Abstract

Experimental results are reported demonstrating non-line of sight short-range ultraviolet communication link losses, and performance of photon counting detectors, operating in the solar blind spectrum regime. We employ light emitting diodes with divergent beams, a solar blind filter, and a wide field-of-view detector. Signal and noise statistics are characterized, and receiver performance is demonstrated. The effects of transmitter and receiver elevation angles, separation distance, and path loss are included.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

2007 (6)

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, "231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tut, M. Gokkavas, A. Inal, and E. Ozbay, "AlxGa1-xN-based avalanche photodiodes with high reproducible avalanche gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, "Extending the range and performance of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication links," Proc. SPIE 62310C, 1-12 (2006).

X. Guo, L. B. Rowland, G. T. Dunne, J. A. Fronheiser, P. M. Sandvik, A. L. Beck, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet separate absorption and multiplication 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 136-138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, X. Guo, D. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet 6H-SiC PIN avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2508-2510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Limb, D. Yoo, J. H. Ryou, W. Lee, S. C. Shen, and R. D. Dupuis, "GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with optical gain greater than 1000 grown on GaN substrates by meal-organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

M. Razeghi, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and photodetectors for UV communications," Proc. SPIE 5729, 30-40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, "Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication," Proc. SPIE 5796, 214-225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Razeghi, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and photodetectors for UV communications," Proc. SPIE 5729, 30-40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. M. Reilly, D. T. Moriarty, and J. A. Maynard, "Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks," Proc. SPIE 5611, 244-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, "4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315-1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. A. Shaw, J. Fitzgerald, M. L. Nischan, and P. W. Boettcher, "Collaborative sensing test bed and experiments," Proc. SPIE 5101, 27-38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and M. L. Nischan, "Demonstration system and applications for compact wireless ultraviolet communications," Proc. SPIE 5071, 241-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. A. Shaw and M. L. Nischan, "Short-range NLOS ultraviolet communication testbed and measurements," Proc. SPIE 4396, 31-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, "NLOS UV communication for distributed sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 4126, 83-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. D. Shute, "Electrodeless ultraviolet communications system," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 10(11), 2-7 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. Charles, B. Hughes, A. Erickson, J. Wilkins, and E. Teppo, "An ultraviolet laser based communication system for short range tactical applications," Proc. SPIE 2115, 79-86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1979 (1)

D. M. Reilly and C. Warde, "Temporal characteristics of single-scatter radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 69, 464-470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Abou-Galala, F.

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).

Adivarahan, V.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asif, M.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aslam, S.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, "4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315-1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beck, A. L.

X. Guo, L. B. Rowland, G. T. Dunne, J. A. Fronheiser, P. M. Sandvik, A. L. Beck, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet separate absorption and multiplication 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 136-138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, P. W.

G. A. Shaw, J. Fitzgerald, M. L. Nischan, and P. W. Boettcher, "Collaborative sensing test bed and experiments," Proc. SPIE 5101, 27-38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, L. B. Rowland, G. T. Dunne, J. A. Fronheiser, P. M. Sandvik, A. L. Beck, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet separate absorption and multiplication 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 136-138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, X. Guo, D. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet 6H-SiC PIN avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2508-2510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charles, B.

B. Charles, B. Hughes, A. Erickson, J. Wilkins, and E. Teppo, "An ultraviolet laser based communication system for short range tactical applications," Proc. SPIE 2115, 79-86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Z. Xu, H. Ding, B. M. Sadler, and G. Chen, "Analytical performance study of solar blind non-line-of-sight ultraviolet short-range communication links," Opt. Lett. 33, 1860-1862 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).

Chitnis, A. S.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

Dunne, G. T.

X. Guo, L. B. Rowland, G. T. Dunne, J. A. Fronheiser, P. M. Sandvik, A. L. Beck, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet separate absorption and multiplication 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 136-138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Limb, D. Yoo, J. H. Ryou, W. Lee, S. C. Shen, and R. D. Dupuis, "GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with optical gain greater than 1000 grown on GaN substrates by meal-organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, A.

B. Charles, B. Hughes, A. Erickson, J. Wilkins, and E. Teppo, "An ultraviolet laser based communication system for short range tactical applications," Proc. SPIE 2115, 79-86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fareed, Q.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, J.

G. A. Shaw, J. Fitzgerald, M. L. Nischan, and P. W. Boettcher, "Collaborative sensing test bed and experiments," Proc. SPIE 5101, 27-38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franz, D.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, "4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315-1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fronheiser, J. A.

X. Guo, L. B. Rowland, G. T. Dunne, J. A. Fronheiser, P. M. Sandvik, A. L. Beck, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet separate absorption and multiplication 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 136-138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaevski, M.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gokkavas, M.

T. Tut, M. Gokkavas, A. Inal, and E. Ozbay, "AlxGa1-xN-based avalanche photodiodes with high reproducible avalanche gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greisokh, D.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, "Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication," Proc. SPIE 5796, 214-225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, M. K.

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, "NLOS UV communication for distributed sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 4126, 83-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

X. Guo, L. B. Rowland, G. T. Dunne, J. A. Fronheiser, P. M. Sandvik, A. L. Beck, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet separate absorption and multiplication 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 136-138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, X. Guo, D. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet 6H-SiC PIN avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2508-2510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, "231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, B.

B. Charles, B. Hughes, A. Erickson, J. Wilkins, and E. Teppo, "An ultraviolet laser based communication system for short range tactical applications," Proc. SPIE 2115, 79-86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Inal, A.

T. Tut, M. Gokkavas, A. Inal, and E. Ozbay, "AlxGa1-xN-based avalanche photodiodes with high reproducible avalanche gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iyengar, M. A.

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, "NLOS UV communication for distributed sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 4126, 83-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kamata, N.

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, "231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Katona, T.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaushik, S.

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, "NLOS UV communication for distributed sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 4126, 83-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

J. B. Limb, D. Yoo, J. H. Ryou, W. Lee, S. C. Shen, and R. D. Dupuis, "GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with optical gain greater than 1000 grown on GaN substrates by meal-organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leonardi, M.

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).

Limb, J. B.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Limb, D. Yoo, J. H. Ryou, W. Lee, S. C. Shen, and R. D. Dupuis, "GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with optical gain greater than 1000 grown on GaN substrates by meal-organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, X. Guo, D. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet 6H-SiC PIN avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2508-2510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luettgen, M. R.

Maynard, J. A.

D. M. Reilly, D. T. Moriarty, and J. A. Maynard, "Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks," Proc. SPIE 5611, 244-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mcintosh, D.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, X. Guo, D. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet 6H-SiC PIN avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2508-2510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Model, J.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, "Extending the range and performance of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication links," Proc. SPIE 62310C, 1-12 (2006).

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, "Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication," Proc. SPIE 5796, 214-225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moriarty, D. T.

D. M. Reilly, D. T. Moriarty, and J. A. Maynard, "Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks," Proc. SPIE 5611, 244-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nischan, M. L.

G. A. Shaw, J. Fitzgerald, M. L. Nischan, and P. W. Boettcher, "Collaborative sensing test bed and experiments," Proc. SPIE 5101, 27-38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and M. L. Nischan, "Demonstration system and applications for compact wireless ultraviolet communications," Proc. SPIE 5071, 241-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw and M. L. Nischan, "Short-range NLOS ultraviolet communication testbed and measurements," Proc. SPIE 4396, 31-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, "NLOS UV communication for distributed sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 4126, 83-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, N.

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, "231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, T.

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, "231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

T. Tut, M. Gokkavas, A. Inal, and E. Ozbay, "AlxGa1-xN-based avalanche photodiodes with high reproducible avalanche gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

M. Razeghi, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and photodetectors for UV communications," Proc. SPIE 5729, 30-40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Razeghi, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and photodetectors for UV communications," Proc. SPIE 5729, 30-40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, D. M.

D. M. Reilly, D. T. Moriarty, and J. A. Maynard, "Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks," Proc. SPIE 5611, 244-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luettgen, J. H. Shapiro, and D. M. Reilly, "Non-line-of-sight single-scatter propagation model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1964-1972 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Reilly and C. Warde, "Temporal characteristics of single-scatter radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 69, 464-470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rowland, L. B.

X. Guo, L. B. Rowland, G. T. Dunne, J. A. Fronheiser, P. M. Sandvik, A. L. Beck, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet separate absorption and multiplication 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 136-138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ryou, J. H.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Limb, D. Yoo, J. H. Ryou, W. Lee, S. C. Shen, and R. D. Dupuis, "GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with optical gain greater than 1000 grown on GaN substrates by meal-organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sadler, B. M.

Sanderson, J. A.

Sandvik, P. M.

X. Guo, L. B. Rowland, G. T. Dunne, J. A. Fronheiser, P. M. Sandvik, A. L. Beck, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet separate absorption and multiplication 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 136-138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, J. H.

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. A.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, "Extending the range and performance of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication links," Proc. SPIE 62310C, 1-12 (2006).

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, "Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication," Proc. SPIE 5796, 214-225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, J. Fitzgerald, M. L. Nischan, and P. W. Boettcher, "Collaborative sensing test bed and experiments," Proc. SPIE 5101, 27-38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and M. L. Nischan, "Demonstration system and applications for compact wireless ultraviolet communications," Proc. SPIE 5071, 241-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw and M. L. Nischan, "Short-range NLOS ultraviolet communication testbed and measurements," Proc. SPIE 4396, 31-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, "NLOS UV communication for distributed sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 4126, 83-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S. C.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Limb, D. Yoo, J. H. Ryou, W. Lee, S. C. Shen, and R. D. Dupuis, "GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with optical gain greater than 1000 grown on GaN substrates by meal-organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shute, R. D.

R. D. Shute, "Electrodeless ultraviolet communications system," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 10(11), 2-7 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, A. M.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, "Extending the range and performance of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication links," Proc. SPIE 62310C, 1-12 (2006).

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, "Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication," Proc. SPIE 5796, 214-225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and M. L. Nischan, "Demonstration system and applications for compact wireless ultraviolet communications," Proc. SPIE 5071, 241-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, S.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teppo, E.

B. Charles, B. Hughes, A. Erickson, J. Wilkins, and E. Teppo, "An ultraviolet laser based communication system for short range tactical applications," Proc. SPIE 2115, 79-86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tut, T.

T. Tut, M. Gokkavas, A. Inal, and E. Ozbay, "AlxGa1-xN-based avalanche photodiodes with high reproducible avalanche gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Warde, C.

D. M. Reilly and C. Warde, "Temporal characteristics of single-scatter radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 69, 464-470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, M.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, "4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315-1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, J.

B. Charles, B. Hughes, A. Erickson, J. Wilkins, and E. Teppo, "An ultraviolet laser based communication system for short range tactical applications," Proc. SPIE 2115, 79-86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xin, X.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, "4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315-1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu and B. M. Sadler, "Ultraviolet communications: potential and state-of-the-art," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (2008).

Z. Xu, H. Ding, B. M. Sadler, and G. Chen, "Analytical performance study of solar blind non-line-of-sight ultraviolet short-range communication links," Opt. Lett. 33, 1860-1862 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).

Yan, F.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, "4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315-1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yatabe, T.

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, "231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, P. D.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, D.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Limb, D. Yoo, J. H. Ryou, W. Lee, S. C. Shen, and R. D. Dupuis, "GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with optical gain greater than 1000 grown on GaN substrates by meal-organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. H.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, "4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315-1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, "4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315-1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. B. Limb, D. Yoo, J. H. Ryou, W. Lee, S. C. Shen, and R. D. Dupuis, "GaN ultraviolet avalanche photodiodes with optical gain greater than 1000 grown on GaN substrates by meal-organic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 011112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Hirayama, T. Yatabe, N. Noguchi, T. Ohashi, and N. Kamata, "231-261 nm AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on AlN multilayer buffers grown by ammonia pulse-flow method on sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tut, M. Gokkavas, A. Inal, and E. Ozbay, "AlxGa1-xN-based avalanche photodiodes with high reproducible avalanche gain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 163506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. (1)

R. D. Shute, "Electrodeless ultraviolet communications system," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 10(11), 2-7 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Z. Xu and B. M. Sadler, "Ultraviolet communications: potential and state-of-the-art," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, (2008).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, "4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1315-1320 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Guo, L. B. Rowland, G. T. Dunne, J. A. Fronheiser, P. M. Sandvik, A. L. Beck, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet separate absorption and multiplication 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 136-138 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, X. Guo, D. McIntosh, and J. C. Campbell, "Demonstration of ultraviolet 6H-SiC PIN avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2508-2510 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

M. R. Luettgen, J. H. Shapiro, and D. M. Reilly, "Non-line-of-sight single-scatter propagation model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1964-1972 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Reilly and C. Warde, "Temporal characteristics of single-scatter radiation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 69, 464-470 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (11)

B. Charles, B. Hughes, A. Erickson, J. Wilkins, and E. Teppo, "An ultraviolet laser based communication system for short range tactical applications," Proc. SPIE 2115, 79-86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Razeghi, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and photodetectors for UV communications," Proc. SPIE 5729, 30-40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).

D. M. Reilly, D. T. Moriarty, and J. A. Maynard, "Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks," Proc. SPIE 5611, 244-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Razeghi, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and photodetectors for UV communications," Proc. SPIE 5729, 30-40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, M. L. Nischan, M. A. Iyengar, S. Kaushik, and M. K. Griffin, "NLOS UV communication for distributed sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 4126, 83-96 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw and M. L. Nischan, "Short-range NLOS ultraviolet communication testbed and measurements," Proc. SPIE 4396, 31-40 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, J. Fitzgerald, M. L. Nischan, and P. W. Boettcher, "Collaborative sensing test bed and experiments," Proc. SPIE 5101, 27-38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and M. L. Nischan, "Demonstration system and applications for compact wireless ultraviolet communications," Proc. SPIE 5071, 241-252 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and D. Greisokh, "Recent progress in short-range ultraviolet communication," Proc. SPIE 5796, 214-225 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, "Extending the range and performance of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication links," Proc. SPIE 62310C, 1-12 (2006).

Other (10)

D. E. Sunstein, "A scatter communications link at ultraviolet frequencies," B.S. Thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1968.

D. M. Reilly, "Atmospheric optical communications in the middle ultraviolet," M.S. Thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1976.

E. S. Fishburne, M. E. Neer, and G. Sandri, "Voice communication via scattered ultraviolet radiation," final report of Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., NJ, February 1976.

J. J. Puschell and R. Bayse, "High data rate ultraviolet communication systems for the tactical battlefield," in Proceedings of Tactical Communications Conf. (April 1990), pp. 253-267.

J. C. Campbell, H. D. Liu, D. McIntosh, and X. Bai, "SiC avalanche photodiodes," presented at the Intl. Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, College Park, Maryland, December 12-14, 2007.

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere: Scattering by Molecules and Particles (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1976).

Z. Xu, H. Ding, and G. Chen, "Non-line of sight atmospheric channel modeling in the solar blind ultraviolet regime," presented at the SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, Orlando, Florida, March 17-20, 2008.

Z. Xu, G. Chen, and F. Abou-Galala, "Performance of ultraviolet communications through the atmosphere," presented at the SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, Orlando, Florida, March 17-20, 2008.

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communications, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995).

G. L. Harvey, "A survey of ultraviolet communication systems," Naval Research Laboratory Technical Report, Washington D.C., March 13, 1964.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Solar blind NLOS UV communication test-bed [1].

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Distribution of solar radiation photon counts.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distribution of signal photon counts.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Path loss versus distance, for different Tx and Rx elevation angles.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Path loss versus Tx elevation angles for different Rx elevation angles.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Path loss versus Rx elevation angles for different Tx elevation angles.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

BER for varying SNR.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

BER versus Rx elevation angles for different Tx elevation angles.

Metrics