Abstract

The capability to image tissue motion such as blood flow through an endoscope could have many applications in medicine. Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) is a recently introduced technique that utilizes a single optical fiber and miniature diffractive optics to obtain endoscopic images through small diameter probes. Using spectral-domain interferometry, SEE is furthermore capable of three-dimensional volume imaging at video rates. Here we show that by measuring relative spectral phases, this technology can additionally measure Doppler shifts. Doppler SEE is demonstrated in flowing Intralipid phantoms and vibrating middle ear ossicles.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. J. Rosowski, H. H. Nakajima, and S. N. Merchant, "Clinical utility of laser-Doppler vibrometer measurements in live normal and pathologic human ears," Ear Hear. 29, 3-19 (2008).

2007

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Stromberg, "Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 421-435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, "Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system," Opt. Express 15, 1627-1638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy," Opt. Express 15, 2432-2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Volumetric sub-surface imaging using spectrally encoded endoscopy," Opt. Express 16, 1748-1757 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Knutsson, and M. von Unge, "Five-year results for use of single-flanged tympanostomy tubes in children," J. Laryngol. Otol. Forthcoming, 1-6 (2007).

2006

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

V. X. D. Yang, Y. X. Mao, N. Munce, B. Standish, W. Kucharczyk, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 1791-1793 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. R. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, "Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879-890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Galea, V. Jain, and N. M. Fisk, "Insights into the pathophysiology of twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Prenat. Diagn. 25, 777-785 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. F. Harkness, and T. M. Crombleholme, "Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: Where do we go from here?," Semin. Perinatol. 29, 296-304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

2001

A. K. Dunn, T. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, "Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195-201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Briers, "Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging," Physiol. Meas. 22, R35-R66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Huber, C. Schwab, T. Linder, S. J. Stoeckli, M. Ferrazzini, N. Dillier, and U. Fisch, "Evaluation of eardrum laser Doppler interferometry as a diagnostic tool," Laryngoscope 111, 501-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

K. Hecher, H. Plath, T. Bregenzer, M. Hansmann, and B. J. Hackeloer, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amniocenteses in the treatment of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 180, 717-724 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Gray, R. B. Cincotta, and G. Phythian, "Long term outcome of twin to twin transfusion ('stuck twin') syndrome," Pediatr. Res. 45, 244A-244A (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. Ville, K. Hecher, A. Gagnon, N. Sebire, J. Hyett, and K. Nicolaides, "Endoscopic laser coagulation in the management of severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," B. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 105, 446-453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, R. H. Webb, and B. E. Bouma, "Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy," Opt. Lett. 23, 1152-1154 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J. A. Deprest, T. E. Lerut, and K. Vandenberghe, "Operative fetoscopy: New perspective in fetal therapy?," Prenat. Diagn. 17, 1247-1260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

K. Wardell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, "Laser-Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light-scattering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

A. L. Nuttall, D. F. Dolan, and G. Avinash, "Laser Doppler velocimetry of basilar-membrane vibration," Hear. Res. 51, 203-213 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

M. E. Tavin, M. Gordon, and R. J. Ruben, "Hearing results with the use of different tympanostomy tubes - a prospective study," Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 15, 39-50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avinash, G.

A. L. Nuttall, D. F. Dolan, and G. Avinash, "Laser Doppler velocimetry of basilar-membrane vibration," Hear. Res. 51, 203-213 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

A. K. Dunn, T. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, "Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195-201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolay, T.

A. K. Dunn, T. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, "Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195-201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

Y. M. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bregenzer, T.

K. Hecher, H. Plath, T. Bregenzer, M. Hansmann, and B. J. Hackeloer, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amniocenteses in the treatment of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 180, 717-724 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briers, J. D.

J. D. Briers, "Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging," Physiol. Meas. 22, R35-R66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z. P.

Cincotta, R. B.

P. H. Gray, R. B. Cincotta, and G. Phythian, "Long term outcome of twin to twin transfusion ('stuck twin') syndrome," Pediatr. Res. 45, 244A-244A (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cirocco, M.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. R. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, "Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879-890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crombleholme, T. M.

U. F. Harkness, and T. M. Crombleholme, "Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: Where do we go from here?," Semin. Perinatol. 29, 296-304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

Deprest, J.

L. Lewi, D. Van Schoubroeck, E. Gratacos, I. Witters, D. Timmerman, and J. Deprest, "Monochorionic diamniotic twins: complications and management options," Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 15, 177-194 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deprest, J. A.

J. A. Deprest, T. E. Lerut, and K. Vandenberghe, "Operative fetoscopy: New perspective in fetal therapy?," Prenat. Diagn. 17, 1247-1260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, A. E.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dillier, N.

A. M. Huber, C. Schwab, T. Linder, S. J. Stoeckli, M. Ferrazzini, N. Dillier, and U. Fisch, "Evaluation of eardrum laser Doppler interferometry as a diagnostic tool," Laryngoscope 111, 501-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolan, D. F.

A. L. Nuttall, D. F. Dolan, and G. Avinash, "Laser Doppler velocimetry of basilar-membrane vibration," Hear. Res. 51, 203-213 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

A. K. Dunn, T. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, "Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195-201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, J. A.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrazzini, M.

A. M. Huber, C. Schwab, T. Linder, S. J. Stoeckli, M. Ferrazzini, N. Dillier, and U. Fisch, "Evaluation of eardrum laser Doppler interferometry as a diagnostic tool," Laryngoscope 111, 501-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisch, U.

A. M. Huber, C. Schwab, T. Linder, S. J. Stoeckli, M. Ferrazzini, N. Dillier, and U. Fisch, "Evaluation of eardrum laser Doppler interferometry as a diagnostic tool," Laryngoscope 111, 501-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisk, N. M.

P. Galea, V. Jain, and N. M. Fisk, "Insights into the pathophysiology of twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Prenat. Diagn. 25, 777-785 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gagnon, A.

Y. Ville, K. Hecher, A. Gagnon, N. Sebire, J. Hyett, and K. Nicolaides, "Endoscopic laser coagulation in the management of severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," B. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 105, 446-453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galea, P.

P. Galea, V. Jain, and N. M. Fisk, "Insights into the pathophysiology of twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Prenat. Diagn. 25, 777-785 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardiner, G. R.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. R. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, "Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879-890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, M.

M. E. Tavin, M. Gordon, and R. J. Ruben, "Hearing results with the use of different tympanostomy tubes - a prospective study," Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 15, 39-50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, M. L.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. R. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, "Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879-890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part I): System design, signal processing, and performance," Opt. Express 11, 794-809 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratacos, E.

L. Lewi, D. Van Schoubroeck, E. Gratacos, I. Witters, D. Timmerman, and J. Deprest, "Monochorionic diamniotic twins: complications and management options," Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 15, 177-194 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, P. H.

P. H. Gray, R. B. Cincotta, and G. Phythian, "Long term outcome of twin to twin transfusion ('stuck twin') syndrome," Pediatr. Res. 45, 244A-244A (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haber, G. B.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. R. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, "Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879-890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hackeloer, B. J.

K. Hecher, H. Plath, T. Bregenzer, M. Hansmann, and B. J. Hackeloer, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amniocenteses in the treatment of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 180, 717-724 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansmann, M.

K. Hecher, H. Plath, T. Bregenzer, M. Hansmann, and B. J. Hackeloer, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amniocenteses in the treatment of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 180, 717-724 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harkness, U. F.

U. F. Harkness, and T. M. Crombleholme, "Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: Where do we go from here?," Semin. Perinatol. 29, 296-304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecher, K.

K. Hecher, H. Plath, T. Bregenzer, M. Hansmann, and B. J. Hackeloer, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amniocenteses in the treatment of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 180, 717-724 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ville, K. Hecher, A. Gagnon, N. Sebire, J. Hyett, and K. Nicolaides, "Endoscopic laser coagulation in the management of severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," B. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 105, 446-453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

Y. M. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, A. M.

A. M. Huber, C. Schwab, T. Linder, S. J. Stoeckli, M. Ferrazzini, N. Dillier, and U. Fisch, "Evaluation of eardrum laser Doppler interferometry as a diagnostic tool," Laryngoscope 111, 501-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Humeau, A.

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Stromberg, "Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 421-435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyett, J.

Y. Ville, K. Hecher, A. Gagnon, N. Sebire, J. Hyett, and K. Nicolaides, "Endoscopic laser coagulation in the management of severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," B. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 105, 446-453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Y. M. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time, high velocity-resolution color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 34-36 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jain, V.

P. Galea, V. Jain, and N. M. Fisk, "Insights into the pathophysiology of twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Prenat. Diagn. 25, 777-785 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jakobsson, A.

K. Wardell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, "Laser-Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light-scattering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J. Y.

Kandel, G.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. R. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, "Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879-890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knutsson, J.

J. Knutsson, and M. von Unge, "Five-year results for use of single-flanged tympanostomy tubes in children," J. Laryngol. Otol. Forthcoming, 1-6 (2007).

Kortan, P.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. R. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, "Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879-890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kucharczyk, W.

Lerut, T. E.

J. A. Deprest, T. E. Lerut, and K. Vandenberghe, "Operative fetoscopy: New perspective in fetal therapy?," Prenat. Diagn. 17, 1247-1260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lewi, L.

L. Lewi, D. Van Schoubroeck, E. Gratacos, I. Witters, D. Timmerman, and J. Deprest, "Monochorionic diamniotic twins: complications and management options," Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 15, 177-194 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linder, T.

A. M. Huber, C. Schwab, T. Linder, S. J. Stoeckli, M. Ferrazzini, N. Dillier, and U. Fisch, "Evaluation of eardrum laser Doppler interferometry as a diagnostic tool," Laryngoscope 111, 501-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

Lo, S.

Mao, Y. X.

Marcon, N. E.

V. X. D. Yang, Y. X. Mao, N. Munce, B. Standish, W. Kucharczyk, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "Interstitial Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 30, 1791-1793 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. R. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, "Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879-890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mariampillai, A.

Mehta, R. P.

J. J. Rosowski, R. P. Mehta, and S. N. Merchant, "Diagnostic utility of laser-Doppler vibrometry in conductive hearing loss with normal tympanic membrane," Otol. Neurotol. 24, 165-175 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Merchant, S. N.

J. J. Rosowski, H. H. Nakajima, and S. N. Merchant, "Clinical utility of laser-Doppler vibrometer measurements in live normal and pathologic human ears," Ear Hear. 29, 3-19 (2008).

J. J. Rosowski, R. P. Mehta, and S. N. Merchant, "Diagnostic utility of laser-Doppler vibrometry in conductive hearing loss with normal tympanic membrane," Otol. Neurotol. 24, 165-175 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mok, A.

Moskowitz, M. A.

A. K. Dunn, T. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, "Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195-201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy," Opt. Express 15, 2432-2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munce, N.

Munce, N. R.

Nakajima, H. H.

J. J. Rosowski, H. H. Nakajima, and S. N. Merchant, "Clinical utility of laser-Doppler vibrometer measurements in live normal and pathologic human ears," Ear Hear. 29, 3-19 (2008).

Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

Nicolaides, K.

Y. Ville, K. Hecher, A. Gagnon, N. Sebire, J. Hyett, and K. Nicolaides, "Endoscopic laser coagulation in the management of severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," B. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 105, 446-453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, G. E.

K. Wardell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, "Laser-Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light-scattering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, H.

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Stromberg, "Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 421-435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuttall, A. L.

A. L. Nuttall, D. F. Dolan, and G. Avinash, "Laser Doppler velocimetry of basilar-membrane vibration," Hear. Res. 51, 203-213 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pekar, J.

Phythian, G.

P. H. Gray, R. B. Cincotta, and G. Phythian, "Long term outcome of twin to twin transfusion ('stuck twin') syndrome," Pediatr. Res. 45, 244A-244A (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M. C.

Plath, H.

K. Hecher, H. Plath, T. Bregenzer, M. Hansmann, and B. J. Hackeloer, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amniocenteses in the treatment of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 180, 717-724 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. R. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, "Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879-890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. X. D. Yang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, J. Pekar, S. Lo, E. Seng-Yue, A. Mok, B. C. Wilson, and I. A. Vitkin, "High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part I): System design, signal processing, and performance," Opt. Express 11, 794-809 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randall, C.

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

Rosowski, J. J.

J. J. Rosowski, H. H. Nakajima, and S. N. Merchant, "Clinical utility of laser-Doppler vibrometer measurements in live normal and pathologic human ears," Ear Hear. 29, 3-19 (2008).

J. J. Rosowski, R. P. Mehta, and S. N. Merchant, "Diagnostic utility of laser-Doppler vibrometry in conductive hearing loss with normal tympanic membrane," Otol. Neurotol. 24, 165-175 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ruben, R. J.

M. E. Tavin, M. Gordon, and R. J. Ruben, "Hearing results with the use of different tympanostomy tubes - a prospective study," Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 15, 39-50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C.

Schwab, C.

A. M. Huber, C. Schwab, T. Linder, S. J. Stoeckli, M. Ferrazzini, N. Dillier, and U. Fisch, "Evaluation of eardrum laser Doppler interferometry as a diagnostic tool," Laryngoscope 111, 501-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sebire, N.

Y. Ville, K. Hecher, A. Gagnon, N. Sebire, J. Hyett, and K. Nicolaides, "Endoscopic laser coagulation in the management of severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," B. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 105, 446-453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seng-Yue, E.

Shishko, M.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Standish, B.

Standish, B. A.

Steenbergen, W.

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Stromberg, "Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 421-435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoeckli, S. J.

A. M. Huber, C. Schwab, T. Linder, S. J. Stoeckli, M. Ferrazzini, N. Dillier, and U. Fisch, "Evaluation of eardrum laser Doppler interferometry as a diagnostic tool," Laryngoscope 111, 501-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stromberg, T.

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Stromberg, "Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 421-435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, M. J.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Y. M. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S. J.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. R. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, "Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879-890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tavin, M. E.

M. E. Tavin, M. Gordon, and R. J. Ruben, "Hearing results with the use of different tympanostomy tubes - a prospective study," Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 15, 39-50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Timmerman, D.

L. Lewi, D. Van Schoubroeck, E. Gratacos, I. Witters, D. Timmerman, and J. Deprest, "Monochorionic diamniotic twins: complications and management options," Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 15, 177-194 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Schoubroeck, D.

L. Lewi, D. Van Schoubroeck, E. Gratacos, I. Witters, D. Timmerman, and J. Deprest, "Monochorionic diamniotic twins: complications and management options," Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 15, 177-194 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vandenberghe, K.

J. A. Deprest, T. E. Lerut, and K. Vandenberghe, "Operative fetoscopy: New perspective in fetal therapy?," Prenat. Diagn. 17, 1247-1260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ville, Y.

Y. Ville, K. Hecher, A. Gagnon, N. Sebire, J. Hyett, and K. Nicolaides, "Endoscopic laser coagulation in the management of severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," B. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 105, 446-453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, I. A.

von Unge, M.

J. Knutsson, and M. von Unge, "Five-year results for use of single-flanged tympanostomy tubes in children," J. Laryngol. Otol. Forthcoming, 1-6 (2007).

Wang, Y. M.

Y. M. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wardell, K.

K. Wardell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, "Laser-Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light-scattering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Westphal, V.

White, B. R.

White, W. M.

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy," Opt. Express 15, 2432-2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

Witters, I.

L. Lewi, D. Van Schoubroeck, E. Gratacos, I. Witters, D. Timmerman, and J. Deprest, "Monochorionic diamniotic twins: complications and management options," Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 15, 177-194 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, S. H.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yelin, D.

Yun, S. H.

D. Yelin, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Spectral-domain spectrally-encoded endoscopy," Opt. Express 15, 2432-2444 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. H.

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.

K. Hecher, H. Plath, T. Bregenzer, M. Hansmann, and B. J. Hackeloer, "Endoscopic laser surgery versus serial amniocenteses in the treatment of severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 180, 717-724 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Obstet. Gynecol.

Y. Ville, K. Hecher, A. Gagnon, N. Sebire, J. Hyett, and K. Nicolaides, "Endoscopic laser coagulation in the management of severe twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," B. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 105, 446-453 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.

L. Lewi, D. Van Schoubroeck, E. Gratacos, I. Witters, D. Timmerman, and J. Deprest, "Monochorionic diamniotic twins: complications and management options," Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol. 15, 177-194 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ear Hear.

J. J. Rosowski, H. H. Nakajima, and S. N. Merchant, "Clinical utility of laser-Doppler vibrometer measurements in live normal and pathologic human ears," Ear Hear. 29, 3-19 (2008).

Gastrointest. Endosc.

V. X. D. Yang, S. J. Tang, M. L. Gordon, B. Qi, G. R. Gardiner, M. Cirocco, P. Kortan, G. B. Haber, G. Kandel, I. A. Vitkin, B. C. Wilson, and N. E. Marcon, "Endoscopic Doppler optical coherence tomography in the human GI tract: initial experience," Gastrointest. Endosc. 61, 879-890 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W. Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. A. Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video)," Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898-905 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hear. Res.

A. L. Nuttall, D. F. Dolan, and G. Avinash, "Laser Doppler velocimetry of basilar-membrane vibration," Hear. Res. 51, 203-213 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

K. Wardell, A. Jakobsson, and G. E. Nilsson, "Laser-Doppler perfusion imaging by dynamic light-scattering," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40, 309-319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.

M. E. Tavin, M. Gordon, and R. J. Ruben, "Hearing results with the use of different tympanostomy tubes - a prospective study," Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 15, 39-50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Y. M. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.

A. K. Dunn, T. Bolay, M. A. Moskowitz, and D. A. Boas, "Dynamic imaging of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 21, 195-201 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laryngol. Otol.

J. Knutsson, and M. von Unge, "Five-year results for use of single-flanged tympanostomy tubes in children," J. Laryngol. Otol. Forthcoming, 1-6 (2007).

Laryngoscope

A. M. Huber, C. Schwab, T. Linder, S. J. Stoeckli, M. Ferrazzini, N. Dillier, and U. Fisch, "Evaluation of eardrum laser Doppler interferometry as a diagnostic tool," Laryngoscope 111, 501-507 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.

A. Humeau, W. Steenbergen, H. Nilsson, and T. Stromberg, "Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring and imaging: novel approaches," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 45, 421-435 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, "Three-dimensional miniature endoscopy," Nature 443, 765-765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Otol. Neurotol.

J. J. Rosowski, R. P. Mehta, and S. N. Merchant, "Diagnostic utility of laser-Doppler vibrometry in conductive hearing loss with normal tympanic membrane," Otol. Neurotol. 24, 165-175 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pediatr. Res.

P. H. Gray, R. B. Cincotta, and G. Phythian, "Long term outcome of twin to twin transfusion ('stuck twin') syndrome," Pediatr. Res. 45, 244A-244A (1999).
[CrossRef]

Physiol. Meas.

J. D. Briers, "Laser Doppler, speckle and related techniques for blood perfusion mapping and imaging," Physiol. Meas. 22, R35-R66 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Prenat. Diagn.

P. Galea, V. Jain, and N. M. Fisk, "Insights into the pathophysiology of twin-twin transfusion syndrome," Prenat. Diagn. 25, 777-785 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Deprest, T. E. Lerut, and K. Vandenberghe, "Operative fetoscopy: New perspective in fetal therapy?," Prenat. Diagn. 17, 1247-1260 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Semin. Perinatol.

U. F. Harkness, and T. M. Crombleholme, "Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: Where do we go from here?," Semin. Perinatol. 29, 296-304 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. G. Bussey, F. Luks, S. R. Carr, M. Plevyak, and T. F. Tracy, "Minimal-access fetal surgery for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome," Surg. Endosc. and other Interventional Techniques 18, 83-86 (2004).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the spectrally-encoded endoscopy system. ND - neutral density; SEE - spectrally encoded endoscopy.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the data processing for Doppler SEE. STFT - Short time Fourier transformation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intralipid flow by Doppler SEE. (a) Schematic of the single channel flow measurement configuration, showing the SEE probe with respect to the tube and the flow direction (red arrow). (b) Measured (solid curves) and calculated (dashed curves) cross-sectional flow velocities at the tube’s center (marked by a dashed line in (a)). (c) Two-dimensional, cross-sectional measurement of the intralipid flow within the tube at different average flow velocities.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Combined flow and average reflectance images of two 0.5 mm diameter tubes with (a) no flow, (b) similar magnitude, but opposite flow velocities, and (c) flow in opposite directions than (b).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured vibration frequency by SEE vs. frequency of the sinusoidal voltage waveform applied to the vibration actuator.. Dashed line corresponds to the case where measured frequency equals the applied frequency. Error bars correspond to the standard deviation of the calculated frequency distribution for each wavelength band in the spectrally encoded line (total of 100 measurements).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Images of vibrating excised human stapes. (a) The raw fringe data. (b) Magnified region of (a), marked by a white rectangle. (c) Reflectance image. (d) Height map where gray levels represent distance from the metal base. (e) A photograph of the stapes, shown for reference. H - stapes head; FP - foot plate; C - the anterior crus.

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