOH solvent," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-oninsulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Tang, W. H. Wang, T. Li, and Y. L. Wang, "Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 68-70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulus, "High-density integrated optics," J. Lighwave Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendelowitz, and N. S. Subramanian, "Optical characteristicsof Teflon AF fluoroplastic materials," Opt. Eng. 31, 1982-1985 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, R. U.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-oninsulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, M. J. Steel, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "A study of high-index-contrast 90o waveguide bend structures," Opt. Express 8, 517-528 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiyama, S.

Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Sharp bending of on-chip silicon Bragg cladding waveguide with light guiding in low index core materials," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1345-1348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barber, J. P.

H. Schmidt, Y. Dongliang, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguidearrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron,  11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Sharp bending of on-chip silicon Bragg cladding waveguide with light guiding in low index core materials," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1345-1348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

Bouzaida, N.

Camarda, G. S.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-oninsulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

Cassan, E.

Chen, C. C.

Chen, C.-C.

S. S. Lo, C.-C. Chen, S.-C. Hsu, and C.-Y Liu, "Fabricating a hollow optical waveguide for optical communication applications," IEEE J. MEMS. 15, 584 (2006).

S.-S. Lo, H.-K. Chiu, and C.-C. Chen, "Fabricating lower loss hollow optical waveguide via amorphous silicon bonding using dilute KOH solvent," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Lo, M.-S. Wang, and C.-C. Chen, "Semiconductor hollow optical waveguides formed by omni-directional reflectors," Opt. Express 12, 6589 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, H.-K.

S.-S. Lo, H.-K. Chiu, and C.-C. Chen, "Fabricating lower loss hollow optical waveguide via amorphous silicon bonding using dilute KOH solvent," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dongliang, Y.

H. Schmidt, Y. Dongliang, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguidearrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron,  11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Sharp bending of on-chip silicon Bragg cladding waveguide with light guiding in low index core materials," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1345-1348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R. L.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-oninsulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, M. J. Steel, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "A study of high-index-contrast 90o waveguide bend structures," Opt. Express 8, 517-528 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulus, "High-density integrated optics," J. Lighwave Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulus, "High-density integrated optics," J. Lighwave Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, A. R.

H. Schmidt, Y. Dongliang, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguidearrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron,  11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heitzmann, M.

Hsu, S.-C.

S. S. Lo, C.-C. Chen, S.-C. Hsu, and C.-Y Liu, "Fabricating a hollow optical waveguide for optical communication applications," IEEE J. MEMS. 15, 584 (2006).

Ibanescu, M.

M. L. Povinelli, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Slow-light enhancement of radiation pressure in an omnidirectional-reflector waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1466-1468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. L. Povinelli, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Slow-light enhancement of radiation pressure in an omnidirectional-reflector waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1466-1468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulus, J. D.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulus, "High-density integrated optics," J. Lighwave Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

M. L. Povinelli, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Slow-light enhancement of radiation pressure in an omnidirectional-reflector waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1466-1468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulus, "High-density integrated optics," J. Lighwave Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Sharp bending of on-chip silicon Bragg cladding waveguide with light guiding in low index core materials," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1345-1348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, F.

F. Koyama, T. Miura, and Y. Sakurai, "Tunable hollow waveguides and their applications for photonic integrated circuits," Electron. Commun. Jpn,  29, 9-19 (2006).

Ladenois, S.

Laval, S.

Li, T.

Y. Z. Tang, W. H. Wang, T. Li, and Y. L. Wang, "Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 68-70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-Y

S. S. Lo, C.-C. Chen, S.-C. Hsu, and C.-Y Liu, "Fabricating a hollow optical waveguide for optical communication applications," IEEE J. MEMS. 15, 584 (2006).

Lo, S. S.

S. S. Lo and C. C. Chen, "1x2 Multimode interference couplers based on semiconductor hollow waveguides formed from omnidirectional reflectors,"Opt. Lett. 32, 1803-1805 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Lo, C.-C. Chen, S.-C. Hsu, and C.-Y Liu, "Fabricating a hollow optical waveguide for optical communication applications," IEEE J. MEMS. 15, 584 (2006).

Lo, S.-S.

S.-S. Lo, H.-K. Chiu, and C.-C. Chen, "Fabricating lower loss hollow optical waveguide via amorphous silicon bonding using dilute KOH solvent," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Lo, M.-S. Wang, and C.-C. Chen, "Semiconductor hollow optical waveguides formed by omni-directional reflectors," Opt. Express 12, 6589 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowry, J. H.

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendelowitz, and N. S. Subramanian, "Optical characteristicsof Teflon AF fluoroplastic materials," Opt. Eng. 31, 1982-1985 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulus, "High-density integrated optics," J. Lighwave Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Mendelowitz, J. S.

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendelowitz, and N. S. Subramanian, "Optical characteristicsof Teflon AF fluoroplastic materials," Opt. Eng. 31, 1982-1985 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miura, T.

F. Koyama, T. Miura, and Y. Sakurai, "Tunable hollow waveguides and their applications for photonic integrated circuits," Electron. Commun. Jpn,  29, 9-19 (2006).

Mollard, L.

Orobtchouk, R.

Osgood, R. M.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-oninsulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, M. J. Steel, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "A study of high-index-contrast 90o waveguide bend structures," Opt. Express 8, 517-528 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascal, D.

Pizzuto, F.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-oninsulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, M. J. Steel, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "A study of high-index-contrast 90o waveguide bend structures," Opt. Express 8, 517-528 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povinelli, M. L.

M. L. Povinelli, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Slow-light enhancement of radiation pressure in an omnidirectional-reflector waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1466-1468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rao, H.

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-oninsulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, Y.

F. Koyama, T. Miura, and Y. Sakurai, "Tunable hollow waveguides and their applications for photonic integrated circuits," Electron. Commun. Jpn,  29, 9-19 (2006).

Sarro, P. M.

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt, Y. Dongliang, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguidearrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron,  11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Subramanian, N. S.

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendelowitz, and N. S. Subramanian, "Optical characteristicsof Teflon AF fluoroplastic materials," Opt. Eng. 31, 1982-1985 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Tang, W. H. Wang, T. Li, and Y. L. Wang, "Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 68-70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, P. R.

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulus, "High-density integrated optics," J. Lighwave Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, M.-S.

Wang, W. H.

Y. Z. Tang, W. H. Wang, T. Li, and Y. L. Wang, "Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 68-70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. L.

Y. Z. Tang, W. H. Wang, T. Li, and Y. L. Wang, "Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 68-70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yi, Y.

Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Sharp bending of on-chip silicon Bragg cladding waveguide with light guiding in low index core materials," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1345-1348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeni, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. L. Povinelli, M. Ibanescu, S. G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Slow-light enhancement of radiation pressure in an omnidirectional-reflector waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1466-1468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Commun. Jpn (1)

F. Koyama, T. Miura, and Y. Sakurai, "Tunable hollow waveguides and their applications for photonic integrated circuits," Electron. Commun. Jpn,  29, 9-19 (2006).

IEEE J. MEMS. (1)

S. S. Lo, C.-C. Chen, S.-C. Hsu, and C.-Y Liu, "Fabricating a hollow optical waveguide for optical communication applications," IEEE J. MEMS. 15, 584 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

H. Schmidt, Y. Dongliang, J. P. Barber, and A. R. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguidearrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron,  11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Duan, and L. C. Kimerling, "Sharp bending of on-chip silicon Bragg cladding waveguide with light guiding in low index core materials," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1345-1348 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

R. U. Ahmad, F. Pizzuto, G. S. Camarda, R. L. Espinola, H. Rao, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., "Ultracompact corner-mirrors and T-branches in silicon-oninsulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 65-67 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Tang, W. H. Wang, T. Li, and Y. L. Wang, "Integrated waveguide turning mirror in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 68-70 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Lo, H.-K. Chiu, and C.-C. Chen, "Fabricating lower loss hollow optical waveguide via amorphous silicon bonding using dilute KOH solvent," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lighwave Technol. (1)

C. Manolatou, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, H. A. Haus, and J. D. Joannopoulus, "High-density integrated optics," J. Lighwave Technol. 17, 1682-1692 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. H. Lowry, J. S. Mendelowitz, and N. S. Subramanian, "Optical characteristicsof Teflon AF fluoroplastic materials," Opt. Eng. 31, 1982-1985 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Diagram of DBR structure (n1 and n2 are the index of refraction for Si3N4 and SiO2, respectively.) (b) Projected band structure of a multilayer film. The black lines indicate the light line. The partial band gap for operating frequency is indicated by dotted line.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic structures of bent waveguide of (a) arc-type bend and (b) cut-type bend.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated(solid lines) and experimented(dot lines) bending loss for different (a) radii of arc-type bending waveguide and (b) cut lengths of cut-type bending waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). SEM picture of the cross-sectional of device. (b) Far-field image of output side of device.

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