Abstract

Values of reflectance and remote sensing reflectance are proportional to the ratio of sea water backscattering to absorption. However, in vertically non-homogeneous waters, this fraction needs to be depth weighted. The usual practice uses normalized vertical transmittance profiles as the weighting function. Recently, it was shown that the correct approach is to use, instead of transmittance, its first derivative. We used both approaches to calculate spectral reflectance and remote sensing reflectance over a submerged bubble cloud and chlorophyll rich layer and compared the results with a radiative transfer Monte Carlo code. We also compared several methods of approximating diffuse attenuation (not measured directly) to estimate the effect on calculating reflectance. Our results show that the traditional method of IOP weighting is inadequate in the presence of bubble clouds and/or chlorophyll rich layers. This is relevant for both "ground truth" studies and inverse methods of remote sensing (including lidar ones) for vertically inhomogeneous ocean sea waters.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2005 (2)

2004 (1)

2001 (2)

Z. Otremba and J. Piskozub, "Modelling of the optical contrast of an oil film on a sea surface," Opt. Express 9, 411-416 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-9-8-411.

J. Piskozub, P. J. Flatau, and J. R.V. Zaneveld, "Monte Carlo study of the scattering error of a quartz reflective absorption tube," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 438-445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1993 (1)

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

1977 (2)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limn. and Oceanog. 22, 709-722 (1977).

R. M. Measures, "Lidar equation analysis allowing for target lifetime, laser pulse duration, and detector integration period," Appl. Opt. 16, 1092-1103 (1977).

1975 (1)

1942 (1)

Barnard, A.

Boss, E.

Brown, O. B.

Clark, D. K.

Duntley, S. Q.

Flatau, P. J.

J. Piskozub, P. J. Flatau, and J. R.V. Zaneveld, "Monte Carlo study of the scattering error of a quartz reflective absorption tube," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 438-445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Flatau, J. Piskozub, and J. R. Zaneveld, "Asymptotic light field in the presence of a bubble-layer," Opt. Express 5, 120-123 (1999), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-5-5-120.

Gentili, B.

Gordon, H. R.

Jacobs, M. M.

Measures, R. M.

Melville, W. K.

Morel, A.

A. Morel and B. Gentili, "Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters. II. Bidirectional aspects," Appl. Opt. 32, 6864-6879 (1993).

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limn. and Oceanog. 22, 709-722 (1977).

Otremba, Z.

Piskozub, J.

Prieur, L.

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limn. and Oceanog. 22, 709-722 (1977).

Stramska, M.

Stramski, D.

Terrill, E.

Zaneveld, J. R.

Zaneveld, J. R.V.

J. Piskozub, P. J. Flatau, and J. R.V. Zaneveld, "Monte Carlo study of the scattering error of a quartz reflective absorption tube," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 438-445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

J. Piskozub, P. J. Flatau, and J. R.V. Zaneveld, "Monte Carlo study of the scattering error of a quartz reflective absorption tube," J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 18, 438-445 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Limn. and Oceanog. (1)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, "Analysis of variations in ocean color," Limn. and Oceanog. 22, 709-722 (1977).

Opt. Express (3)

Other (1)

C. Cox and W. H. Munk, "Slopes of the sea surface deduced from photographs of sun glitter," Scripps. Inst. Oceanogr. Bul. 6, 401-488.

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