Abstract

Grating beam splitters have been fabricated for soft X-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer using holographic interference lithography. The grating beam splitter consists of two gratings, one works at X-ray laser wavelength of 13.9 nm with the spatial frequency of 1000 lines/mm as the operation grating, the other works at visible wavelength of 632.8 nm for pre-aligning the X-ray interferometer with the spatial frequency of 22 lines/mm as the pre-alignment grating. The two gratings lie vertically on the same substrate. The main feature of the beam splitter is the use of lowspatial-frequency beat grating of a holographic double frequency grating as the pre-alignment grating of the X-ray interferometer. The grating line parallelism between the two gratings can be judged by observing the diffraction patterns of the pre-alignment grating directly.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, and J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconid, S. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Raymond F. Smith, James Dunn, Joseph Nilsen, James R. Hunter, Vyacheslev N. Shlyaptsev, Jorge J. Rocca, Jorge Filevich, and Mario C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, A. Ng., and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Picosecond-resolution soft-x-ray laser plasma interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3938–3946 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E.C. Hammarsten, B. Szapiro, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M.C. Marconi, and J.J. Rocca, “Soft X-ray laser diagnostics of exploding aluminum wire plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 933–937 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, and M. C. Marconi, “Observation of a Multiply Ionized Plasma with Index of Refraction Greater than One,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005-1-4 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Filevich, J. Grava, M. Purvis, M. C. Marconi, and J. J. Rocca, “Prediction and observation of tin and silver plasmas with index of refraction greater than one in the soft x-ray range,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 016404-1-7 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, O. E. Martinez, and M. C. Marconi, “Soft-x-ray interferometer for single-shot laser linewidth measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21, 955–957 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. C. Wyant, “Double Frequency Grating Lateral Shear Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2057–2060 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Hai, Z. Chengang, L. Yu, X. Jianping, H. Ran, and L. Changfen, “Measurement of Temperature Field with schlieren shearing interferometry of double frequency gratings,” Acta Optica Sinica 14, 214–218 (1994).
  15. F. Shaojun, H. Yilin, T. Xiaoming, and S. Yonggang, “Experimental Research of Double Frequency Grating with Ion Beam Etching Technique,” Chin. J. Quant. Electron. 9, 186–190 (1992).
  16. O. Bryngdahl, “Moire: Formation and interpretation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1287–1294 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  17. O. Bryngdahl, “Moire and higher grating harmonics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 685–694 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. Grava, M. Purvis, M. C. Marconi, and J. J. Rocca, “Prediction and observation of tin and silver plasmas with index of refraction greater than one in the soft x-ray range,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 016404-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, and M. C. Marconi, “Observation of a Multiply Ionized Plasma with Index of Refraction Greater than One,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, A. Ng., and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Picosecond-resolution soft-x-ray laser plasma interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3938–3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.C. Hammarsten, B. Szapiro, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M.C. Marconi, and J.J. Rocca, “Soft X-ray laser diagnostics of exploding aluminum wire plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 933–937 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconid, S. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raymond F. Smith, James Dunn, Joseph Nilsen, James R. Hunter, Vyacheslev N. Shlyaptsev, Jorge J. Rocca, Jorge Filevich, and Mario C. Marconi, “Refraction effects on x-ray and ultraviolet interferometric probing of laser-produced plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 254–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Hai, Z. Chengang, L. Yu, X. Jianping, H. Ran, and L. Changfen, “Measurement of Temperature Field with schlieren shearing interferometry of double frequency gratings,” Acta Optica Sinica 14, 214–218 (1994).

1992 (1)

F. Shaojun, H. Yilin, T. Xiaoming, and S. Yonggang, “Experimental Research of Double Frequency Grating with Ion Beam Etching Technique,” Chin. J. Quant. Electron. 9, 186–190 (1992).

1975 (1)

1974 (1)

1973 (1)

Barbee, T. W.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryngdahl, O.

Cauble, R.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celliers, P.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Changfen, L.

M. Hai, Z. Chengang, L. Yu, X. Jianping, H. Ran, and L. Changfen, “Measurement of Temperature Field with schlieren shearing interferometry of double frequency gratings,” Acta Optica Sinica 14, 214–218 (1994).

Chengang, Z.

M. Hai, Z. Chengang, L. Yu, X. Jianping, H. Ran, and L. Changfen, “Measurement of Temperature Field with schlieren shearing interferometry of double frequency gratings,” Acta Optica Sinica 14, 214–218 (1994).

Chilla, J. L. A.

Ciarlo, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, J.

M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, A. Ng., and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Picosecond-resolution soft-x-ray laser plasma interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3938–3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, James

Dunnb, J.

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Filevich, J.

M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. Grava, M. Purvis, M. C. Marconi, and J. J. Rocca, “Prediction and observation of tin and silver plasmas with index of refraction greater than one in the soft x-ray range,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 016404-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, and M. C. Marconi, “Observation of a Multiply Ionized Plasma with Index of Refraction Greater than One,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E.C. Hammarsten, B. Szapiro, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M.C. Marconi, and J.J. Rocca, “Soft X-ray laser diagnostics of exploding aluminum wire plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 933–937 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, A. Ng., and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Picosecond-resolution soft-x-ray laser plasma interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3938–3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconid, S. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, and J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Filevich, Jorge

Filevicha, J.

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grava, J.

M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. Grava, M. Purvis, M. C. Marconi, and J. J. Rocca, “Prediction and observation of tin and silver plasmas with index of refraction greater than one in the soft x-ray range,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 016404-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hai, M.

M. Hai, Z. Chengang, L. Yu, X. Jianping, H. Ran, and L. Changfen, “Measurement of Temperature Field with schlieren shearing interferometry of double frequency gratings,” Acta Optica Sinica 14, 214–218 (1994).

Hammarsten, E. C.

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconid, S. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hammarsten, E.C.

E.C. Hammarsten, B. Szapiro, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M.C. Marconi, and J.J. Rocca, “Soft X-ray laser diagnostics of exploding aluminum wire plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 933–937 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, J. R.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, A. Ng., and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Picosecond-resolution soft-x-ray laser plasma interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3938–3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, James R.

Hunterb, J. R.

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jankowska, E.

M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E.C. Hammarsten, B. Szapiro, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M.C. Marconi, and J.J. Rocca, “Soft X-ray laser diagnostics of exploding aluminum wire plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 933–937 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconid, S. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jianping, X.

M. Hai, Z. Chengang, L. Yu, X. Jianping, H. Ran, and L. Changfen, “Measurement of Temperature Field with schlieren shearing interferometry of double frequency gratings,” Acta Optica Sinica 14, 214–218 (1994).

Kanizay, K.

Keenan, R.

Keenanb, R.

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Libby, S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

London, R. A.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marconi, M. C.

M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. Grava, M. Purvis, M. C. Marconi, and J. J. Rocca, “Prediction and observation of tin and silver plasmas with index of refraction greater than one in the soft x-ray range,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 016404-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, and M. C. Marconi, “Observation of a Multiply Ionized Plasma with Index of Refraction Greater than One,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, A. Ng., and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Picosecond-resolution soft-x-ray laser plasma interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3938–3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, and J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, O. E. Martinez, and M. C. Marconi, “Soft-x-ray interferometer for single-shot laser linewidth measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21, 955–957 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marconi, M.C.

E.C. Hammarsten, B. Szapiro, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M.C. Marconi, and J.J. Rocca, “Soft X-ray laser diagnostics of exploding aluminum wire plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 933–937 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, Mario C.

Marconia, M. C.

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marconid, M. C.

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconid, S. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, O. E.

Matthews, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, S.

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconid, S. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S. J.

M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, A. Ng., and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Picosecond-resolution soft-x-ray laser plasma interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3938–3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon1, S.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moonb, S. J.

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. C.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mrowka, S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng., A.

Nilsen, J.

Nilsen, Joseph

Nilsen1, J.

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nilsenb, J.

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Purvis, M.

M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. Grava, M. Purvis, M. C. Marconi, and J. J. Rocca, “Prediction and observation of tin and silver plasmas with index of refraction greater than one in the soft x-ray range,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 016404-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ran, H.

M. Hai, Z. Chengang, L. Yu, X. Jianping, H. Ran, and L. Changfen, “Measurement of Temperature Field with schlieren shearing interferometry of double frequency gratings,” Acta Optica Sinica 14, 214–218 (1994).

Ress, D.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocca, J. J.

M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. Grava, M. Purvis, M. C. Marconi, and J. J. Rocca, “Prediction and observation of tin and silver plasmas with index of refraction greater than one in the soft x-ray range,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 016404-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, and M. C. Marconi, “Observation of a Multiply Ionized Plasma with Index of Refraction Greater than One,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, A. Ng., and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Picosecond-resolution soft-x-ray laser plasma interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3938–3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconid, S. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, K. Kanizay, M. C. Marconi, J. L. A. Chilla, and J. J. Rocca, “Dense plasma diagnostics with an amplitude-division soft-x-ray laser interferometer based on diffraction gratings,” Opt. Lett. 25, 356–358 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, O. E. Martinez, and M. C. Marconi, “Soft-x-ray interferometer for single-shot laser linewidth measurements,” Opt. Lett. 21, 955–957 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocca, J.J.

E.C. Hammarsten, B. Szapiro, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M.C. Marconi, and J.J. Rocca, “Soft X-ray laser diagnostics of exploding aluminum wire plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 933–937 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, Jorge J.

Roccaa, J. J.

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scofieldb, J. H.

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shaojun, F.

F. Shaojun, H. Yilin, T. Xiaoming, and S. Yonggang, “Experimental Research of Double Frequency Grating with Ion Beam Etching Technique,” Chin. J. Quant. Electron. 9, 186–190 (1992).

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, A. Ng., and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Picosecond-resolution soft-x-ray laser plasma interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3938–3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconid, S. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslev N.

Shlyaptsevc, V. N.

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. F.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, A. Ng., and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Picosecond-resolution soft-x-ray laser plasma interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3938–3946 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, Raymond F.

Smithb, R. F.

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Szapiro, B.

E.C. Hammarsten, B. Szapiro, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M.C. Marconi, and J.J. Rocca, “Soft X-ray laser diagnostics of exploding aluminum wire plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 933–937 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, A. S.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, F.

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyant, J. C.

Xiaoming, T.

F. Shaojun, H. Yilin, T. Xiaoming, and S. Yonggang, “Experimental Research of Double Frequency Grating with Ion Beam Etching Technique,” Chin. J. Quant. Electron. 9, 186–190 (1992).

Yilin, H.

F. Shaojun, H. Yilin, T. Xiaoming, and S. Yonggang, “Experimental Research of Double Frequency Grating with Ion Beam Etching Technique,” Chin. J. Quant. Electron. 9, 186–190 (1992).

Yonggang, S.

F. Shaojun, H. Yilin, T. Xiaoming, and S. Yonggang, “Experimental Research of Double Frequency Grating with Ion Beam Etching Technique,” Chin. J. Quant. Electron. 9, 186–190 (1992).

Yu, L.

M. Hai, Z. Chengang, L. Yu, X. Jianping, H. Ran, and L. Changfen, “Measurement of Temperature Field with schlieren shearing interferometry of double frequency gratings,” Acta Optica Sinica 14, 214–218 (1994).

Acta Optica Sinica (1)

M. Hai, Z. Chengang, L. Yu, X. Jianping, H. Ran, and L. Changfen, “Measurement of Temperature Field with schlieren shearing interferometry of double frequency gratings,” Acta Optica Sinica 14, 214–218 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E.C. Hammarsten, B. Szapiro, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M.C. Marconi, and J.J. Rocca, “Soft X-ray laser diagnostics of exploding aluminum wire plasmas,” Appl. Phys. B 78, 933–937 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chin. J. Quant. Electron. (1)

F. Shaojun, H. Yilin, T. Xiaoming, and S. Yonggang, “Experimental Research of Double Frequency Grating with Ion Beam Etching Technique,” Chin. J. Quant. Electron. 9, 186–190 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

J. Filevicha, J. J. Roccaa, M. C. Marconia, S. J. Moonb, J. Nilsenb, J. H. Scofieldb, J. Dunnb, R. F. Smithb, R. Keenanb, J. R. Hunterb, and V. N. Shlyaptsevc, “Observation of multiply ionized plasmas with dominant bound electron contribution to the index of refraction,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 99, 165–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

J. J. Rocca, E. C. Hammarsten, E. Jankowska, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconid, S. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Application of extremely compact capillary discharge soft x-ray lasers to dense plasma diagnostics,” Phys. Plasmas 10, 2031–2038 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

J. Filevich, J. Grava, M. Purvis, M. C. Marconi, and J. J. Rocca, “Prediction and observation of tin and silver plasmas with index of refraction greater than one in the soft x-ray range,” Phys. Rev. E 74, 016404-1-7 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Purvis, J. Grava, J. Filevich, M. C. Marconi, J. Dunn, S. J. Moon, V. N. Shlyaptsev, E. Jankowska, and J. J. Rocca, “Dynamics of converging laser-created plasmas in semicylindrical cavities studied using soft x-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. E 76, 046402- 1-12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, and M. C. Marconi, “Observation of a Multiply Ionized Plasma with Index of Refraction Greater than One,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 035005-1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, R. Cauble, P. Celliers, D. Ciarlo, S. Libby, R. A. London, D. Matthews, S. Mrowka, J. C. Moreno, D. Ress, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Electron density Measurements of hign density plasmas using soft X-ray laser interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3991–3994 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Nilsen1, V. N. Shlyaptsev, S. Moon1, J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, J. R. Hunter, and T. W. Barbee, “Picosecond X-Ray Laser Interferometry of Dense Plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 065004-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

3D sketch map of the soft X-ray diffraction grating interferometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of laser interference lithography for grating fabrication.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Intensity spatial distribution in the photoresist (a) I 1(x) and I 2(x), (b) I after two exposures.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Micrograph images of the two HDFGs (a) grating lines of the two component gratings are parallel; (b) grating lines of the two component gratings are not parallel during two exposures.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic diffraction patterns of the gratings illuminated by a He-Ne laser (a) a general grating with the spatial frequency of ν 1 ; (b) a HDFG which is fabricated by the two component gratings with parallel grating lines during two exposures; (c) a HDFG in which the grating lines of the two component gratings are not parallel during two exposures.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic diagram of an X-ray holographic grating beam splitter.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Digital camera photo of an X-ray grating beam splitter fabricated by holographic method (a) AFM image of groove profile of the operation grating with 1000 lines/mm.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 1 = I 0 [ 1 + cos ( 2 π x d 1 ) ] = I 0 [ 1 + cos ( 2 π ν 1 x ) ]
I = I 1 + I 2 = I 0 [ 2 + cos ( 2 π x d 1 ) + cos ( 2 π x d 2 ) ]
h ( x ) = h 0 [ 2 + cos ( 2 π x d 1 ) + cos ( 2 π x d 2 ) ] = h 0 [ 2 + cos ( 2 π ν 1 x ) + cos ( 2 π ν 2 x ) ]
r ( x ) = e x p { j 2 π λ 2 n i h 0 [ 2 + cos ( 2 π x d 1 ) + cos ( 2 π x d 2 ) ] } · rect ( x ι )
sin β ( p , q ) = sin α + λ ( p d 1 + q d 2 ) = sin α + λ ( p ν 1 + q ν 2 )
sin β 0 ( 1 ) = sin α + λ ( ν 0 )
sin β a ( 1 , 1 ) = sin α + λ ( ν 0 + ( 1 ) · ν 2 ) = sin α + λ ( ν a )

Metrics