Abstract

We report the first real-time feedback control of an atom laser. The unique feature of metastable helium atoms, the production of ions in the atom laser outcoupling process, is exploited to actively control the spatial location inside the Bose-Einstein condensate where outcoupling occurs. Unlike alkali atom lasers, this provides almost instantaneous feedback which reduces frequency, amplitude and spatial mode fluctuations in the atom laser beam.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. G. H. Baldwin, "Metastable helium: Atom optics with nano-grenades," Cont. Phys. 46, 105-120 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. V. Shlyapnikov, J. T. M. Walraven, U. M. Rahmanov, M. W. Reynolds, "Decay Kinetics and Bose Condensation in a Gas of Spin-Polarized Triplet Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3247-3250 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Oöttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Köhl, Th. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, A. G. Truscott, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, M. Jeppesen, and J. J. Hope, "Observation of transverse interference fringes on an atom laser beam," Opt. Express 15, 17673-17680 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 270, 255-261 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Venturi and I. B. Whittingham, "Close-coupled calculation of field-free collisions of cold metastable helium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 61, 060703(R)  (2000).
  12. M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Collective Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Magnetic Trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988-991 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. A. Haine, A. J. Ferris, J. D. Close, and J. J. Hope, "Control of an atom laser using feedback," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013605 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, A. G. Truscott, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, M. Jeppesen, and J. J. Hope, "Observation of transverse interference fringes on an atom laser beam," Opt. Express 15, 17673-17680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 270, 255-261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Oöttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Köhl, Th. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. G. H. Baldwin, "Metastable helium: Atom optics with nano-grenades," Cont. Phys. 46, 105-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. A. Haine, A. J. Ferris, J. D. Close, and J. J. Hope, "Control of an atom laser using feedback," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Collective Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Magnetic Trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988-991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. V. Shlyapnikov, J. T. M. Walraven, U. M. Rahmanov, M. W. Reynolds, "Decay Kinetics and Bose Condensation in a Gas of Spin-Polarized Triplet Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3247-3250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. R.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Collective Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Magnetic Trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988-991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K. G. H.

K. G. H. Baldwin, "Metastable helium: Atom optics with nano-grenades," Cont. Phys. 46, 105-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bouyer, P.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Busch, Th.

M. Köhl, Th. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Byron, L. J.

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, A. G. Truscott, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, M. Jeppesen, and J. J. Hope, "Observation of transverse interference fringes on an atom laser beam," Opt. Express 15, 17673-17680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Close, J. D.

S. A. Haine, A. J. Ferris, J. D. Close, and J. J. Hope, "Control of an atom laser using feedback," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dall, R. G.

R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, A. G. Truscott, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, M. Jeppesen, and J. J. Hope, "Observation of transverse interference fringes on an atom laser beam," Opt. Express 15, 17673-17680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 270, 255-261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dedman, C. J.

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, G. R.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, D. S.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Collective Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Magnetic Trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988-991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Esslinger, T.

A. Oöttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Köhl, Th. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fauquembergue, M.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferris, A. J.

S. A. Haine, A. J. Ferris, J. D. Close, and J. J. Hope, "Control of an atom laser using feedback," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Guerin, W.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haine, S. A.

S. A. Haine, A. J. Ferris, J. D. Close, and J. J. Hope, "Control of an atom laser using feedback," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Köhl, Th. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hope, J. J.

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, M.

Johnsson, M. T.

Josse, V.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ketterle, W.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Collective Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Magnetic Trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988-991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Köhl, M.

A. Oöttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Köhl, Th. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kurn, D. M.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Collective Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Magnetic Trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988-991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, Y.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mewes, M.-O.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Collective Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Magnetic Trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988-991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mølmer, K.

M. Köhl, Th. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Oöttl, A.

A. Oöttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rahmanov, U. M.

G. V. Shlyapnikov, J. T. M. Walraven, U. M. Rahmanov, M. W. Reynolds, "Decay Kinetics and Bose Condensation in a Gas of Spin-Polarized Triplet Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3247-3250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, M. W.

G. V. Shlyapnikov, J. T. M. Walraven, U. M. Rahmanov, M. W. Reynolds, "Decay Kinetics and Bose Condensation in a Gas of Spin-Polarized Triplet Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3247-3250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Riou, J.-F.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, S.

A. Oöttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shlyapnikov, G. V.

G. V. Shlyapnikov, J. T. M. Walraven, U. M. Rahmanov, M. W. Reynolds, "Decay Kinetics and Bose Condensation in a Gas of Spin-Polarized Triplet Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3247-3250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, C. G.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Collective Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Magnetic Trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988-991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Truscott, A. G.

R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 270, 255-261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, A. G. Truscott, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, M. Jeppesen, and J. J. Hope, "Observation of transverse interference fringes on an atom laser beam," Opt. Express 15, 17673-17680 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Druten, N. J.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Collective Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Magnetic Trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988-991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walraven, J. T. M.

G. V. Shlyapnikov, J. T. M. Walraven, U. M. Rahmanov, M. W. Reynolds, "Decay Kinetics and Bose Condensation in a Gas of Spin-Polarized Triplet Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3247-3250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley and H. Ward, "Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator," Appl. Phys. B 31, 97-105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cont. Phys. (1)

K. G. H. Baldwin, "Metastable helium: Atom optics with nano-grenades," Cont. Phys. 46, 105-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 270, 255-261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. Köhl, Th. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Haine, A. J. Ferris, J. D. Close, and J. J. Hope, "Control of an atom laser using feedback," Phys. Rev. A 69, 013605 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, N. J. van Druten, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Collective Excitations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Magnetic Trap," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 988-991 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Shlyapnikov, J. T. M. Walraven, U. M. Rahmanov, M. W. Reynolds, "Decay Kinetics and Bose Condensation in a Gas of Spin-Polarized Triplet Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3247-3250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Oöttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

V. Venturi and I. B. Whittingham, "Close-coupled calculation of field-free collisions of cold metastable helium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 61, 060703(R)  (2000).

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