Abstract

Material ablation by excimer laser micromachining is a promising approach for structuring sol-gel materials as we demonstrate in the present study. Using the well-known direct etching technique, the behaviour of different hybrid organic/inorganic self-made sol-gel materials is examined with a KrF* laser. Ablated depths ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 µm are obtained with a few laser pulses at low fluence (<1 J/cm2). The aim is to rapidly transfer surface relief multi-level diffractive patterns in such a substrate, without intermediate steps. The combination with the 3D profilometry technique of coherence probe microscopy permits to analyse the etching process with the aim of producing multi-level Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE). Examples of four-level DOEs with 10 µm square elementary cells are presented, as well as their laser reconstructions in the infrared.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Meyrueis and B. Kress, Digital Diffractive Optics (Chichester Wiley, 2000).
  2. T. Levola, "Diffractive optics for virtual reality displays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 467-475 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Cakmakci and K. Rolland, "Comparative analysis of doublets versus single-layer diffractive optical elements in eyepiece or magnifier design," Appl. Opt. 46, 8140-8148 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Yang, X. Su, and P. Xu, "Perfect shuffle transform based on a microblazed grating array," Appl. Opt. 46, 210-215 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Haupt, M. Palhke, R. Krupka, and H. J. Tiziani, "Computer generated microcooled reflection holograms in silicon for material processing with CO2 laser," Appl. Opt. 36, 4411-4418 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. G. Jabbour and S. M. Kuebler, "Axial field shaping under high-numerical-aperture focusing," Opt. Lett. 32, 527-529 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. S. Liu, A. J. Caley, and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Diffractive optical elements for beam shaping of monochromatic spatially incoherent light," Appl. Opt. 45, 8440-8447 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Hermerschmidt, S. Krüger and G. Wernicke, "Binary diffractive beam splitters with arbitrary diffraction angles," Opt. Lett. 32, 448-450 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Ekberg, M. Larsson, A. Bolle, and S. Hard, "Nd:YAG laser machining with multilevel resist kinoforms," Appl. Opt. 30, 3604-3606 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Fuse, K. Ebata, T. Okada, K. Kurisu, and M. Shiozaki, "Optical properties of ZnSe diffractive optical elements for spot array generation," in Proceedings of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (2000), pp 179-186.
  11. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, "Fabrication of continuous relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33, 3556-3566 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. B. Kley, "Continuous writing profile by electron and optical lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 34, 261-298 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. A. Vainos, S. Mailis, S. Pissadakis, L. Boutsikaris, P. J. M. Parmiter, P. Dainty, and T. J. Hall, "Excimer laser use for microetching computer-generated holographic structures," Appl. Opt. 35, 6304-6319 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. P. Behrmann and M. T. Duignan, "Excimer laser micromachining for rapid fabrication of diffractive optical elements," Appl. Opt. 36, 4666-4674 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. Callewaert, Y. Martelé, L. Breban, K. Naessens, P. Vandaele, R. Baets, G. Geuskens, and E. Schacht, "Excimer laser induced patterning of polymeric surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 218-225 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y-T. Chen, K. Naessens, R. Baets, Y.-S. Liao, and A. A. Tseng, "Ablation of Transparent Materials Using Excimer Lasers for Photonic Applications," Opt. Rev. 12, 427-441 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. A. Tseng, "Recent developments in micromachining of fused silica and quartz using excimer lasers," Physica Status Solidi (A) 204, 709-729, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Böhme, D. Hirsch, and K. Zimmer, "Laser etching of transparent materials at a backside surface adsorbed layer," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4763-4767 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Ihlemann, "Ultraviolet laser ablation patterning of oxide films for optical applications," Opt. Eng. 44, 0511081-0511085 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, and A. P. Leite, "Hybrid Sol-Gel Channel Waveguide Patterning using Photoinitiator-Free Materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399-401 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. I. Najafi, T. Touam, R. Sara, M. P. Andrews, and M. A. Fardad, "Sol-Gel Waveguide and Grating on Silicon," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1640-1646 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, "Fabrication of sub-micron period diffraction gratings in self-processing sol-gel glasses," Thin Solid Films 384, 251-253 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. X. Yu, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. X. Que, W. C. Cheong, and V. Koudriachov, "Single-step fabrication of continuous surface relief micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing," Opt. Express 10, 443-448 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  24. W. C. Cheong, X.-C. Yuan, V. Koudriachov, and W. X. Yu, "High sensitive SiO2/TiO2 hybrid sol-gel material for fabrication of 3 dimensional continuous surface relief diffractive optical elements by electron-beam lithography," Opt. Express 10, 586-590 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  25. L. Li, L. Qinghua, Y. Jie, Z. Zikang, P. Daocheng, and W. Zongguang, "Preparation and properties of photosensitive polyimide/titania-silica hybrid materials," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 22, 61-65 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, "ORMOCERs for Optical Interconnection Technology," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 20, 181-186 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. C. Montgomery, A. Benatmane, E. Fogarassy, and J. P. Ponpon, "Large area, high resolution analysis of surface roughness of semiconductors using interference microscopy," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 91-92, 79-82 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. E. Dyer, "Excimer laser polymer ablation: twenty years on," Appl. Phys. A  77, 167-173 (2003).
  29. T. Lippert, M. Hauer, C. R. Phipps, and A. Wokaun, "Fundamentals and applications of polymers designed for laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 77, 259-264 (2003).
  30. T. Lippert, Polymers and Light, Advances in Polymer Science 168 (Springer, 2004).

2007 (4)

2006 (3)

J. S. Liu, A. J. Caley, and M. R. Taghizadeh, "Diffractive optical elements for beam shaping of monochromatic spatially incoherent light," Appl. Opt. 45, 8440-8447 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Böhme, D. Hirsch, and K. Zimmer, "Laser etching of transparent materials at a backside surface adsorbed layer," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4763-4767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Levola, "Diffractive optics for virtual reality displays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 467-475 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Y-T. Chen, K. Naessens, R. Baets, Y.-S. Liao, and A. A. Tseng, "Ablation of Transparent Materials Using Excimer Lasers for Photonic Applications," Opt. Rev. 12, 427-441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Ihlemann, "Ultraviolet laser ablation patterning of oxide films for optical applications," Opt. Eng. 44, 0511081-0511085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, and A. P. Leite, "Hybrid Sol-Gel Channel Waveguide Patterning using Photoinitiator-Free Materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399-401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

K. Callewaert, Y. Martelé, L. Breban, K. Naessens, P. Vandaele, R. Baets, G. Geuskens, and E. Schacht, "Excimer laser induced patterning of polymeric surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 218-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Dyer, "Excimer laser polymer ablation: twenty years on," Appl. Phys. A  77, 167-173 (2003).

T. Lippert, M. Hauer, C. R. Phipps, and A. Wokaun, "Fundamentals and applications of polymers designed for laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 77, 259-264 (2003).

2002 (4)

L. Li, L. Qinghua, Y. Jie, Z. Zikang, P. Daocheng, and W. Zongguang, "Preparation and properties of photosensitive polyimide/titania-silica hybrid materials," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 22, 61-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Montgomery, A. Benatmane, E. Fogarassy, and J. P. Ponpon, "Large area, high resolution analysis of surface roughness of semiconductors using interference microscopy," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 91-92, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. X. Yu, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. X. Que, W. C. Cheong, and V. Koudriachov, "Single-step fabrication of continuous surface relief micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing," Opt. Express 10, 443-448 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. C. Cheong, X.-C. Yuan, V. Koudriachov, and W. X. Yu, "High sensitive SiO2/TiO2 hybrid sol-gel material for fabrication of 3 dimensional continuous surface relief diffractive optical elements by electron-beam lithography," Opt. Express 10, 586-590 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, "Fabrication of sub-micron period diffraction gratings in self-processing sol-gel glasses," Thin Solid Films 384, 251-253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, "ORMOCERs for Optical Interconnection Technology," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 20, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, "Fabrication of continuous relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33, 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Andrews, M. P.

Baets, R.

Y-T. Chen, K. Naessens, R. Baets, Y.-S. Liao, and A. A. Tseng, "Ablation of Transparent Materials Using Excimer Lasers for Photonic Applications," Opt. Rev. 12, 427-441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Callewaert, Y. Martelé, L. Breban, K. Naessens, P. Vandaele, R. Baets, G. Geuskens, and E. Schacht, "Excimer laser induced patterning of polymeric surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 218-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Behrmann, G. P.

Benatmane, A.

P. C. Montgomery, A. Benatmane, E. Fogarassy, and J. P. Ponpon, "Large area, high resolution analysis of surface roughness of semiconductors using interference microscopy," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 91-92, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, D.

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, "Fabrication of sub-micron period diffraction gratings in self-processing sol-gel glasses," Thin Solid Films 384, 251-253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Böhme, R.

R. Böhme, D. Hirsch, and K. Zimmer, "Laser etching of transparent materials at a backside surface adsorbed layer," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4763-4767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, A.

Boutsikaris, L.

Breban, L.

K. Callewaert, Y. Martelé, L. Breban, K. Naessens, P. Vandaele, R. Baets, G. Geuskens, and E. Schacht, "Excimer laser induced patterning of polymeric surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 218-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Buestrich, R.

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, "ORMOCERs for Optical Interconnection Technology," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 20, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cakmakci, O.

Caley, A. J.

Callewaert, K.

K. Callewaert, Y. Martelé, L. Breban, K. Naessens, P. Vandaele, R. Baets, G. Geuskens, and E. Schacht, "Excimer laser induced patterning of polymeric surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 218-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y-T.

Y-T. Chen, K. Naessens, R. Baets, Y.-S. Liao, and A. A. Tseng, "Ablation of Transparent Materials Using Excimer Lasers for Photonic Applications," Opt. Rev. 12, 427-441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. C.

Dainty, P.

Dannberg, P.

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, "ORMOCERs for Optical Interconnection Technology," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 20, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Daocheng, P.

L. Li, L. Qinghua, Y. Jie, Z. Zikang, P. Daocheng, and W. Zongguang, "Preparation and properties of photosensitive polyimide/titania-silica hybrid materials," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 22, 61-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duignan, M. T.

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, "Excimer laser polymer ablation: twenty years on," Appl. Phys. A  77, 167-173 (2003).

Ekberg, M.

Fardad, M. A.

Fogarassy, E.

P. C. Montgomery, A. Benatmane, E. Fogarassy, and J. P. Ponpon, "Large area, high resolution analysis of surface roughness of semiconductors using interference microscopy," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 91-92, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, "Fabrication of continuous relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33, 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geuskens, G.

K. Callewaert, Y. Martelé, L. Breban, K. Naessens, P. Vandaele, R. Baets, G. Geuskens, and E. Schacht, "Excimer laser induced patterning of polymeric surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 218-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

Hard, S.

Hauer, M.

T. Lippert, M. Hauer, C. R. Phipps, and A. Wokaun, "Fundamentals and applications of polymers designed for laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 77, 259-264 (2003).

Haupt, C.

Hermerschmidt, A.

Hirsch, D.

R. Böhme, D. Hirsch, and K. Zimmer, "Laser etching of transparent materials at a backside surface adsorbed layer," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4763-4767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ihlemann, J.

J. Ihlemann, "Ultraviolet laser ablation patterning of oxide films for optical applications," Opt. Eng. 44, 0511081-0511085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jabbour, T. G.

Jie, Y.

L. Li, L. Qinghua, Y. Jie, Z. Zikang, P. Daocheng, and W. Zongguang, "Preparation and properties of photosensitive polyimide/titania-silica hybrid materials," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 22, 61-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kahlenberg, F.

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, "ORMOCERs for Optical Interconnection Technology," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 20, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E. B.

E. B. Kley, "Continuous writing profile by electron and optical lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 34, 261-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koudriachov, V.

Krüger, S.

Krupka, R.

Kuebler, S. M.

Larsson, M.

Leite, A. P.

P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, and A. P. Leite, "Hybrid Sol-Gel Channel Waveguide Patterning using Photoinitiator-Free Materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399-401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levola, T.

T. Levola, "Diffractive optics for virtual reality displays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 467-475 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

L. Li, L. Qinghua, Y. Jie, Z. Zikang, P. Daocheng, and W. Zongguang, "Preparation and properties of photosensitive polyimide/titania-silica hybrid materials," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 22, 61-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.-S.

Y-T. Chen, K. Naessens, R. Baets, Y.-S. Liao, and A. A. Tseng, "Ablation of Transparent Materials Using Excimer Lasers for Photonic Applications," Opt. Rev. 12, 427-441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lippert, T.

T. Lippert, M. Hauer, C. R. Phipps, and A. Wokaun, "Fundamentals and applications of polymers designed for laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 77, 259-264 (2003).

Liu, J. S.

Mailis, S.

Marques, P. V. S.

P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, and A. P. Leite, "Hybrid Sol-Gel Channel Waveguide Patterning using Photoinitiator-Free Materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399-401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martelé, Y.

K. Callewaert, Y. Martelé, L. Breban, K. Naessens, P. Vandaele, R. Baets, G. Geuskens, and E. Schacht, "Excimer laser induced patterning of polymeric surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 218-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, P. C.

P. C. Montgomery, A. Benatmane, E. Fogarassy, and J. P. Ponpon, "Large area, high resolution analysis of surface roughness of semiconductors using interference microscopy," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 91-92, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moreira, P. J.

P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, and A. P. Leite, "Hybrid Sol-Gel Channel Waveguide Patterning using Photoinitiator-Free Materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399-401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Fiedler, R.

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, "ORMOCERs for Optical Interconnection Technology," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 20, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Naessens, K.

Y-T. Chen, K. Naessens, R. Baets, Y.-S. Liao, and A. A. Tseng, "Ablation of Transparent Materials Using Excimer Lasers for Photonic Applications," Opt. Rev. 12, 427-441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Callewaert, Y. Martelé, L. Breban, K. Naessens, P. Vandaele, R. Baets, G. Geuskens, and E. Schacht, "Excimer laser induced patterning of polymeric surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 218-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

Ngo, N. Q.

Palhke, M.

Parmiter, P. J. M.

Pedersen, J.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, "Fabrication of continuous relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33, 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pelissier, S.

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, "Fabrication of sub-micron period diffraction gratings in self-processing sol-gel glasses," Thin Solid Films 384, 251-253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phipps, C. R.

T. Lippert, M. Hauer, C. R. Phipps, and A. Wokaun, "Fundamentals and applications of polymers designed for laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 77, 259-264 (2003).

Pissadakis, S.

Ponpon, J. P.

P. C. Montgomery, A. Benatmane, E. Fogarassy, and J. P. Ponpon, "Large area, high resolution analysis of surface roughness of semiconductors using interference microscopy," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 91-92, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popall, M.

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, "ORMOCERs for Optical Interconnection Technology," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 20, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Qinghua, L.

L. Li, L. Qinghua, Y. Jie, Z. Zikang, P. Daocheng, and W. Zongguang, "Preparation and properties of photosensitive polyimide/titania-silica hybrid materials," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 22, 61-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Que, W. X.

Rolland, K.

Rösch, O.

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, "ORMOCERs for Optical Interconnection Technology," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 20, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, M.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, "Fabrication of continuous relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33, 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sara, R.

Schacht, E.

K. Callewaert, Y. Martelé, L. Breban, K. Naessens, P. Vandaele, R. Baets, G. Geuskens, and E. Schacht, "Excimer laser induced patterning of polymeric surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 218-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Su, X.

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Tiziani, H. J.

Touam, T.

Tseng, A. A.

Y-T. Chen, K. Naessens, R. Baets, Y.-S. Liao, and A. A. Tseng, "Ablation of Transparent Materials Using Excimer Lasers for Photonic Applications," Opt. Rev. 12, 427-441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Tseng, "Recent developments in micromachining of fused silica and quartz using excimer lasers," Physica Status Solidi (A) 204, 709-729, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vainos, N. A.

Vandaele, P.

K. Callewaert, Y. Martelé, L. Breban, K. Naessens, P. Vandaele, R. Baets, G. Geuskens, and E. Schacht, "Excimer laser induced patterning of polymeric surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 218-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wernicke, G.

Wokaun, A.

T. Lippert, M. Hauer, C. R. Phipps, and A. Wokaun, "Fundamentals and applications of polymers designed for laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 77, 259-264 (2003).

Xu, P.

Yang, J.

Yu, W. X.

Yuan, X.-C.

Zikang, Z.

L. Li, L. Qinghua, Y. Jie, Z. Zikang, P. Daocheng, and W. Zongguang, "Preparation and properties of photosensitive polyimide/titania-silica hybrid materials," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 22, 61-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, K.

R. Böhme, D. Hirsch, and K. Zimmer, "Laser etching of transparent materials at a backside surface adsorbed layer," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4763-4767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zongguang, W.

L. Li, L. Qinghua, Y. Jie, Z. Zikang, P. Daocheng, and W. Zongguang, "Preparation and properties of photosensitive polyimide/titania-silica hybrid materials," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 22, 61-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. A (2)

P. E. Dyer, "Excimer laser polymer ablation: twenty years on," Appl. Phys. A  77, 167-173 (2003).

T. Lippert, M. Hauer, C. R. Phipps, and A. Wokaun, "Fundamentals and applications of polymers designed for laser ablation," Appl. Phys. A 77, 259-264 (2003).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

K. Callewaert, Y. Martelé, L. Breban, K. Naessens, P. Vandaele, R. Baets, G. Geuskens, and E. Schacht, "Excimer laser induced patterning of polymeric surfaces," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209, 218-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, D. Hirsch, and K. Zimmer, "Laser etching of transparent materials at a backside surface adsorbed layer," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4763-4767 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, and A. P. Leite, "Hybrid Sol-Gel Channel Waveguide Patterning using Photoinitiator-Free Materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399-401 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

T. Levola, "Diffractive optics for virtual reality displays," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14, 467-475 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg, M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Müller-Fiedler, and O. Rösch, "ORMOCERs for Optical Interconnection Technology," J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 20, 181-186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

P. C. Montgomery, A. Benatmane, E. Fogarassy, and J. P. Ponpon, "Large area, high resolution analysis of surface roughness of semiconductors using interference microscopy," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 91-92, 79-82 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. C (1)

L. Li, L. Qinghua, Y. Jie, Z. Zikang, P. Daocheng, and W. Zongguang, "Preparation and properties of photosensitive polyimide/titania-silica hybrid materials," Mater. Sci. Eng. C 22, 61-65 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

E. B. Kley, "Continuous writing profile by electron and optical lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 34, 261-298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, and J. Pedersen, "Fabrication of continuous relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists," Opt. Eng. 33, 3556-3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Ihlemann, "Ultraviolet laser ablation patterning of oxide films for optical applications," Opt. Eng. 44, 0511081-0511085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Rev. (1)

Y-T. Chen, K. Naessens, R. Baets, Y.-S. Liao, and A. A. Tseng, "Ablation of Transparent Materials Using Excimer Lasers for Photonic Applications," Opt. Rev. 12, 427-441 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

D. Blanc and S. Pelissier, "Fabrication of sub-micron period diffraction gratings in self-processing sol-gel glasses," Thin Solid Films 384, 251-253 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

T. Lippert, Polymers and Light, Advances in Polymer Science 168 (Springer, 2004).

A. A. Tseng, "Recent developments in micromachining of fused silica and quartz using excimer lasers," Physica Status Solidi (A) 204, 709-729, (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Meyrueis and B. Kress, Digital Diffractive Optics (Chichester Wiley, 2000).

K. Fuse, K. Ebata, T. Okada, K. Kurisu, and M. Shiozaki, "Optical properties of ZnSe diffractive optical elements for spot array generation," in Proceedings of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (2000), pp 179-186.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MPG (3917 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Transmission spectra of the glass substrate, sol-gel film with a small titanium doping (A), a sol-gel film with a high titanium doping and annealed at 100°C (B1), 130°C (B2) and 160°C (B3). Insert: absorption of fused silica substrate, sol-gel film B1 and sol-gel film B3 deposited on fused silica substrates.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup of the compact micromachining station.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Profile with a very sharp edge after laser ablation in the sol-gel substrate. The estimation of the wall angle is 86°. The thickness of the film is 3.04 µm. The laser fluence is 0.9 J/cm2. (b) Profile of the sol-gel film etched with one to five laser shots at 0.9 J/cm2. Insert: measured ablated depth as a linear function of the number of laser shots.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Ablation rate as a function of the laser fluence for two sol-gel film compositions: sample B1 with a high titanium doping and sample A small titanium doping.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Depth etched as a function of the laser shots with a fluence of 0.9 J/cm2. Different cases of annealing temperature are compared in this figure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical microscope images of square patterns etched in a sol-gel film. Dimensions of the square from left to right are 50 µm, 25 µm and 10 µm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Frame of the movie showing the laser micromachining process of a 4-level surface relief diffractive optical element. File size: 4 Mb. Media 1.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Optical microscope image of a 4-level 32×32 pixel DOE machined in a sol-gel layer. The size of the pixel is 25 µm. (b) Detail of an 8-level structure realized in a sol-gel layer. The size of the pixel is 10 microns.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

3D profile measured by Coherence Probe Microscopy of a 4-level 32×32 pixel phase DOE machined in a sol-gel layer. The size of the pixel is 25 microns.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Reconstruction with a Nd:YVO4 laser of a binary 128×128 pixels DOE containing 8 dots on an off-axis circle. (b) Reconstruction with a Nd:YVO4 laser of a 4-level 128×128 pixels DOE containing 8 dots on an off-axis circle. The pixel size is 10 µm in both cases.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Depths etched in a sol-gel layer as a function of the number of laser shots with a fluence of 0.9 J/cm2. Comparison between different assistance gases used during the ablation process.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison between measurements and theoretical depths in the case of 4-level DOE machined in a sol-gel layer.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

HAZ =
d = 1 α eff l n ( F F T )
h = λ N · ( n 1 )

Metrics