Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate that the the bandwidth of the supercontinuum spectrum generated in a large mode area sapphire fiber can be enhanced by employing triple pumping sources. Three pumping sources with wavelengths of 784nm, 1290nm, and 2000nm are launched into a single crystal sapphire fiber that is 5cm in length and has a core diameter of 115μm. The nonlinear interactions due to self-phase modulation and four-wave mixing form a broadband supercontinuum that covers the UV, visible, near-IR and lower mid-IR regions. Furthermore, we explore the possibility of generating a broadband supercontinuum expanding from the UV to far-IR region by increasing the number of pumping sources with wavelengths in the mid- and far-IR.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

D. M. Brown, K. Shi, Z. Liu and R. Philbrick, "Long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy for measurement of atmospheric constituents," Opt. Express 16, 8457-8471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1113-1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, M.-K. Chen, C.-E. Yang, J. Lee, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Broadband IR supercontinuum generation using single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Express 16, 4085-4093 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Räikkönen, S. C. Buchter, and M. Kaivola, "Generation of monochromatic visible light in microstructured optical fiber by nondegenerate four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. B 91, 461-465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

V. Tombelaine, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, "Visible supercontinuum generation in holey fibers by dual-wavelength subnanosecond pumping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2466-2468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, M. Kaivola, K. P. Hansen and S. C. Buchter, "Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 7914-7923 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zhang, J. Teipel, and H. Giessen, "Theoretical design of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 14, 6800-6812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russel, "Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 530nm to 3um in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, and F. J. Terry, Jr, "Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5?m in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping," Opt. Lett. 31, 2553-2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russel, "Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350nm to 3?m in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shi, S. H. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin and Z. Liu, "Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum," Opt. Commun. 263, 156-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

2002

V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto and A. J. Taylor, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultraband supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10, 1520-1525 (2002).

S. T. Sanders, "Wavelength-agile fiber laser using group-velocity dispersion of pulsed super-continua and application to broadband absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75,799-802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. B. Fedotov, A. A. Podshivalov, D. Chorvat and A. M. Zheltikov, "An all-solid-state sub-40-fs self-starting Cr4+: Forsterite laser with holey-fiber beam delivery and chirp control for coherence-domain and nonlinear-optical biomedical applications," Laser Phys. 11, 158-163 (2001).

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka and R. S. Windeler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 608-610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1997

1993

1991

J. R. Thompson and R. Roy, "Nonlinear dynamics of multiple four-wave mixing processes in a single-mode fiber," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4987-4996 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

W. Jia and W. M. Yen, "Raman scattering from sapphire fibers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 20, 785-788 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, "Raman response function of silica-core fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159-1166 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, "Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665-2673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. S. Feigelson, "Pulling optical fibers," J. Cryst. Growth 79, 669-680 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J.

Alfimov, M. V.

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. B. Fedotov, A. A. Podshivalov, D. Chorvat and A. M. Zheltikov, "An all-solid-state sub-40-fs self-starting Cr4+: Forsterite laser with holey-fiber beam delivery and chirp control for coherence-domain and nonlinear-optical biomedical applications," Laser Phys. 11, 158-163 (2001).

An, J. W.

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1113-1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, T. V.

André, Y.-B.

Barthélémy, A.

V. Tombelaine, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, "Visible supercontinuum generation in holey fibers by dual-wavelength subnanosecond pumping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2466-2468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T. A.

Blow, K. J.

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, "Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665-2673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brantley, C.

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1113-1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, M.-K. Chen, C.-E. Yang, J. Lee, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Broadband IR supercontinuum generation using single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Express 16, 4085-4093 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. M.

Buchter, S. C.

E. Räikkönen, S. C. Buchter, and M. Kaivola, "Generation of monochromatic visible light in microstructured optical fiber by nondegenerate four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. B 91, 461-465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, M. Kaivola, K. P. Hansen and S. C. Buchter, "Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 7914-7923 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-K.

Chorvat, D.

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. B. Fedotov, A. A. Podshivalov, D. Chorvat and A. M. Zheltikov, "An all-solid-state sub-40-fs self-starting Cr4+: Forsterite laser with holey-fiber beam delivery and chirp control for coherence-domain and nonlinear-optical biomedical applications," Laser Phys. 11, 158-163 (2001).

Chudoba, C.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Couderc, V.

V. Tombelaine, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, "Visible supercontinuum generation in holey fibers by dual-wavelength subnanosecond pumping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2466-2468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

Das, N. K.

N. K. Das, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, "Analysis of basic four-wave mixing characteristics in a semiconductor optical amplifier by the finite-difference beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1184-1192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Edner, H.

Edwards, E.

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1113-1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, M.-K. Chen, C.-E. Yang, J. Lee, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Broadband IR supercontinuum generation using single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Express 16, 4085-4093 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Efimov, A.

Fan, J.

Fedotov, A. B.

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. B. Fedotov, A. A. Podshivalov, D. Chorvat and A. M. Zheltikov, "An all-solid-state sub-40-fs self-starting Cr4+: Forsterite laser with holey-fiber beam delivery and chirp control for coherence-domain and nonlinear-optical biomedical applications," Laser Phys. 11, 158-163 (2001).

Feigelson, R. S.

R. S. Feigelson, "Pulling optical fibers," J. Cryst. Growth 79, 669-680 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fink, M.

Franco, M.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Genty, G.

George, A. K.

Ghanta, R. K.

Giessen, H.

Gordon, J. P.

Hansen, K. P.

Harrington, J.

Hartl, I.

Haus, H. A.

Islam, M. N.

Ivanov, A. A.

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. B. Fedotov, A. A. Podshivalov, D. Chorvat and A. M. Zheltikov, "An all-solid-state sub-40-fs self-starting Cr4+: Forsterite laser with holey-fiber beam delivery and chirp control for coherence-domain and nonlinear-optical biomedical applications," Laser Phys. 11, 158-163 (2001).

Jia, W.

W. Jia and W. M. Yen, "Raman scattering from sapphire fibers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 20, 785-788 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N.

Joly, N. Y.

Kaivola, M.

E. Räikkönen, S. C. Buchter, and M. Kaivola, "Generation of monochromatic visible light in microstructured optical fiber by nondegenerate four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. B 91, 461-465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, M. Kaivola, K. P. Hansen and S. C. Buchter, "Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 7914-7923 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

Kawaguchi, H.

N. K. Das, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, "Analysis of basic four-wave mixing characteristics in a semiconductor optical amplifier by the finite-difference beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1184-1192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1113-1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, M.-K. Chen, C.-E. Yang, J. Lee, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Broadband IR supercontinuum generation using single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Express 16, 4085-4093 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimmelma, O.

Knight, J. C.

Ko, T. H.

Kulkarni, O. P.

Kumar, M.

Kumar, V. V. R. K.

Lee, J.

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1113-1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, M.-K. Chen, C.-E. Yang, J. Lee, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Broadband IR supercontinuum generation using single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Express 16, 4085-4093 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehtonen, M.

Leproux, P.

V. Tombelaine, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, "Visible supercontinuum generation in holey fibers by dual-wavelength subnanosecond pumping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2466-2468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.

K. Shi, S. H. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin and Z. Liu, "Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum," Opt. Commun. 263, 156-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Shi, P. Li, S. Yin and Z. Liu, "Chromatic confocal microscopy using supercontinuum light," Opt. Express 12, 2096-2101 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Limbert, J.

Liu, Z.

Ludvigsen, H.

Luo, C.

J. H. Kim, M.-K. Chen, C.-E. Yang, J. Lee, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Broadband IR supercontinuum generation using single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Express 16, 4085-4093 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1113-1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Major, A.

Merberg, G.

Migdall, A.

Mondelain, D.

Mori, K.

T. Morioka, K. Mori and M. Saruwatari, "More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 862-864 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morioka, T.

T. Morioka, K. Mori and M. Saruwatari, "More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 862-864 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Musha, M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Nakagawa, K.

Nam, S. H.

K. Shi, S. H. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin and Z. Liu, "Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum," Opt. Commun. 263, 156-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Niedermeier, S.

Nikolakakos, I.

Nubling, R.

Omenetto, F. G.

Oshry, S.

Ota, J.

Philbrick, R.

Podshivalov, A. A.

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. B. Fedotov, A. A. Podshivalov, D. Chorvat and A. M. Zheltikov, "An all-solid-state sub-40-fs self-starting Cr4+: Forsterite laser with holey-fiber beam delivery and chirp control for coherence-domain and nonlinear-optical biomedical applications," Laser Phys. 11, 158-163 (2001).

Prade, B.

Räikkönen, E.

E. Räikkönen, S. C. Buchter, and M. Kaivola, "Generation of monochromatic visible light in microstructured optical fiber by nondegenerate four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. B 91, 461-465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, M. Kaivola, K. P. Hansen and S. C. Buchter, "Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 7914-7923 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.

Reeves, W. H.

Ritari, T.

Rodriguez, M.

Ross, M.

Roy, R.

J. R. Thompson and R. Roy, "Nonlinear dynamics of multiple four-wave mixing processes in a single-mode fiber," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4987-4996 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruffin, P.

J. H. Kim, M.-K. Chen, C.-E. Yang, J. Lee, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Broadband IR supercontinuum generation using single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Express 16, 4085-4093 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1113-1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Russel, P. St. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sanders, S. T.

S. T. Sanders, "Wavelength-agile fiber laser using group-velocity dispersion of pulsed super-continua and application to broadband absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75,799-802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Saruwatari, M.

T. Morioka, K. Mori and M. Saruwatari, "More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 862-864 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

Schimpf, D.

Schreiber, T.

Shi, K.

Shirakawa, A.

Smith, P.

St, P.

Stentz, A. J.

Stolen, R. H.

Svanberg, S.

Tartara, L.

Taylor, A. J.

Tediosi, R.

Teipel, J.

Terry, F. J.

Thompson, J. R.

J. R. Thompson and R. Roy, "Nonlinear dynamics of multiple four-wave mixing processes in a single-mode fiber," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4987-4996 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tombelaine, V.

V. Tombelaine, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, "Visible supercontinuum generation in holey fibers by dual-wavelength subnanosecond pumping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2466-2468 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Tünnermann, A.

Tzortzakis, S.

Ueda, K.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, L. J.

Waynant, R. W.

Wehner, M. R.

Weibring, P.

Wille, H.

Windeler, R. S.

Wolchover, N. A.

Wolf, J.-P.

Wood, D.

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, "Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665-2673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

Xia, C.

Yamayoshi, Y.

N. K. Das, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, "Analysis of basic four-wave mixing characteristics in a semiconductor optical amplifier by the finite-difference beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1184-1192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-E.

Yen, W. M.

W. Jia and W. M. Yen, "Raman scattering from sapphire fibers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 20, 785-788 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yin, S.

J. H. Kim, M.-K. Chen, C.-E. Yang, J. Lee, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Broadband IR supercontinuum generation using single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Express 16, 4085-4093 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1113-1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Shi, S. H. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin and Z. Liu, "Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum," Opt. Commun. 263, 156-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Shi, P. Li, S. Yin and Z. Liu, "Chromatic confocal microscopy using supercontinuum light," Opt. Express 12, 2096-2101 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshino, F.

Yu, J.

Zhan, C.

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1113-1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, R.

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. B. Fedotov, A. A. Podshivalov, D. Chorvat and A. M. Zheltikov, "An all-solid-state sub-40-fs self-starting Cr4+: Forsterite laser with holey-fiber beam delivery and chirp control for coherence-domain and nonlinear-optical biomedical applications," Laser Phys. 11, 158-163 (2001).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

E. Räikkönen, S. C. Buchter, and M. Kaivola, "Generation of monochromatic visible light in microstructured optical fiber by nondegenerate four-wave mixing," Appl. Phys. B 91, 461-465 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt.

S. T. Sanders, "Wavelength-agile fiber laser using group-velocity dispersion of pulsed super-continua and application to broadband absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 75,799-802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Morioka, K. Mori and M. Saruwatari, "More than 100-wavelength-channel picosecond optical pulse generation from single laser source using supercontinuum in optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 862-864 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, "Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2665-2673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Das, Y. Yamayoshi, and H. Kawaguchi, "Analysis of basic four-wave mixing characteristics in a semiconductor optical amplifier by the finite-difference beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1184-1192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

V. Tombelaine, P. Leproux, V. Couderc, and A. Barthélémy, "Visible supercontinuum generation in holey fibers by dual-wavelength subnanosecond pumping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2466-2468 (2006).
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R. S. Feigelson, "Pulling optical fibers," J. Cryst. Growth 79, 669-680 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

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W. Jia and W. M. Yen, "Raman scattering from sapphire fibers," J. Raman Spectrosc. 20, 785-788 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, A. B. Fedotov, A. A. Podshivalov, D. Chorvat and A. M. Zheltikov, "An all-solid-state sub-40-fs self-starting Cr4+: Forsterite laser with holey-fiber beam delivery and chirp control for coherence-domain and nonlinear-optical biomedical applications," Laser Phys. 11, 158-163 (2001).

Opt. Commun.

K. Shi, S. H. Nam, P. Li, S. Yin and Z. Liu, "Wavelength division multiplexed confocal microscopy using supercontinuum," Opt. Commun. 263, 156-162 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Yin, J. H. Kim, C. Zhan, J. W. An, J. Lee, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Supercontinuum generation in single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1113-1117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

J. H. Kim, M.-K. Chen, C.-E. Yang, J. Lee, S. Yin, P. Ruffin, E. Edwards, C. Brantley and C. Luo, "Broadband IR supercontinuum generation using single crystal sapphire fibers," Opt. Express 16, 4085-4093 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, F. G. Omenetto and A. J. Taylor, "Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultraband supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 10, 1520-1525 (2002).

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russel, "Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350nm to 3?m in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Brown, K. Shi, Z. Liu and R. Philbrick, "Long-path supercontinuum absorption spectroscopy for measurement of atmospheric constituents," Opt. Express 16, 8457-8471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shi, P. Li, S. Yin and Z. Liu, "Chromatic confocal microscopy using supercontinuum light," Opt. Express 12, 2096-2101 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, M. R. Wehner, M. Ross, A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, V. V. R. K. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, N. Y. Joly, and P. St. J. Russel, "Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 530nm to 3um in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 14, 4928-4934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 12, 299-309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, J. Teipel, and H. Giessen, "Theoretical design of a liquid-core photonic crystal fiber for supercontinuum generation," Opt. Express 14, 6800-6812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, "Dispersive wave generation by solitons in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 12, 124-135 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Schreiber, T. V. Andersen, D. Schimpf, J. Limbert and A. Tünnermann, "Supercontinuum generation by femtosecond single and dual wavelength pumping in photonic crystal fibers with two zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Express 13, 9556-9569 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, M. Kaivola, K. P. Hansen and S. C. Buchter, "Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 7914-7923 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Genty, T. Ritari and H. Ludvigsen, "Supercontinuum generation in large mode-area microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 13, 8625-8633 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shirakawa, J. Ota, M. Musha, K. Nakagawa and K. Ueda, "Large-mode-area erbium-ytterbium-doped photonic-crystal fiber amplifier for high-energy femtosecond pulses at 1.55?m," Opt. Express 13, 1221-1227 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fan, A. Migdall, and L. J. Wang, "Increased cross-correlation in cascaded four-wave mixing processes," Opt. Express 15, 7146-7151 (2007).
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Opt. Lett.

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, "Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800nm," Opt. Lett. 25, 25-27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth and P. St. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1415-1417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Genty, M. Lehtonen and H. Ludvigsen, "Route to broadband blue-light generation in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 756-758 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, X. D. Li, C. Chudoba, R. K. Ghanta, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, J. K. Ranka and R. S. Windeler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography using continuum generation in an air-silica microstructure optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 608-610 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Niedermeier, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, Y.-B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille and L. Wöste, "Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere," Opt. Lett. 25, 1397-1399 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Xia, M. Kumar, O. P. Kulkarni, M. N. Islam, and F. J. Terry, Jr, "Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation to 4.5?m in ZBLAN fluoride fibers by nanosecond diode pumping," Opt. Lett. 31, 2553-2555 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Major, F. Yoshino, I. Nikolakakos, J. Aitchison and P. Smith, "Dispersion of the nonlinear refractive index in sapphire," Opt. Lett. 29, 602-604 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A

J. R. Thompson and R. Roy, "Nonlinear dynamics of multiple four-wave mixing processes in a single-mode fiber," Phys. Rev. A 43, 4987-4996 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).
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Other

G. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 1995).

J. L. Tate, Intense laser propagation in sapphire, Ph. D. Thesis (2004), The Ohio State University.

E. E. Serebryannikov, S. O. Konorov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, M. Scalora and A. M. Zheltikov, "Cross-phase-modulation-induced instability in photonic-crystal fibers," Phys. Rev. E 72, 027601-1-027601-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, Solid-state mid-infrared laser sources (Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set up for supercontinuum generation in sapphire fiber

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The experimentally measured spectra generated from the three individual pumping sources (blue dash: 784nm, green dash: 1290nm, and black dash: 2000nm) and the three pumping sources together (red solid)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The simulation spectra generated from the three pumping sources

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The simulation and experimental spectra of two pumping sources located at 1290nm and 2000nm: (a) simulation spectra of 1290nm source with 8.035×106W and 2000nm source with 4.821×106W, (b) simulation spectra of 1290nm source with 1.286×107W and 2000nm source with 4.821×106W, (c) three simulation spectra when 2000nm pumping source is presented alone (dot line), and it is accompanied by 1290nm source with the peak powers of 8.035×106W (dashed line) and 1.286×107W (solid line), and (d) experimental spectra of 1290nm and 2000nm sources with the peak power of 8.035×106W.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A z + α 2 A Σ n 2 i n + 1 n ! β n n A T n = + i γ ( 1 + i ω 0 T ) A · + R ( T ' ) A ( z , T T ' ) 2 d T ' ,
V z = i γ V · R ( T ) * ( V 0 2 + V 2 ) γ 1 ω 0 T ( V · R ( T ) * V 2 ) ,
where V ( z , T ) = A ( z , T ) exp [ i γ ( R ( T ) * A 0 2 ) ( z z 0 ) ] .
V = Σ j = 1 N P P j exp [ ( T T 0 ) 2 ] · exp [ i ( Δ ω j ) T ] ,
ω p 1 + ω p 2 = ω s 1 + ω i 1
ω p 1 + ω p 3 = ω s 2 + ω i 2
ω p 2 + ω p 3 = ω s 3 + ω i 3 ,
k p 1 + k p 2 = k s 1 + k i 1 + γ p 1 P p 1 + γ p 2 P p 2
k p 1 + k p 3 = k s 2 + k i 2 + γ p 1 P p 1 + γ p 3 P p 3
k p 2 + k p 3 = k s 3 + k i 3 + γ p 2 P p 2 + γ p 3 P p 3 ,
ω 1290 n m + ω 2000 n m = ω s 3 + ω i 3 ,
k 1290 n m + k 2000 n m = k s 3 + k i 3 + ( γ P ) 1290 n m + ( γ P ) 2000 n m ,

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