Abstract

We present a theoretical model for the distribution of polarization-entangled photon-pairs produced via spontaneous parametric down-conversion within a local-area fiber network. This model allows an entanglement distributor who plays the role of a service provider to determine the photon-pair generation rate giving highest two-photon interference fringe visibility for any pair of users, when given user-specific parameters. Usefulness of this model is illustrated in an example and confirmed in an experiment, where polarization-entangled photon-pairs are distributed over 82 km and 132 km of dispersion-managed optical fiber. Experimentally observed visibilities and entanglement fidelities are in good agreement with theoretically predicted values.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (5)

2007 (5)

2006 (2)

R. J Young, R. M. Stevenson, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, "Improved fidelity of triggered entangled photons from single quantum dots," New J. Phys. 8, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Akopian, N. H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B. D. Gerardot, and P. M. Petroff, "Entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

V. Scarani, H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Four-photon correction in two-photon Bell experiments," Eur. Phys. J. D 32, 129-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, "Highly efficient single photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 1725-1727 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Performance of various quantum-key-distribution systems using 1.55-?m up-conversion single-photon detectors," Phys. Rev. A 72, 052311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

Y. Luo and K. T. Chan, "Quantum cryptography with entangled multiphotons of the same polarization," Phys. Rev. A 70, 042302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, "Efficient single-photon counting at 1.55 ?m by means of frequency upconversion," Opt. Lett. 29, 1449-1451 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, "Generation of polarisation-entangled photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 621-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (6)

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qubits," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tsuchida, "A 1550 nm single-photon detector using a thermoelectrically cooled InGaAs avalanche photodiode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 200-201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967-1981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413-418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Scarani and N. Gisin, "Quantum key distribution between N partners: Optimal eavesdropping and Bell???s inequalities," Phys. Rev. A 65, 012311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

M. Hillery, V. Buzek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829-1834 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, "Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249-4254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, "Ultrabright source of polarization-entangled-photons," Phys. Rev. A 60, R773-R776 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, "Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 595-604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932-5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Plenio and V. Vedral, "Teleportation, entanglement and thermodynamics in the quantum world," Contemp. Phys. 39, 431-446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, "Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895-1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, "Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories," Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880-884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Akopian, N.

N. Akopian, N. H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B. D. Gerardot, and P. M. Petroff, "Entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albota, M. A.

Appelbaum, I.

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, "Ultrabright source of polarization-entangled-photons," Phys. Rev. A 60, R773-R776 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

Atkinson, P.

R. J Young, R. M. Stevenson, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, "Improved fidelity of triggered entangled photons from single quantum dots," New J. Phys. 8, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Avron, J.

N. Akopian, N. H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B. D. Gerardot, and P. M. Petroff, "Entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baek, B.

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, "Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895-1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berlatzky, Y.

N. Akopian, N. H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B. D. Gerardot, and P. M. Petroff, "Entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berthiaume, A.

M. Hillery, V. Buzek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829-1834 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blauensteiner, B.

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, "Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895-1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briegel, H.-J.

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932-5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Buzek, V.

M. Hillery, V. Buzek, and A. Berthiaume, "Quantum secret sharing," Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829-1834 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. T.

Y. Luo and K. T. Chan, "Quantum cryptography with entangled multiphotons of the same polarization," Phys. Rev. A 70, 042302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chulkova, G.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413-418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, "Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249-4254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932-5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clauser, J. F.

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, "Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories," Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880-884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K.

R. J Young, R. M. Stevenson, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, "Improved fidelity of triggered entangled photons from single quantum dots," New J. Phys. 8, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crepeau, C.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, "Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895-1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Riedmatten, H.

V. Scarani, H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Four-photon correction in two-photon Bell experiments," Eur. Phys. J. D 32, 129-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

E. Diamanti, H. Takesue, T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, "Performance of various quantum-key-distribution systems using 1.55-?m up-conversion single-photon detectors," Phys. Rev. A 72, 052311 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, "Highly efficient single photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-proton-exchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 1725-1727 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duan, L.-M.

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413-418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dur, W.

H.-J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932-5935 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dzardanov, A.

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, P. H.

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, "Ultrabright source of polarization-entangled-photons," Phys. Rev. A 60, R773-R776 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ekert, A. K.

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, "Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249-4254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Fung, C.-H. F.

X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, and H.-K. Lo, "Quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources," Phys. Rev. A 76, 012307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerardot, B. D.

N. Akopian, N. H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B. D. Gerardot, and P. M. Petroff, "Entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gershoni, D.

N. Akopian, N. H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B. D. Gerardot, and P. M. Petroff, "Entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

V. Scarani, H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Four-photon correction in two-photon Bell experiments," Eur. Phys. J. D 32, 129-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani and N. Gisin, "Quantum key distribution between N partners: Optimal eavesdropping and Bell???s inequalities," Phys. Rev. A 65, 012311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gol???tsman, G. N.

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
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A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
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Honjo, T.

Horne, M. A.

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, "Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories," Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880-884 (1969).
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Huelga, S. F.

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, "Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249-4254 (1999).
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T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, "Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors," Opt. Express 15, 13957-13964 (2007).
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Jozsa, R.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, "Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895-1899 (1993).
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Kaji, R.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, "Generation of polarisation-entangled photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 621-622 (2003).
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Kamada, H.

Kikuchi, K.

Korneev, A.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
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Kumar, P.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
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O. Kuzucu and F. N. C. Wong, "Pulsed Sagnac source of narrow-band polarization-entangled photons," Phys. Rev. A 77, 032314 (2008).
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D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qubits," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, "Ultrabright source of polarization-entangled-photons," Phys. Rev. A 60, R773-R776 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Langrock, C.

Lederer, T.

Li, X.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Lim, H. C.

Lindner, N. H.

N. Akopian, N. H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B. D. Gerardot, and P. M. Petroff, "Entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipatov, A.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
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X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, and H.-K. Lo, "Quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources," Phys. Rev. A 76, 012307 (2007).
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Lorunser, T.

Lukin, M. D.

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413-418 (2001).
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Y. Luo and K. T. Chan, "Quantum cryptography with entangled multiphotons of the same polarization," Phys. Rev. A 70, 042302 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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X. Ma, C.-H. F. Fung, and H.-K. Lo, "Quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources," Phys. Rev. A 76, 012307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Macchiavello, C.

J. I. Cirac, A. K. Ekert, S. F. Huelga, and C. Macchiavello, "Distributed quantum computation over noisy channels," Phys. Rev. A 59, 4249-4254 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marcikic, I.

V. Scarani, H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Four-photon correction in two-photon Bell experiments," Eur. Phys. J. D 32, 129-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miyazawa, H.

Munro, W. J.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qubits," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

Nishida, Y.

Odate, S.

S. Odate, A. Yoshizawa, and H. Tsuchida, "Polarisation-entangled photon-pair source at 1550 nm using 1-mm-long PPLN waveguide in fibre-loop configuration," Electron. Lett. 43, 1376-1377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okunev, O.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peres, A.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, "Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895-1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petroff, P. M.

N. Akopian, N. H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B. D. Gerardot, and P. M. Petroff, "Entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plenio, M. B.

M. B. Plenio and V. Vedral, "Teleportation, entanglement and thermodynamics in the quantum world," Contemp. Phys. 39, 431-446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poem, E.

N. Akopian, N. H. Lindner, E. Poem, Y. Berlatzky, J. Avron, D. Gershoni, B. D. Gerardot, and P. M. Petroff, "Entangled photon pairs from semiconductor quantum dots," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 130501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

Rarity, J. G.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967-1981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, "Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 595-604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967-1981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. J Young, R. M. Stevenson, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, "Improved fidelity of triggered entangled photons from single quantum dots," New J. Phys. 8, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Scarani, V.

V. Scarani, H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Four-photon correction in two-photon Bell experiments," Eur. Phys. J. D 32, 129-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Scarani and N. Gisin, "Quantum key distribution between N partners: Optimal eavesdropping and Bell???s inequalities," Phys. Rev. A 65, 012311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, A. J.

R. J Young, R. M. Stevenson, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, "Improved fidelity of triggered entangled photons from single quantum dots," New J. Phys. 8, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

H. Takesue and K. Shimizu, submitted to J. Mod. Opt.

Shimony, A.

J. F. Clauser, M. A. Horne, A. Shimony, and R. A. Holt, "Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories," Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880-884 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, K.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stefanov, A.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967-1981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, R. M.

R. J Young, R. M. Stevenson, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, "Improved fidelity of triggered entangled photons from single quantum dots," New J. Phys. 8, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967-1981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

Takesue, H.

Tapster, P. R.

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, "Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 595-604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Temporao, G. P.

Tokura, Y.

Tsuchida, H.

H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, "Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide," Opt. Express 16, 12460-12468 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-12460.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Odate, A. Yoshizawa, and H. Tsuchida, "Polarisation-entangled photon-pair source at 1550 nm using 1-mm-long PPLN waveguide in fibre-loop configuration," Electron. Lett. 43, 1376-1377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, "Generation of polarisation-entangled photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 621-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tsuchida, "A 1550 nm single-photon detector using a thermoelectrically cooled InGaAs avalanche photodiode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 200-201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vanner, M. R.

Vedral, V.

M. B. Plenio and V. Vedral, "Teleportation, entanglement and thermodynamics in the quantum world," Contemp. Phys. 39, 431-446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Verevkin, A.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vilela de Faria, G.

von der Weid, J. P.

Voronov, B.

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voss, P. L.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, "Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waks, E.

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, "Ultrabright source of polarization-entangled-photons," Phys. Rev. A 60, R773-R776 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wall, T.

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967-1981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

White, A. G.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, "Measurement of qubits," Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kwiat, E. Waks, A. G. White, I. Appelbaum, and P. H. Eberhard, "Ultrabright source of polarization-entangled-photons," Phys. Rev. A 60, R773-R776 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wong, F. N. C.

O. Kuzucu and F. N. C. Wong, "Pulsed Sagnac source of narrow-band polarization-entangled photons," Phys. Rev. A 77, 032314 (2008).
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M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, "Efficient single-photon counting at 1.55 ?m by means of frequency upconversion," Opt. Lett. 29, 1449-1451 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wootters, W. K.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, and W. K. Wootters, "Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1895-1899 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, E.

Wu, G.

Xavier, G. B.

Xie, X.

Yamamoto, Y.

Yoshizawa, A.

H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, "Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide," Opt. Express 16, 12460-12468 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-17-12460.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Odate, A. Yoshizawa, and H. Tsuchida, "Polarisation-entangled photon-pair source at 1550 nm using 1-mm-long PPLN waveguide in fibre-loop configuration," Electron. Lett. 43, 1376-1377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, "Generation of polarisation-entangled photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 621-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tsuchida, "A 1550 nm single-photon detector using a thermoelectrically cooled InGaAs avalanche photodiode," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 200-201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. J

R. J Young, R. M. Stevenson, P. Atkinson, K. Cooper, D. A. Ritchie, and A. J. Shields, "Improved fidelity of triggered entangled photons from single quantum dots," New J. Phys. 8, 29 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

V. Scarani, H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Four-photon correction in two-photon Bell experiments," Eur. Phys. J. D 32, 129-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967-1981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

Zeng, H.

Zhang, J.

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Zoller, P.

L.-M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics," Nature 414, 413-418 (2001).
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H.-J. Briegel, W. Dur, J. I. Cirac, and P. Zoller, "Quantum repeaters: The role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5932-5935 (1998).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. N. Gol???tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705-707 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Verevkin, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, A. Lipatov, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Korneev, K. Smirnov, G. N. Gol'tsman, and A. Semenov, "Detection efficiency of large-active-area NbN single-photon superconducting detectors in the ultraviolet to near-infrared range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4687-4689 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Contemp. Phys. (1)

M. B. Plenio and V. Vedral, "Teleportation, entanglement and thermodynamics in the quantum world," Contemp. Phys. 39, 431-446 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, "Generation of polarisation-entangled photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides," Electron. Lett. 39, 621-622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Odate, A. Yoshizawa, and H. Tsuchida, "Polarisation-entangled photon-pair source at 1550 nm using 1-mm-long PPLN waveguide in fibre-loop configuration," Electron. Lett. 43, 1376-1377 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

V. Scarani, H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "Four-photon correction in two-photon Bell experiments," Eur. Phys. J. D 32, 129-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (3)

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, "Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 595-604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967-1981 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue and K. Shimizu, submitted to J. Mod. Opt.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The concept of a local-area entanglement distribution fiber network. An entanglement distributor, who plays the role of a service provider, distributes entanglement to many application users scattered within a local-area network via fiber-optic transmission lines.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(color online) Generation of polarization-entangled photon-pairs by combining horizontally-polarized and vertically-polarized pairs produced in different waveguides in an indistinguishable way. PBS: polarization beam-splitter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(color online) Visibility versus photon-pair generation rate and distance plot for two users who employ InGaAs single-photon detectors (transmittance at source is 0.1, fiber attenuation is 0.2 dB/km, detector quantum efficiency is 0.2 and dark count probability per gate is 10-4). At 100 km, a photon-pair generation rate of 0.11 per pump pulse gives the highest visibility of 0.725.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(color online) The three zones of a local-area entanglement distribution fiber network. The location of Alice, Bob, and Charlie are also shown. SP: service provider.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated two-photon interference fringe visibility versus photon-pair generation rate for entanglement distribution to Alice and Charlie. The bold line is the exact result, the broken line omits multiple-pair emissions, while the thin line includes only double- and triple-pairs.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic of the transmission experiment. DCF: dispersion compensation fiber, DSF: dispersion-shifted fiber, SMF: single-mode fiber

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(color online) Density matrices reconstructed from quantum state tomography measurements and two-photon interference fringes observed after (a) 82 km and (b) 132 km of fiber transmission (accidental coincidences included). Entanglement fidelity was 0.86 after 82 km transmission. For 132 km transmission, the final entanglement fidelity was 0.60. Averaged two-photon interference fringe visibilities were 0.75 and 0.46, respectively.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(color online) Theoretical results giving the two-photon interference fringe visibility versus photon-pair generation rate and transmission distance (a) for 0 km to 82 km and (b) for 82 km to 132 km. Experimentally observed visibilities and fidelities were in good agreement with the predicted values.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table. 1. Single-photon detectors used in our example. Numerical values are representative values chosen for convenience and do not represent the performance of actual devices (id Quantique, Scontel, [30, 38]).

Equations (25)

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Φ + s , i = H s H i + V s V i ,
| ξ s , i = 1 cosh r n = 0 ( 1 ) n e in φ ( tanh r ) n | n s | n i .
ξ s , i = n = 0 ( 1 ) n e in φ μ n ( 1 + μ ) n + 1 n s n i .
μ λ n ( 1 + μ λ ) n + 1 ,
P ( μ , n ) = ( n + 1 ) ( μ 2 ) 2 ( 1 + μ 2 ) n + 2 .
n = 0 nP ( μ , n ) = μ .
C max = n = 1 A n ( p 1 , p 2 ) P ( μ , n ) F + C acc ,
C min = n = 1 B n ( p 1 , p 2 ) P ( μ , n ) F + C acc ,
A n ( p 1 , p 2 ) = m = 0 n 1 n + 1 [ 1 ( 1 p 1 ) n m ] [ 1 ( 1 p 2 ) n m ]   ,
B n ( p 1 , p 2 ) = m = 0 n 1 n + 1 [ 1 ( 1 p 1 ) n m ] [ 1 ( 1 p 2 ) m ]   ,
C max = [ 1 2 2 + p 1 μ 2 2 + p 2 μ + 2 2 + ( p 1 + p 2 p 1 p 2 ) μ ] F + C acc   ,
C min = p 1 p 2 μ 2 F ( 2 + p 1 μ ) ( 2 + p 2 μ ) + C acc .
C acc = s 1 d 2 + s 2 d 1 d 1 d 2 F ,
s i = n = 1 [ 1 ( 1 p i 2 ) n ] P ( μ , n ) F + d i F = [ 1 1 ( 1 + p i μ 4 ) 2 + d i ] F
V ( μ , p 1 , p 2 ) = C max ( μ , p 1 , p 2 ) C min ( μ , p 1 , p 2 ) C max ( μ , p 1 , p 2 ) + C min ( μ , p 1 , p 2 ) ,
p i = η 0 η i t i ,
Φ s , i = H s H i V s V i ,
ξ H s , i = n = 0 ( 1 ) n e in φ μ H n ( 1 + μ H ) n + 1 n s , H n i , H ,
ξ V s , i = n = 0 ( 1 ) n e in φ μ V n ( 1 + μ V ) n + 1 n s , V n i , V ,
ξ H s , i ξ V s , i = m = 0 n = 0 ( 1 ) m + n e i ( m + n ) φ μ H m ( 1 + μ H ) m + 1 μ V n ( 1 + μ V ) n + 1 m s , H m i , H n s , V n i , V .
μ H = μ V μ 2 ,
ξ H s , i ξ V s , i = m = 0 n = 0 ( 1 ) m + n e i ( m + n ) φ ( μ 2 ) m + n ( 1 + ( μ 2 ) ) m + n + 2 m s , H m i , H n s , V n i , V .
ξ H s , i ξ V s , i = n = 0 ( 1 ) n e in φ ( n + 1 ) ( μ 2 ) n ( 1 + μ 2 ) n + 2 n , pairs ,
n pairs 1 n + 1 m = 0 n m s , H m i , H n m s , V n m i , V .
P ( μ , n ) = ( n + 1 ) ( μ 2 ) n ( 1 + μ 2 ) n + 2 .

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