Abstract

We demonstrate supercontinuum generation in a highly nonlinear As2S3 chalcogenide planar waveguide which is dispersion engineered to have anomalous dispersion at near-infrared wavelengths. This waveguide is 60 mm long with a cross-section of 2 µm by 870 nm, resulting in a nonlinear parameter of 10/W/m and a dispersion of +29 ps/nm/km. Using pulses with a width of 610 fs and peak power of 68 W, we generate supercontinuum with a 30 dB bandwidth of 750 nm, in good agreement with theory.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. M. B. Cordeiro, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Engineering the dispersion of tapered fibers for supercontinuum generation with a 1064 nm pump laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1980-1982 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm," Electron. Lett 36, 53-55 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  8. E. C. Mägi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. E. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, and B. J. Eggleton, "Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in sub-wavelength diameter As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber tapers," Opt. Express 15, 10324-10329 (2007).
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  9. D.-I. Yeom, E. C. Mägi, M. R. E. Lamont, M. A. F. Roelens, L. Fu, and B. J. Eggleton, "Low-threshold supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear chalcogenide nanowires," Opt. Lett. 33, 660-662 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. V. G. Ta'eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits," Opt. Express 15, 9205-9221 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (8)

L. H. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, "Soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 391-393 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta'eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits," Opt. Express 15, 9205-9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. E. Lamont, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion engineering of highly nonlinear As2S3 waveguides for parametric gain and wavelength conversion," Opt. Express 15, 9458-9463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Mägi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. E. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, and B. J. Eggleton, "Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in sub-wavelength diameter As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber tapers," Opt. Express 15, 10324-10329 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Meier, W. S. Mohammed, A. Jugessur, L. Qian, M. Mojahedi, and J. S. Aitchison, "Group velocity inversion in AlGaAs nanowires," Opt. Express 15, 12755-12762 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, "Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration," Opt. Express 15, 14414-14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. W. Hsieh, X. G. Chen, X. P. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C. Y. Chou, F. N. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, "Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 15242-15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, S. X. Shen, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 15776-15781 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered bismuth silicate fibres," Electron. Lett 41, 795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. M. B. Cordeiro, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Engineering the dispersion of tapered fibers for supercontinuum generation with a 1064 nm pump laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1980-1982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, - (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm," Electron. Lett 36, 53-55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Aitchison, J. S.

Antoine, K.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm," Electron. Lett 36, 53-55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asimakis, S.

Baker, N. J.

Birks, T. A.

Bookey, H. T.

Brambilla, G.

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered bismuth silicate fibres," Electron. Lett 41, 795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D. A.

Cerullo, G.

Chen, X. G.

Chiodo, N.

Choi, D. Y.

Chou, C. Y.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

Dadap, J. I.

de Sterke, C. M.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Eggleton, B. J.

Feng, X.

Finazzi, V.

Finsterbusch, K.

Foster, M. A.

Frampton, K.

Frampton, K. E.

Fu, L.

Fu, L. B.

Gaeta, A. L.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M.

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, - (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, - (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, I. W.

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, - (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, H.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

Jugessur, A.

Kar, A. K.

Knight, J. C.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, - (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm," Electron. Lett 36, 53-55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, F.

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, - (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamont, M. R. E.

Leong, J. Y. Y.

Li, W.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Liu, X. P.

Lopez, C.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

Mägi, E. C.

Manolatou, C.

Meier, J.

Miller, A. C.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, W. S.

Mojahedi, M.

Monro, T. M.

Moore, R. C.

Moss, D. J.

Myneni, S.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, - (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm," Electron. Lett 36, 53-55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osellame, R.

Osgood, R. M.

Panoiu, N. C.

Pelusi, M. D.

Petropoulos, P.

Pope, A.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. H. V.

Psaila, N. D.

Qian, L.

Richardson, D. J.

Richardson, K.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

Roelens, M. A. F.

Russell, P. S. J.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Engineering the dispersion of tapered fibers for supercontinuum generation with a 1064 nm pump laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1980-1982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, - (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm," Electron. Lett 36, 53-55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

Schulte, A.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seal, S.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

Shen, S. X.

Silvestre, E.

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm," Electron. Lett 36, 53-55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ta'eed, V. G.

Thomson, R. R.

Turner, A. C.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

C. M. B. Cordeiro, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, "Engineering the dispersion of tapered fibers for supercontinuum generation with a 1064 nm pump laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 1980-1982 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, - (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm," Electron. Lett 36, 53-55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F. N.

Yeom, D. I.

Yeom, D.-I.

Yin, L. H.

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, - (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett (2)

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. Arriaga, E. Silvestre, and P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton effects in photonic crystal fibres at 850 nm," Electron. Lett 36, 53-55 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered bismuth silicate fibres," Electron. Lett 41, 795-797 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As--S--Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503-053511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (9)

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 4357-4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, P. Petropoulos, S. Asimakis, V. Finazzi, R. C. Moore, K. Frampton, F. Koizumi, D. J. Richardson, and T. M. Monro, "Bismuth glass holey fibers with high nonlinearity," Opt. Express 12, 5082-5087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta'eed, N. J. Baker, L. B. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits," Opt. Express 15, 9205-9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. E. Lamont, C. M. de Sterke, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion engineering of highly nonlinear As2S3 waveguides for parametric gain and wavelength conversion," Opt. Express 15, 9458-9463 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Mägi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. E. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, and B. J. Eggleton, "Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in sub-wavelength diameter As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber tapers," Opt. Express 15, 10324-10329 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Meier, W. S. Mohammed, A. Jugessur, L. Qian, M. Mojahedi, and J. S. Aitchison, "Group velocity inversion in AlGaAs nanowires," Opt. Express 15, 12755-12762 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, "Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration," Opt. Express 15, 14414-14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. W. Hsieh, X. G. Chen, X. P. Liu, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, C. Y. Chou, F. N. Xia, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, "Supercontinuum generation in silicon photonic wires," Opt. Express 15, 15242-15249 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, S. X. Shen, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Supercontinuum generation in an ultrafast laser inscribed chalcogenide glass waveguide," Opt. Express 15, 15776-15781 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett (1)

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Korn, "Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett.  88, - (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. V. Koonath, D. R. Solli, and B. Jalali, "Limiting Nature of Continuum Generation in Silicon," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFC4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the dispersion engineered As2S3 waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Dispersion of the As2S3 waveguide for both the fundamental TM and TE modes as calculated using RSoft FemSIM, compared to the material dispersion. The vertical dashed line denotes λ = 1550 nm. (b) The mode field for the fundamental TM mode (vertically polarized).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental set-up for measuring SC generation in the As2S3 waveguide. PC is the polarization controller, and OSA is the optical spectrum analyzer

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Experimental SC spectra for pulses of varying peak power coupled into the TE mode of the waveguide. (b) Simulated SC spectra for the same peak powers and polarization mode using the dispersion curves shown in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Experimental SC spectra for pulses of varying peak power coupled into the TM mode of the waveguide. (b) Simulated SC spectra for the same peak powers and polarization mode using the dispersion curves shown in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) SC spectrum for an input pulse with 68 W peak power, and (b) Spectral evolution for the same input pulse. The red horizontal lines indicate the -30 dB and -60 dB bandwidths.

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