Abstract

Use of high numerical aperture focusing with negative longitudinal spherical aberration is shown to enable deep (>10 µm), high aspect ratio, nano-scale-width holes to be machined into the surface of a fused-silica (SiO2) substrate with single pulses from a 200 fs, 4 µJ Ti-Sapphire laser source. The depths of the nano-holes are characterized by use of a non-destructive acetate replication technique and are confirmed by imaging of sectioned samples with a dual focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

R. G. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nature Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Farson, H. W. Choi, B. Zimmerman, J. K. Steach, J. J. Chalmers, S. V. Olesik, and L. J. Lee, "Femtosecond laser micromachining of dielectric materials for biomedical applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction," Opt. Express 16, 5481-5492 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5481
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, "Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, V. Diez-Blanco, A. Ruiz, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface optical waveguides produced by direct writing with femtosecond laser pulses in fused silica and phosphate glass," Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1121-1125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Huot, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, and E. Audouard, "Analysis of the effects of spherical aberration on ultrafast laser-induced refractive index variation in glass," Opt. Express 15, 12395-12408 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12395
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, T. Hashimoto, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in a bulk of silica: Formation of nanovoids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates," Opt. Express 14, 5279-5284 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5279
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Ashcom, R. R. Gattass, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, "Numerical aperture dependence of damage and supercontinuum generation from femtosecond laser pulses in bulk fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2317-2322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. P. Rajeev, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, "Strong field ionization inside transparent solids," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S397-S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (7)

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655-659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Nikumb, Q. Chen, C. Li, H. Reshef, H.Y. Zheng, H. Qiu, and D. Low, "Precision glass machining, drilling and profile cutting by short pulse lasers," Thin Solid Films 477, 216-221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Gomez, F. Tekniker, I. Goenaga, I. Lizuain, and M. Ozaita, "Femtosecond laser ablation for microfluidics," Opt. Eng. 44, 051105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Toratani, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, "Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Campbell, F. C. Dear, D. P. Hand, and D. T. Reit, "Single-pulse femtosecond laser machining of glass," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 162-168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, "Optics at critical intensity: "Applications to nanomorphing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856-5861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Deki, S. Iizuka, A. Horie, M. Mizuhata, and A. Kajinami, "Nanofabrication of metal oxide thin films and nano-ceramics from aqueous solution," J. Mater. Chem. 14, 3127-3132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

B. Tan, K. Venkatkrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, G. K. Gan, "Laser drilling of thick material using femtosecond pulse with a focus of dual-frequency beam," Opt. Laser Technol. 35, 199-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Morou, and A. J. Hunt, "A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining," Appl. Phys. B 77, 25-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevicius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass," Appl. Phys. A 76, 257-260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

2002 (2)

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and B. Luther-Davies, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Physics of Plasmas 9, 949-957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

1999 (1)

Y. M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yankovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Pu and H. Zhang, "Intensity distribution of Gaussian beams focused by a lens with spherical aberration," Opt. Commun. 151, 331-338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Karman, A. Van Duijl, and J. P. Woerdman, "Observation of a stronger focus due to spherical aberration," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 2513 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Ameer-Beg, W. Perrie, S. Rathbone, J. Wright, W. Weaver, and H. Champux, "Femtosecond laser microstructuring of materials," Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 875-880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

1994 (1)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

N. Blombergen, "Laser-induced optical breakdown in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 375-386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

R. G. Brewer and C. H. Lee, "Self-trapping with picosecond light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 267-270 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

P. Hyde and D. Krinsley, "An improved technique for electron microscopic examination of foraminifera," Micropaleontology 10, 491-493 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Adams, S.

Ameer-Beg, S.

S. Ameer-Beg, W. Perrie, S. Rathbone, J. Wright, W. Weaver, and H. Champux, "Femtosecond laser microstructuring of materials," Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 875-880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

An, R.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

Audouard, E.

Banks, P. S.

Y. M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yankovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. P. Rajeev, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, "Strong field ionization inside transparent solids," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S397-S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blombergen, N.

N. Blombergen, "Laser-induced optical breakdown in solids," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 10, 375-386 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, R. G.

R. G. Brewer and C. H. Lee, "Self-trapping with picosecond light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 267-270 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Bulgakova, N. M.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, "Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burakov, I. M.

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D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 84, 257-260 (2006).
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D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 84, 257-260 (2006).
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A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, "Optics at critical intensity: "Applications to nanomorphing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856-5861 (2004).
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X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
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[CrossRef]

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D. Gomez, F. Tekniker, I. Goenaga, I. Lizuain, and M. Ozaita, "Femtosecond laser ablation for microfluidics," Opt. Eng. 44, 051105 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

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A. Marcinkevicius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass," Appl. Phys. A 76, 257-260 (2003).
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A. Marcinkevicius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass," Appl. Phys. A 76, 257-260 (2003).
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A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Morou, and A. J. Hunt, "A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining," Appl. Phys. B 77, 25-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, T. Hashimoto, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in a bulk of silica: Formation of nanovoids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevicius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass," Appl. Phys. A 76, 257-260 (2003).
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Mizeikis, V.

A. Marcinkevicius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass," Appl. Phys. A 76, 257-260 (2003).
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S. Deki, S. Iizuka, A. Horie, M. Mizuhata, and A. Kajinami, "Nanofabrication of metal oxide thin films and nano-ceramics from aqueous solution," J. Mater. Chem. 14, 3127-3132 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Morou, and A. J. Hunt, "A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining," Appl. Phys. B 77, 25-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, "Optics at critical intensity: "Applications to nanomorphing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856-5861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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S. Nikumb, Q. Chen, C. Li, H. Reshef, H.Y. Zheng, H. Qiu, and D. Low, "Precision glass machining, drilling and profile cutting by short pulse lasers," Thin Solid Films 477, 216-221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Nolte, S.

Obara, M.

E. Toratani, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, "Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olesik, S. V.

D. F. Farson, H. W. Choi, B. Zimmerman, J. K. Steach, J. J. Chalmers, S. V. Olesik, and L. J. Lee, "Femtosecond laser micromachining of dielectric materials for biomedical applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ostendorf, A.

Ozaita, M.

D. Gomez, F. Tekniker, I. Goenaga, I. Lizuain, and M. Ozaita, "Femtosecond laser ablation for microfluidics," Opt. Eng. 44, 051105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perrie, W.

S. Ameer-Beg, W. Perrie, S. Rathbone, J. Wright, W. Weaver, and H. Champux, "Femtosecond laser microstructuring of materials," Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 875-880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459-468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perry, Y. M. D.

Y. M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yankovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pu, J.

J. Pu and H. Zhang, "Intensity distribution of Gaussian beams focused by a lens with spherical aberration," Opt. Commun. 151, 331-338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, H.

S. Nikumb, Q. Chen, C. Li, H. Reshef, H.Y. Zheng, H. Qiu, and D. Low, "Precision glass machining, drilling and profile cutting by short pulse lasers," Thin Solid Films 477, 216-221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. P. Rajeev, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, "Strong field ionization inside transparent solids," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S397-S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rathbone, S.

S. Ameer-Beg, W. Perrie, S. Rathbone, J. Wright, W. Weaver, and H. Champux, "Femtosecond laser microstructuring of materials," Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 875-880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. P. Rajeev, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, "Strong field ionization inside transparent solids," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S397-S407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reit, D. T.

S. Campbell, F. C. Dear, D. P. Hand, and D. T. Reit, "Single-pulse femtosecond laser machining of glass," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 162-168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reshef, H.

S. Nikumb, Q. Chen, C. Li, H. Reshef, H.Y. Zheng, H. Qiu, and D. Low, "Precision glass machining, drilling and profile cutting by short pulse lasers," Thin Solid Films 477, 216-221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

Richardson, M.

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

Rode, A. V.

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and B. Luther-Davies, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Physics of Plasmas 9, 949-957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, "Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

Y. M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yankovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459-468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, A.

A. Ferrer, V. Diez-Blanco, A. Ruiz, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface optical waveguides produced by direct writing with femtosecond laser pulses in fused silica and phosphate glass," Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1121-1125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz de la Cruz, A.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruske, J. -P.

Sartania, S.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

Shah, L.

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459-468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, J.

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrer, V. Diez-Blanco, A. Ruiz, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface optical waveguides produced by direct writing with femtosecond laser pulses in fused silica and phosphate glass," Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1121-1125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumar, N. R.

B. Tan, K. Venkatkrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, G. K. Gan, "Laser drilling of thick material using femtosecond pulse with a focus of dual-frequency beam," Opt. Laser Technol. 35, 199-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

A. Ferrer, V. Diez-Blanco, A. Ruiz, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface optical waveguides produced by direct writing with femtosecond laser pulses in fused silica and phosphate glass," Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1121-1125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spooner, G. J.

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Morou, and A. J. Hunt, "A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining," Appl. Phys. B 77, 25-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J.

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steach, J. K.

D. F. Farson, H. W. Choi, B. Zimmerman, J. K. Steach, J. J. Chalmers, S. V. Olesik, and L. J. Lee, "Femtosecond laser micromachining of dielectric materials for biomedical applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

Stuart, B. C.

Y. M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yankovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Optical ablation by high-power short-pulse lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 459-468 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655-659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tan, B.

B. Tan, K. Venkatkrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, G. K. Gan, "Laser drilling of thick material using femtosecond pulse with a focus of dual-frequency beam," Opt. Laser Technol. 35, 199-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tekniker, F.

D. Gomez, F. Tekniker, I. Goenaga, I. Lizuain, and M. Ozaita, "Femtosecond laser ablation for microfluidics," Opt. Eng. 44, 051105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and B. Luther-Davies, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Physics of Plasmas 9, 949-957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tome, T.

Toratani, E.

E. Toratani, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, "Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

Van Duijl, A.

G. P. Karman, A. Van Duijl, and J. P. Woerdman, "Observation of a stronger focus due to spherical aberration," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 2513 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Venkatkrishnan, K.

B. Tan, K. Venkatkrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, G. K. Gan, "Laser drilling of thick material using femtosecond pulse with a focus of dual-frequency beam," Opt. Laser Technol. 35, 199-202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Weaver, W.

S. Ameer-Beg, W. Perrie, S. Rathbone, J. Wright, W. Weaver, and H. Champux, "Femtosecond laser microstructuring of materials," Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 875-880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

Woerdman, J. P.

G. P. Karman, A. Van Duijl, and J. P. Woerdman, "Observation of a stronger focus due to spherical aberration," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 2513 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wright, J.

S. Ameer-Beg, W. Perrie, S. Rathbone, J. Wright, W. Weaver, and H. Champux, "Femtosecond laser microstructuring of materials," Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 875-880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Yamada, K.

Yang, H.

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655-659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, H. Jiang, L. Luo, H. Guo, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Multiple foci and a long filament observed with focused femtosecond pulse propagation in fused silica," Opt. Lett. 27, 448-450 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yankovsky, V.

Y. M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yankovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J. Pu and H. Zhang, "Intensity distribution of Gaussian beams focused by a lens with spherical aberration," Opt. Commun. 151, 331-338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.Y.

S. Nikumb, Q. Chen, C. Li, H. Reshef, H.Y. Zheng, H. Qiu, and D. Low, "Precision glass machining, drilling and profile cutting by short pulse lasers," Thin Solid Films 477, 216-221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655-659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, B.

D. F. Farson, H. W. Choi, B. Zimmerman, J. K. Steach, J. J. Chalmers, S. V. Olesik, and L. J. Lee, "Femtosecond laser micromachining of dielectric materials for biomedical applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

Appl. Phys. A (3)

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

A. Marcinkevicius, V. Mizeikis, S. Juodkazis, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Effect of refractive index-mismatch on laser microfabrication in silica glass," Appl. Phys. A 76, 257-260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Liu, Y. Li, R. An, Y. Dou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Influence of focusing depth on the microfabrication of waveguides inside silica glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 84, 257-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, G. J. Spooner, E. Meyhofer, G. Morou, and A. J. Hunt, "A study of the deterministic character of optical damage by femtosecond laser pulses and applications to nanomachining," Appl. Phys. B 77, 25-30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

D. Du, X. Liu, G. Korn, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, "Laser-induced breakdown by impact ionization in SiO2 with pulse widths from 7 ns to 150 fs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3071-3073 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, T. Hashimoto, E. G. Gamaly, and B. Luther-Davies, "Laser-induced microexplosion confined in a bulk of silica: Formation of nanovoids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201909 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Toratani, M. Kamata, and M. Obara, "Self-fabrication of void array in fused silica by femtosecond laser processing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, "Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 882-884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Kim, K. Campbell, A. Groisman, D. Kleinfeld, and C. B. Schaffer, "Femtosecond laser-drilled capillary integrated into a microfluidic device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 201106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Diez-Blanco, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, A. Ruiz de la Cruz, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface waveguides with circular cross section produced by femtosecond laser writing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

A. Ferrer, V. Diez-Blanco, A. Ruiz, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, "Deep subsurface optical waveguides produced by direct writing with femtosecond laser pulses in fused silica and phosphate glass," Appl. Surf. Sci. 254, 1121-1125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ameer-Beg, W. Perrie, S. Rathbone, J. Wright, W. Weaver, and H. Champux, "Femtosecond laser microstructuring of materials," Appl. Surf. Sci. 129, 875-880 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser ablation and micromachining with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
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J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yankovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, "Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials," J. Appl. Phys. 85, 6803-6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Burakov, N. M. Bulgakova, R. Stoian, A. Mermillod-Blondin, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, and I. V. Hertel, "Spatial distribution of refractive index variations induced in bulk fused silica by single ultrashort and short laser pulses," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 043506 (2007).
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J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S. Deki, S. Iizuka, A. Horie, M. Mizuhata, and A. Kajinami, "Nanofabrication of metal oxide thin films and nano-ceramics from aqueous solution," J. Mater. Chem. 14, 3127-3132 (2004).
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D. F. Farson, H. W. Choi, B. Zimmerman, J. K. Steach, J. J. Chalmers, S. V. Olesik, and L. J. Lee, "Femtosecond laser micromachining of dielectric materials for biomedical applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035020 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. P. Karman, A. Van Duijl, and J. P. Woerdman, "Observation of a stronger focus due to spherical aberration," J. Mod. Opt. 45, 2513 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (2)

S. Campbell, F. C. Dear, D. P. Hand, and D. T. Reit, "Single-pulse femtosecond laser machining of glass," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 162-168 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, H. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Zhou, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Effect of spherical aberration on the propagation of a tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse inside fused silica," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 655-659 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. P. Rajeev, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, "Strong field ionization inside transparent solids," J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S397-S407 (2006).
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Micropaleontology (1)

P. Hyde and D. Krinsley, "An improved technique for electron microscopic examination of foraminifera," Micropaleontology 10, 491-493 (1964).
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Nature Photonics (1)

R. G. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nature Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Pu and H. Zhang, "Intensity distribution of Gaussian beams focused by a lens with spherical aberration," Opt. Commun. 151, 331-338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. Gomez, F. Tekniker, I. Goenaga, I. Lizuain, and M. Ozaita, "Femtosecond laser ablation for microfluidics," Opt. Eng. 44, 051105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

B. Tan, K. Venkatkrishnan, N. R. Sivakumar, G. K. Gan, "Laser drilling of thick material using femtosecond pulse with a focus of dual-frequency beam," Opt. Laser Technol. 35, 199-202 (2003).
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Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Couairon A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Phys. Rep. 441, 47-189 (2007).
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B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Nanosecond-to-femtosecond laser-induced breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749-1761 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Lenzner, J. Kruger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, Ch. Spielmann, G. Mourou, W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond optical breakdown in dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
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Physics of Plasmas (1)

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, V. T. Tikhonchuk, and B. Luther-Davies, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Physics of Plasmas 9, 949-957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

A. P. Joglekar, H. Liu, E. Meyhofer, G. Mourou, and A. J. Hunt, "Optics at critical intensity: "Applications to nanomorphing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 5856-5861 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

S. Nikumb, Q. Chen, C. Li, H. Reshef, H.Y. Zheng, H. Qiu, and D. Low, "Precision glass machining, drilling and profile cutting by short pulse lasers," Thin Solid Films 477, 216-221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

X. Li, W. Hofmeister, G. Shen, L. Davis, and C. Daniel, "Fabrication and characterization of nanofluidics device using fused silica for single protein molecule detection," Proceedings of Materials and Processes for Medical Devices (MPMD) Conference and Exposition, September 23-25, 2007.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd Edn., (Academic Press, San Diego, 2003).

L. M. Davis, B. K. Canfield, X. Li, W. H. Hofmeister, I. P. Lescano-Mendoza, B. W. Bomar, J. P. Wikswo, D. A. Markov, P. C. Samson, C. Daniel, Z. Sikorski, and W. N. Robinson, "Electrokinetic delivery of single fluorescent biomolecules in fluidic nanochannels," Proc. SPIE 7035, -9 (2008).

L. A. Giannuzzi and F. A. Stevie, Introduction to Focused Ion Beams: Instrumentation, Theory, Techniques and Practice, (Springer US, New York, New York, 2005).

J. Bozzola and L. D. Russell, Electron Microscopy: Principles and Techniques for Biologists (Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 1999), Chap. 3: Specimen preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Nano-holes machined by single laser pulses at different energies: (a) E=1.20 µJ; (b) E=1.6 µJ; (c) E=2.40 µJ; (d) E=1.20 µJ.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dependence of nano-hole diameter at the surface on pulse energy.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of replicated arrays of nano-holes (45 degree tilt): (a) Nano-holes machined with laser pulse energy E=1.60 µJ; (b) E=2 µJ.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of (a) hole depth, and (b) aspect ratio, as obtained by acetate replication, on the pulse energy.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic side-view diagram of the DualBeam SEM/FIB tool. The angle between the electron beam and the ion beam columns is 52°. (b) The scope image inside the chamber of the tool.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) SEM image of the sectioned nano-holes #1–4 in the trench at zero degree tilt. Note that AC is a projected length on the sample surface. All 4 holes are still visible within the trench. (b) View of the trench in (a) after the sample was rotated 90° clockwise then tilted 25°, with nano-holes #1 and #2 in view. The triangle ABC corresponds to that in Fig. 6(a).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

SEM image at 52 degree tilt of FIB cross-sectioned nano-hole entrance. The sample surface was gold coated for milling.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Minimum depths of nano-holes in Fig. 6(a)

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