Abstract

We propose and demonstrate hybrid white light emitting diodes enhanced with resonant nonradiative energy transfer in CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystal solids integrated on near-UV InGaN/GaN LEDs. We observe a relative quantum efficiency enhancement of 13.2 percent for the acceptor nanocrystals in the energy gradient mixed assembly, compared to the monodisperse phase. This enhancement is attributed to the ability to recycle trapped excitons into nanocrystals using nonradiative energy transfer. We present the time-resolved photoluminescence of these nanocrystal solids to reveal the kinetics of their energy transfer and their steady-state photoluminescence to exhibit the resulting quantum efficiency enhancement.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller, S. G. Hickey, and S. V. Kershaw, "Infrared emitting colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, assembly, spectroscopy, and applications," Small 3, 536 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. Klimov, A. Mihkailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. Hollingsworth, C. Leatherdale, and M. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Mutlugun, I. M. Soganci, and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal hybridized scintillators for enhanced detection and imaging on Si platforms in UV," Opt. Express 15, 1128-1134 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. M. Soganci, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akin, and H. V. Demir, "Localized plasmon-engineered spontaneous emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanoisland films for controlling emission linewidth, peak, and intensity," Opt. Express. 15, 14289-14298 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H.V. Demir, "Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Chen, C. Hsu, and H. Hong, "InGaN-CdSe-ZnSe Quantum Dots White LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 193-195 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Ali, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Nag, A. Kumar, S. Sapra, S. Chakraborty, and D. D. Sarma, "White-light emission from a blend of CdSeS nanocrystals of different Se:S ratio," Nanotechnology 18, 075401 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S419-S424 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. A. Chistyakov, I. L. Martynov, K. E. Mochalov, V. A. Oleinikov, S. V. Sizova, E. A. Ustinovich, and K. V. Zakharchenko, "Interaction of CdSe/ZnS core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals in solid thin films," Laser Phys. 16, 1625 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. A. Klar, T. Franzl, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Super efficient exciton funneling in layer-by-layer semiconductor nanocrystal structures," Adv. Mat. 17, 769 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, M. Nirmal, and M. G. Bawendi, "Electronic Energy Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1517-1520 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, "Long Range Resonance Transfer of Electronic Excitations in Close Packed CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. B 54, 8633-8643 (1996).
  20. S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, "Spectrally Resolved Dynamics of Energy Transfer in Quantum-Dot Assemblies: Toward Engineered Energy Flows in Artificial Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186802 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, "Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13782 (2003).
  22. T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh,T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, "Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2904 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Franzl, A. Shavel, A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, T. A. Klar, A. Eychmüller, and J. Feldmann, "High rate unidirectional energy transfer in directly assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Small 1, 392 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures," Nano Lett. 4, 1599 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, "Energy- transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, J. Kusba, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increased resonance energy transfer between fluorophores bound to DNA in proximity to metallic silver particles," Anal. Biochem. 315, 160 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. J. Rosentha, "Bar-coding biomolecules with fluorescent nanocrystals," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 621 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Kimura, S. Maenosono1, and Y. Yamaguchi, �??Near-field optical recording on a CdSe nanocrystal thin film,�?? Nanotechnology 14, 69 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Maenosono, E. Ozaki, K. Yoshie, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Nonlinear photoluminescence behavior in closely packed CdSe nanocrystal thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L. 638 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  30. E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, and D. A. B. Miller, Optically controlled optical gate with an optoelectronic dual diode structure: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1035-1054 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting," Opt. Express 12, 310-316 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H.V. Demir, "Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (11)

I. M. Soganci, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akin, and H. V. Demir, "Localized plasmon-engineered spontaneous emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanoisland films for controlling emission linewidth, peak, and intensity," Opt. Express. 15, 14289-14298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ali, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Nag, A. Kumar, S. Sapra, S. Chakraborty, and D. D. Sarma, "White-light emission from a blend of CdSeS nanocrystals of different Se:S ratio," Nanotechnology 18, 075401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S419-S424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller, S. G. Hickey, and S. V. Kershaw, "Infrared emitting colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, assembly, spectroscopy, and applications," Small 3, 536 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mutlugun, I. M. Soganci, and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal hybridized scintillators for enhanced detection and imaging on Si platforms in UV," Opt. Express 15, 1128-1134 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. A. Chistyakov, I. L. Martynov, K. E. Mochalov, V. A. Oleinikov, S. V. Sizova, E. A. Ustinovich, and K. V. Zakharchenko, "Interaction of CdSe/ZnS core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals in solid thin films," Laser Phys. 16, 1625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, C. Hsu, and H. Hong, "InGaN-CdSe-ZnSe Quantum Dots White LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 193-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Klar, T. Franzl, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Super efficient exciton funneling in layer-by-layer semiconductor nanocrystal structures," Adv. Mat. 17, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, A. Shavel, A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, T. A. Klar, A. Eychmüller, and J. Feldmann, "High rate unidirectional energy transfer in directly assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Small 1, 392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures," Nano Lett. 4, 1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, "Energy- transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting," Opt. Express 12, 310-316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh,T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, "Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, "Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13782 (2003).

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, J. Kusba, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increased resonance energy transfer between fluorophores bound to DNA in proximity to metallic silver particles," Anal. Biochem. 315, 160 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kimura, S. Maenosono1, and Y. Yamaguchi, �??Near-field optical recording on a CdSe nanocrystal thin film,�?? Nanotechnology 14, 69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, "Spectrally Resolved Dynamics of Energy Transfer in Quantum-Dot Assemblies: Toward Engineered Energy Flows in Artificial Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

S. Maenosono, E. Ozaki, K. Yoshie, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Nonlinear photoluminescence behavior in closely packed CdSe nanocrystal thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L. 638 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, and D. A. B. Miller, Optically controlled optical gate with an optoelectronic dual diode structure: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1035-1054 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Rosentha, "Bar-coding biomolecules with fluorescent nanocrystals," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

V. Klimov, A. Mihkailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. Hollingsworth, C. Leatherdale, and M. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, M. Nirmal, and M. G. Bawendi, "Electronic Energy Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1517-1520 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, "Long Range Resonance Transfer of Electronic Excitations in Close Packed CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. B 54, 8633-8643 (1996).

Achermann, M.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, "Energy- transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, "Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13782 (2003).

Ahn, J. H.

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akin, O.

I. M. Soganci, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akin, and H. V. Demir, "Localized plasmon-engineered spontaneous emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanoisland films for controlling emission linewidth, peak, and intensity," Opt. Express. 15, 14289-14298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ali, M.

M. Ali, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Nag, A. Kumar, S. Sapra, S. Chakraborty, and D. D. Sarma, "White-light emission from a blend of CdSeS nanocrystals of different Se:S ratio," Nanotechnology 18, 075401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artemyev, M.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M.

V. Klimov, A. Mihkailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. Hollingsworth, C. Leatherdale, and M. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, M. Nirmal, and M. G. Bawendi, "Electronic Energy Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1517-1520 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, "Long Range Resonance Transfer of Electronic Excitations in Close Packed CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. B 54, 8633-8643 (1996).

Bertoni, C.

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bryce, M. R.

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, S.

M. Ali, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Nag, A. Kumar, S. Sapra, S. Chakraborty, and D. D. Sarma, "White-light emission from a blend of CdSeS nanocrystals of different Se:S ratio," Nanotechnology 18, 075401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chattopadhyay, S.

M. Ali, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Nag, A. Kumar, S. Sapra, S. Chakraborty, and D. D. Sarma, "White-light emission from a blend of CdSeS nanocrystals of different Se:S ratio," Nanotechnology 18, 075401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, C. Hsu, and H. Hong, "InGaN-CdSe-ZnSe Quantum Dots White LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 193-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chistyakov, A. A.

A. A. Chistyakov, I. L. Martynov, K. E. Mochalov, V. A. Oleinikov, S. V. Sizova, E. A. Ustinovich, and K. V. Zakharchenko, "Interaction of CdSe/ZnS core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals in solid thin films," Laser Phys. 16, 1625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crooker, S. A.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, "Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13782 (2003).

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, "Spectrally Resolved Dynamics of Energy Transfer in Quantum-Dot Assemblies: Toward Engineered Energy Flows in Artificial Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demir, H. V.

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S419-S424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Mutlugun, I. M. Soganci, and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal hybridized scintillators for enhanced detection and imaging on Si platforms in UV," Opt. Express 15, 1128-1134 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Soganci, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akin, and H. V. Demir, "Localized plasmon-engineered spontaneous emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanoisland films for controlling emission linewidth, peak, and intensity," Opt. Express. 15, 14289-14298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting," Opt. Express 12, 310-316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, and D. A. B. Miller, Optically controlled optical gate with an optoelectronic dual diode structure: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1035-1054 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H.V.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H.V. Demir, "Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, S.

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eychmüller, A.

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller, S. G. Hickey, and S. V. Kershaw, "Infrared emitting colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, assembly, spectroscopy, and applications," Small 3, 536 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Franzl, A. Shavel, A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, T. A. Klar, A. Eychmüller, and J. Feldmann, "High rate unidirectional energy transfer in directly assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Small 1, 392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, J. Kusba, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increased resonance energy transfer between fluorophores bound to DNA in proximity to metallic silver particles," Anal. Biochem. 315, 160 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

T. Franzl, A. Shavel, A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, T. A. Klar, A. Eychmüller, and J. Feldmann, "High rate unidirectional energy transfer in directly assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Small 1, 392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Klar, T. Franzl, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Super efficient exciton funneling in layer-by-layer semiconductor nanocrystal structures," Adv. Mat. 17, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures," Nano Lett. 4, 1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh,T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, "Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fidaner, O.

Franzl, T.

T. A. Klar, T. Franzl, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Super efficient exciton funneling in layer-by-layer semiconductor nanocrystal structures," Adv. Mat. 17, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, A. Shavel, A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, T. A. Klar, A. Eychmüller, and J. Feldmann, "High rate unidirectional energy transfer in directly assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Small 1, 392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures," Nano Lett. 4, 1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh,T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, "Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fromer, N. A.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaponenko, S.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gaponik, N.

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, A. Shavel, A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, T. A. Klar, A. Eychmüller, and J. Feldmann, "High rate unidirectional energy transfer in directly assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Small 1, 392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh,T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, "Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geier, M. L.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gryczynski, I.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, J. Kusba, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increased resonance energy transfer between fluorophores bound to DNA in proximity to metallic silver particles," Anal. Biochem. 315, 160 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gur, I.

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, J. S.

Hickey, S. G.

A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller, S. G. Hickey, and S. V. Kershaw, "Infrared emitting colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, assembly, spectroscopy, and applications," Small 3, 536 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holder, E.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hollingsworth, J.

V. Klimov, A. Mihkailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. Hollingsworth, C. Leatherdale, and M. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollingsworth, J. A.

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, "Spectrally Resolved Dynamics of Energy Transfer in Quantum-Dot Assemblies: Toward Engineered Energy Flows in Artificial Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, H.

H. Chen, C. Hsu, and H. Hong, "InGaN-CdSe-ZnSe Quantum Dots White LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 193-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.

H. Chen, C. Hsu, and H. Hong, "InGaN-CdSe-ZnSe Quantum Dots White LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 193-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hua, Y.

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huyal, I. O.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kagan, C. R.

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, M. Nirmal, and M. G. Bawendi, "Electronic Energy Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1517-1520 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, "Long Range Resonance Transfer of Electronic Excitations in Close Packed CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. B 54, 8633-8643 (1996).

Kershaw, S. V.

A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller, S. G. Hickey, and S. V. Kershaw, "Infrared emitting colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, assembly, spectroscopy, and applications," Small 3, 536 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimura, J.

J. Kimura, S. Maenosono1, and Y. Yamaguchi, �??Near-field optical recording on a CdSe nanocrystal thin film,�?? Nanotechnology 14, 69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klar, T. A.

T. A. Klar, T. Franzl, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Super efficient exciton funneling in layer-by-layer semiconductor nanocrystal structures," Adv. Mat. 17, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, A. Shavel, A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, T. A. Klar, A. Eychmüller, and J. Feldmann, "High rate unidirectional energy transfer in directly assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Small 1, 392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures," Nano Lett. 4, 1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh,T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, "Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V.

V. Klimov, A. Mihkailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. Hollingsworth, C. Leatherdale, and M. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimov, V. I.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, "Energy- transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, "Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13782 (2003).

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, "Spectrally Resolved Dynamics of Energy Transfer in Quantum-Dot Assemblies: Toward Engineered Energy Flows in Artificial Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koktysh, D. S.

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh,T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, "Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koleske, D. D.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, "Energy- transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kos, S.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, "Energy- transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulakovich, O.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

M. Ali, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Nag, A. Kumar, S. Sapra, S. Chakraborty, and D. D. Sarma, "White-light emission from a blend of CdSeS nanocrystals of different Se:S ratio," Nanotechnology 18, 075401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusba, J.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, J. Kusba, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increased resonance energy transfer between fluorophores bound to DNA in proximity to metallic silver particles," Anal. Biochem. 315, 160 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, J. Kusba, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increased resonance energy transfer between fluorophores bound to DNA in proximity to metallic silver particles," Anal. Biochem. 315, 160 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leatherdale, C.

V. Klimov, A. Mihkailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. Hollingsworth, C. Leatherdale, and M. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, I.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maenosono, S.

S. Maenosono, E. Ozaki, K. Yoshie, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Nonlinear photoluminescence behavior in closely packed CdSe nanocrystal thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L. 638 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maenosono1, S.

J. Kimura, S. Maenosono1, and Y. Yamaguchi, �??Near-field optical recording on a CdSe nanocrystal thin film,�?? Nanotechnology 14, 69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malicka, J.

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, J. Kusba, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increased resonance energy transfer between fluorophores bound to DNA in proximity to metallic silver particles," Anal. Biochem. 315, 160 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malko, A.

V. Klimov, A. Mihkailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. Hollingsworth, C. Leatherdale, and M. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martynov, I. L.

A. A. Chistyakov, I. L. Martynov, K. E. Mochalov, V. A. Oleinikov, S. V. Sizova, E. A. Ustinovich, and K. V. Zakharchenko, "Interaction of CdSe/ZnS core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals in solid thin films," Laser Phys. 16, 1625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maskevich, S.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mihkailovsky, A.

V. Klimov, A. Mihkailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. Hollingsworth, C. Leatherdale, and M. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A. B.

H. V. Demir, V. A. Sabnis, O. Fidaner, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, and J.-F. Zheng, "Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting," Opt. Express 12, 310-316 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, and D. A. B. Miller, Optically controlled optical gate with an optoelectronic dual diode structure: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1035-1054 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mochalov, K. E.

A. A. Chistyakov, I. L. Martynov, K. E. Mochalov, V. A. Oleinikov, S. V. Sizova, E. A. Ustinovich, and K. V. Zakharchenko, "Interaction of CdSe/ZnS core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals in solid thin films," Laser Phys. 16, 1625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. B.

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, "Long Range Resonance Transfer of Electronic Excitations in Close Packed CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. B 54, 8633-8643 (1996).

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, M. Nirmal, and M. G. Bawendi, "Electronic Energy Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1517-1520 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mutlugun, E.

I. M. Soganci, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akin, and H. V. Demir, "Localized plasmon-engineered spontaneous emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanoisland films for controlling emission linewidth, peak, and intensity," Opt. Express. 15, 14289-14298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mutlugun, I. M. Soganci, and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal hybridized scintillators for enhanced detection and imaging on Si platforms in UV," Opt. Express 15, 1128-1134 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nabiev, I.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nag, A.

M. Ali, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Nag, A. Kumar, S. Sapra, S. Chakraborty, and D. D. Sarma, "White-light emission from a blend of CdSeS nanocrystals of different Se:S ratio," Nanotechnology 18, 075401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nirmal, M.

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, M. Nirmal, and M. G. Bawendi, "Electronic Energy Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1517-1520 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nizamoglu, S.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H.V. Demir, "Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Soganci, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akin, and H. V. Demir, "Localized plasmon-engineered spontaneous emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanoisland films for controlling emission linewidth, peak, and intensity," Opt. Express. 15, 14289-14298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S419-S424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oleinikov, V. A.

A. A. Chistyakov, I. L. Martynov, K. E. Mochalov, V. A. Oleinikov, S. V. Sizova, E. A. Ustinovich, and K. V. Zakharchenko, "Interaction of CdSe/ZnS core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals in solid thin films," Laser Phys. 16, 1625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, E.

S. Maenosono, E. Ozaki, K. Yoshie, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Nonlinear photoluminescence behavior in closely packed CdSe nanocrystal thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L. 638 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ozel, T.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petruska, M. A.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, "Energy- transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, "Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13782 (2003).

Petty, M. C.

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rogach, A. L.

A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller, S. G. Hickey, and S. V. Kershaw, "Infrared emitting colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, assembly, spectroscopy, and applications," Small 3, 536 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Klar, T. Franzl, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Super efficient exciton funneling in layer-by-layer semiconductor nanocrystal structures," Adv. Mat. 17, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, A. Shavel, A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, T. A. Klar, A. Eychmüller, and J. Feldmann, "High rate unidirectional energy transfer in directly assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Small 1, 392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures," Nano Lett. 4, 1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh,T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, "Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosentha, S. J.

S. J. Rosentha, "Bar-coding biomolecules with fluorescent nanocrystals," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sabnis, V. A.

Sapra, S.

M. Ali, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Nag, A. Kumar, S. Sapra, S. Chakraborty, and D. D. Sarma, "White-light emission from a blend of CdSeS nanocrystals of different Se:S ratio," Nanotechnology 18, 075401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sari, E.

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sarma, D. D.

M. Ali, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Nag, A. Kumar, S. Sapra, S. Chakraborty, and D. D. Sarma, "White-light emission from a blend of CdSeS nanocrystals of different Se:S ratio," Nanotechnology 18, 075401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schietinger, S.

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures," Nano Lett. 4, 1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shavel, A.

T. Franzl, A. Shavel, A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, T. A. Klar, A. Eychmüller, and J. Feldmann, "High rate unidirectional energy transfer in directly assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Small 1, 392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shiao, W.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sizova, S. V.

A. A. Chistyakov, I. L. Martynov, K. E. Mochalov, V. A. Oleinikov, S. V. Sizova, E. A. Ustinovich, and K. V. Zakharchenko, "Interaction of CdSe/ZnS core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals in solid thin films," Laser Phys. 16, 1625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. L.

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, "Energy- transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soganci, I. M.

I. M. Soganci, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akin, and H. V. Demir, "Localized plasmon-engineered spontaneous emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanoisland films for controlling emission linewidth, peak, and intensity," Opt. Express. 15, 14289-14298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mutlugun, I. M. Soganci, and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal hybridized scintillators for enhanced detection and imaging on Si platforms in UV," Opt. Express 15, 1128-1134 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekal, N.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Su, W.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Talapin, D. V.

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tian, N.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tretiak, S.

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, "Spectrally Resolved Dynamics of Energy Transfer in Quantum-Dot Assemblies: Toward Engineered Energy Flows in Artificial Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ustinovich, E. A.

A. A. Chistyakov, I. L. Martynov, K. E. Mochalov, V. A. Oleinikov, S. V. Sizova, E. A. Ustinovich, and K. V. Zakharchenko, "Interaction of CdSe/ZnS core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals in solid thin films," Laser Phys. 16, 1625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

V. Klimov, A. Mihkailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. Hollingsworth, C. Leatherdale, and M. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yairi, M. B.

M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, and D. A. B. Miller, Optically controlled optical gate with an optoelectronic dual diode structure: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1035-1054 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, Y.

J. Kimura, S. Maenosono1, and Y. Yamaguchi, �??Near-field optical recording on a CdSe nanocrystal thin film,�?? Nanotechnology 14, 69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Maenosono, E. Ozaki, K. Yoshie, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Nonlinear photoluminescence behavior in closely packed CdSe nanocrystal thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L. 638 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yaroshevich, A.

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshie, K.

S. Maenosono, E. Ozaki, K. Yoshie, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Nonlinear photoluminescence behavior in closely packed CdSe nanocrystal thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L. 638 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zakharchenko, K. V.

A. A. Chistyakov, I. L. Martynov, K. E. Mochalov, V. A. Oleinikov, S. V. Sizova, E. A. Ustinovich, and K. V. Zakharchenko, "Interaction of CdSe/ZnS core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals in solid thin films," Laser Phys. 16, 1625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zengin, G.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H.V. Demir, "Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.-F.

Adv. Mat. (1)

T. A. Klar, T. Franzl, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Super efficient exciton funneling in layer-by-layer semiconductor nanocrystal structures," Adv. Mat. 17, 769 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem. (1)

J. Malicka, I. Gryczynski, J. Fang, J. Kusba, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Increased resonance energy transfer between fluorophores bound to DNA in proximity to metallic silver particles," Anal. Biochem. 315, 160 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Franzl, D. S. Koktysh,T. A. Klar, A. L. Rogach, J. Feldmann, and N. Gaponik, "Fast energy transfer in layer-by-layer assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, and H. V. Demir, "Blue quantum electroabsorption modulators based on reversed quantum confined Stark effect with blue shift," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H.V. Demir, "Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, "White Light Generation With CdSe-ZnS Nanocrystals Coated on an InGaN-GaN Quantum-Well Blue/Green Two-Wavelength Light-Emitting Diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1430-1432 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, C. Hsu, and H. Hong, "InGaN-CdSe-ZnSe Quantum Dots White LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 193-195 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Ozel, E. Sari, S. Nizamoglu, and H. V. Demir, "Violet to deep-ultraviolet InGaN/GaN and GaN/AlGaN quantum structures for UV electroabsorption modulators," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 113101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Nanocrystal based hybrid white light generation with tunable color parameters," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S419-S424 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. B. Yairi, H. V. Demir, and D. A. B. Miller, Optically controlled optical gate with an optoelectronic dual diode structure: theory and experiment," J. Opt. Quantum Electron. 33, 1035-1054 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. A. Crooker, and V. I. Klimov, "Picosecond energy transfer in quantum dot Langmuir-Blodgett nanoassemblies," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 13782 (2003).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Maenosono, E. Ozaki, K. Yoshie, and Y. Yamaguchi, "Nonlinear photoluminescence behavior in closely packed CdSe nanocrystal thin films," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L. 638 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

A. A. Chistyakov, I. L. Martynov, K. E. Mochalov, V. A. Oleinikov, S. V. Sizova, E. A. Ustinovich, and K. V. Zakharchenko, "Interaction of CdSe/ZnS core-shell semiconductor nanocrystals in solid thin films," Laser Phys. 16, 1625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

O. Kulakovich, N. Strekal, A. Yaroshevich, S. Maskevich, S. Gaponenko, I. Nabiev, U. Woggon, and M. Artemyev, "Enhanced luminescence of CdSe quantum dots on gold colloids," Nano Lett. 2, 1449-1452 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Franzl, T. A. Klar, S. Schietinger, A. L. Rogach, and J. Feldmann, "Exciton recycling in graded gap nanocrystal structures," Nano Lett. 4, 1599 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (5)

J. Kimura, S. Maenosono1, and Y. Yamaguchi, �??Near-field optical recording on a CdSe nanocrystal thin film,�?? Nanotechnology 14, 69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, "White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ali, S. Chattopadhyay, A. Nag, A. Kumar, S. Sapra, S. Chakraborty, and D. D. Sarma, "White-light emission from a blend of CdSeS nanocrystals of different Se:S ratio," Nanotechnology 18, 075401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu and H. V. Demir, "Hybrid white light sources based on layer-by-layer assembly of nanocrystals on near-UV emitting diodes," Nanotechnology 18, 405702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Ahn, C. Bertoni, S. Dunn, C. Wang, D. V. Talapin, N. Gaponik, A. Eychmüller, Y. Hua, M. R. Bryce, and M. C. Petty, "White organic light emitting devices incorporating nanoparticles of II-VI semiconductors," Nanotechnology 18, 335202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

S. J. Rosentha, "Bar-coding biomolecules with fluorescent nanocrystals," Nat. Biotechnol. 19, 621 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Achermann, M. A. Petruska, S. Kos, D. L. Smith, D. D. Koleske, and V. I. Klimov, "Energy- transfer pumping of semiconductor nanocrystals using an epitaxial quantum well," Nature 429, 642 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Express. (1)

I. M. Soganci, S. Nizamoglu, E. Mutlugun, O. Akin, and H. V. Demir, "Localized plasmon-engineered spontaneous emission of CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals closely-packed in the proximity of Ag nanoisland films for controlling emission linewidth, peak, and intensity," Opt. Express. 15, 14289-14298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, and M. G. Bawendi, "Long Range Resonance Transfer of Electronic Excitations in Close Packed CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. B 54, 8633-8643 (1996).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. A. Crooker, J. A. Hollingsworth, S. Tretiak, and V. I. Klimov, "Spectrally Resolved Dynamics of Energy Transfer in Quantum-Dot Assemblies: Toward Engineered Energy Flows in Artificial Materials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Kagan, C. B. Murray, M. Nirmal, and M. G. Bawendi, "Electronic Energy Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dot Solids," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1517-1520 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

I. Gur, N. A. Fromer, M. L. Geier, and A. P. Alivisatos, "Air-stable all inorganic nanocrystal solar cells processed from solution," Science 310, 462-465 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Klimov, A. Mihkailovsky, S. Xu, A. Malko, J. Hollingsworth, C. Leatherdale, and M. Bawendi, "Optical gain and stimulated emission in nanocrystal quantum dots," Science 290, 314-317 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (2)

A. L. Rogach, A. Eychmüller, S. G. Hickey, and S. V. Kershaw, "Infrared emitting colloidal nanocrystals: synthesis, assembly, spectroscopy, and applications," Small 3, 536 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Franzl, A. Shavel, A. L. Rogach, N. Gaponik, T. A. Klar, A. Eychmüller, and J. Feldmann, "High rate unidirectional energy transfer in directly assembled CdTe nanocrystal bilayers," Small 1, 392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Gaponenko, Optical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (Cambridge University Press, 1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Time-resolved photoluminescence of (a) only small nanocrystal solids (with a diameter of 7.7 nm) and mixed nanocrystal solids (with diameters of 8.2 and 7.7 nm) for emission at 550 nm, and (b) only large nanocrystal solids (with a diameter of 8.2 nm) and mixed nanocrystal solids (with diameters of 8.2 and 7.7 nm) for emission at 612 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Photoluminescence spectra of only large nanocrystals (8.2 nm), only small nanocrystals (7.7 nm) and mixed large-small nanocrystals (8.2 and 7.7 nm, respectively) along with their absorption spectra shown in the inset.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Emission spectra of mixed CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (with diameters of 8.2 nm and 7.7. nm) hybridized on n-UV InGaN/GaN light emitting diode driven at different levels of current injection at room temperature, along with the corresponding (x, y) coordinates and pictures of the hybrid WLED, while generating white light.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The fitting parameters of time-resolved spectra in Fig. 1(a)(b). An and τn are the amplitudes and decay time constants, for n=1, 2, 3; τavg and τamp-avg are the intensity and amplitude weighted average decay time constants.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

τ avg = Σ i A i τ i 2 Σ i A i τ i
τ amp _ avg = Σ i A i τ i Σ i A i
E = 1 τ amb _ avg _ DA τ amp _ avg _ D

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