Abstract

A pulsed atom laser derived from a Bose-Einstein condensate is used to probe a second target condensate. The target condensate scatters the incident atom laser pulse. From the spatial distribution of scattered atoms, one can infer important properties of the target condensate and its interaction with the probe pulse. As an example, we measure the s-wave scattering length that, in low energy collisions, describes the interaction between the |F=1,mF=-1〉 and |F=2,mF=0〉 hyperfine ground states in87Rb.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Ottl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Scoles, ed., Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods, (Oxford University Press, New York, 1992), Vol. 2.
  9. G. Brusdeylins, R. Bruce Doak, and J. Peter Toennies, "Measurement of the Dispersion Relation for Rayleigh Surface Phonons of LiF(001) by Inelastic Scattering of He Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 437-439 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Hulpke, ed., Helium Atom Scattering from Surfaces, Springer Series in Surface Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1992), Vol. 27.
  11. D. Farias and K. H. Rieder, "Atomic beam diffraction from solid surfaces," Rep. Prog. Phys. 61, 1575-1664 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Observation of Atom Pairs in Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing of Two Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150405 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. M. Vogels, J. K. Chin, and W. Ketterle, "Coherent Collisions between Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 030403 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A. Widera, T. Rom, T. W. Hansch, and I. Bloch, "Controlled collisions for multiparticle entanglement of optically trapped atoms," Nature (London) 425, 937-940 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Samuelis, E. Tiesinga, T. Laue, M. Elbs, H. Knockel, and E. Tiemann, "Cold atomic collisions studied by molecular spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012710 (2000).
  17. J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. Zilio, and P. S. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. G. M. van Kempen, S. J. J. M. F. Kokkelmans, D. J. Heinzen, and B. J. Verhaar, "Interisotope Determination of Ultracold Rubidium Interactions from Three High-Precision Experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093201 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Ch. Buggle, J. Leonard, W. von Klitzing, and J. T. M. Walraven, "Interferometric Determination of the s and d-Wave Scattering Amplitudes in 87Rb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173202 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. N. R. Thomas, N. Kjærgaard, P. S. J., and A. C. Wilson, "Imaging of s and d Partial-Wave Interference in Quantum Scattering of Identical Bosonic Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173201 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. S. Mellish, N. Kjærgaard, P. S. Julienne, and A. C. Wilson, "Quantum scattering of distinguishable bosons using an ultracold-atom collider," Phys. Rev. A 75, 020701(R) (2007).
  22. Due to the rf ouput-coupling process we cannot avoid a weak density cloud of atoms in the |2,1_ state. In the numerical analysis, the position of these atoms during the scattering process is approximated to be identical to the position of the source condensate.
  23. Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
  24. M. J. Bijlsma and H. T. C. Stoof, "Coherently scattering atoms from an excited Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 62, 013605 (2000).
  25. U. V. Poulsen and K. Mølmer, "Scattering of atoms on a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 67, 013610 (2003).

2007 (1)

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Observation of Atom Pairs in Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing of Two Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Ottl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

Ch. Buggle, J. Leonard, W. von Klitzing, and J. T. M. Walraven, "Interferometric Determination of the s and d-Wave Scattering Amplitudes in 87Rb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Thomas, N. Kjærgaard, P. S. J., and A. C. Wilson, "Imaging of s and d Partial-Wave Interference in Quantum Scattering of Identical Bosonic Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173201 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

J. M. Vogels, J. K. Chin, and W. Ketterle, "Coherent Collisions between Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 030403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A. Widera, T. Rom, T. W. Hansch, and I. Bloch, "Controlled collisions for multiparticle entanglement of optically trapped atoms," Nature (London) 425, 937-940 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. V. Poulsen and K. Mølmer, "Scattering of atoms on a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 67, 013610 (2003).

2002 (2)

E. G. M. van Kempen, S. J. J. M. F. Kokkelmans, D. J. Heinzen, and B. J. Verhaar, "Interisotope Determination of Ultracold Rubidium Interactions from Three High-Precision Experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).

2001 (1)

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. J. Bijlsma and H. T. C. Stoof, "Coherently scattering atoms from an excited Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 62, 013605 (2000).

C. Samuelis, E. Tiesinga, T. Laue, M. Elbs, H. Knockel, and E. Tiemann, "Cold atomic collisions studied by molecular spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012710 (2000).

1999 (4)

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. Zilio, and P. S. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Farias and K. H. Rieder, "Atomic beam diffraction from solid surfaces," Rep. Prog. Phys. 61, 1575-1664 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

G. Brusdeylins, R. Bruce Doak, and J. Peter Toennies, "Measurement of the Dispersion Relation for Rayleigh Surface Phonons of LiF(001) by Inelastic Scattering of He Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 437-439 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, M. R.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Angela,

A. S. Mellish, N. Kjærgaard, P. S. Julienne, and A. C. Wilson, "Quantum scattering of distinguishable bosons using an ultracold-atom collider," Phys. Rev. A 75, 020701(R) (2007).

Aspect, A.

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Observation of Atom Pairs in Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing of Two Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagnato, V. S.

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. Zilio, and P. S. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Band, Y.

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bijlsma, M. J.

M. J. Bijlsma and H. T. C. Stoof, "Coherently scattering atoms from an excited Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 62, 013605 (2000).

Bloch, I.

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A. Widera, T. Rom, T. W. Hansch, and I. Bloch, "Controlled collisions for multiparticle entanglement of optically trapped atoms," Nature (London) 425, 937-940 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boiron, D.

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Observation of Atom Pairs in Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing of Two Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouyer, P.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruce Doak, R.

G. Brusdeylins, R. Bruce Doak, and J. Peter Toennies, "Measurement of the Dispersion Relation for Rayleigh Surface Phonons of LiF(001) by Inelastic Scattering of He Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 437-439 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brusdeylins, G.

G. Brusdeylins, R. Bruce Doak, and J. Peter Toennies, "Measurement of the Dispersion Relation for Rayleigh Surface Phonons of LiF(001) by Inelastic Scattering of He Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 437-439 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Buggle, Ch.

Ch. Buggle, J. Leonard, W. von Klitzing, and J. T. M. Walraven, "Interferometric Determination of the s and d-Wave Scattering Amplitudes in 87Rb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, Th.

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).

Chang, H.

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Observation of Atom Pairs in Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing of Two Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, J. K.

J. M. Vogels, J. K. Chin, and W. Ketterle, "Coherent Collisions between Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 030403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Close, J. D.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delannoy, G.

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, L.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, D. S.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elbs, M.

C. Samuelis, E. Tiesinga, T. Laue, M. Elbs, H. Knockel, and E. Tiemann, "Cold atomic collisions studied by molecular spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012710 (2000).

Esslinger, T.

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farias, D.

D. Farias and K. H. Rieder, "Atomic beam diffraction from solid surfaces," Rep. Prog. Phys. 61, 1575-1664 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fauquembergue, M.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figl, C.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerbier, F.

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greiner, M.

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A. Widera, T. Rom, T. W. Hansch, and I. Bloch, "Controlled collisions for multiparticle entanglement of optically trapped atoms," Nature (London) 425, 937-940 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerin, W.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagley, E. W.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haine, S. A.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A. Widera, T. Rom, T. W. Hansch, and I. Bloch, "Controlled collisions for multiparticle entanglement of optically trapped atoms," Nature (London) 425, 937-940 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heinzen, D. J.

E. G. M. van Kempen, S. J. J. M. F. Kokkelmans, D. J. Heinzen, and B. J. Verhaar, "Interisotope Determination of Ultracold Rubidium Interactions from Three High-Precision Experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmerson, K.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hope, J. J.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeppesen, M.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Josse, V.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julienne, P. S.

N. R. Thomas, N. Kjærgaard, P. S. J., and A. C. Wilson, "Imaging of s and d Partial-Wave Interference in Quantum Scattering of Identical Bosonic Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173201 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. Zilio, and P. S. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ketterle, W.

J. M. Vogels, J. K. Chin, and W. Ketterle, "Coherent Collisions between Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 030403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kjærgaard, N.

N. R. Thomas, N. Kjærgaard, P. S. J., and A. C. Wilson, "Imaging of s and d Partial-Wave Interference in Quantum Scattering of Identical Bosonic Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173201 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knockel, H.

C. Samuelis, E. Tiesinga, T. Laue, M. Elbs, H. Knockel, and E. Tiemann, "Cold atomic collisions studied by molecular spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012710 (2000).

Kohl, M.

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).

Kokkelmans, S. J. J. M. F.

E. G. M. van Kempen, S. J. J. M. F. Kokkelmans, D. J. Heinzen, and B. J. Verhaar, "Interisotope Determination of Ultracold Rubidium Interactions from Three High-Precision Experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozuma, M.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krachmalnicoff, V.

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Observation of Atom Pairs in Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing of Two Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurn, D. M.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laue, T.

C. Samuelis, E. Tiesinga, T. Laue, M. Elbs, H. Knockel, and E. Tiemann, "Cold atomic collisions studied by molecular spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012710 (2000).

Le Coq, Y.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandel, O.

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A. Widera, T. Rom, T. W. Hansch, and I. Bloch, "Controlled collisions for multiparticle entanglement of optically trapped atoms," Nature (London) 425, 937-940 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mewes, M.-O.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mølmer, K.

U. V. Poulsen and K. Mølmer, "Scattering of atoms on a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 67, 013610 (2003).

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).

Morrison, A. K.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrin, A.

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Observation of Atom Pairs in Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing of Two Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peter Toennies, J.

G. Brusdeylins, R. Bruce Doak, and J. Peter Toennies, "Measurement of the Dispersion Relation for Rayleigh Surface Phonons of LiF(001) by Inelastic Scattering of He Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 437-439 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, W. D.

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulsen, U. V.

U. V. Poulsen and K. Mølmer, "Scattering of atoms on a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 67, 013610 (2003).

Rangwala, S. A.

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richard, S.

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rieder, K. H.

D. Farias and K. H. Rieder, "Atomic beam diffraction from solid surfaces," Rep. Prog. Phys. 61, 1575-1664 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riou, J.-F.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robins, N. P.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rom, T.

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A. Widera, T. Rom, T. W. Hansch, and I. Bloch, "Controlled collisions for multiparticle entanglement of optically trapped atoms," Nature (London) 425, 937-940 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samuelis, C.

C. Samuelis, E. Tiesinga, T. Laue, M. Elbs, H. Knockel, and E. Tiemann, "Cold atomic collisions studied by molecular spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012710 (2000).

Schellekens, M.

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Observation of Atom Pairs in Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing of Two Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simsarian, J. E.

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stoof, H. T. C.

M. J. Bijlsma and H. T. C. Stoof, "Coherently scattering atoms from an excited Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 62, 013605 (2000).

Thomas, N. R.

N. R. Thomas, N. Kjærgaard, P. S. J., and A. C. Wilson, "Imaging of s and d Partial-Wave Interference in Quantum Scattering of Identical Bosonic Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173201 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thywissen, J. H.

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiemann, E.

C. Samuelis, E. Tiesinga, T. Laue, M. Elbs, H. Knockel, and E. Tiemann, "Cold atomic collisions studied by molecular spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012710 (2000).

Tiesinga, E.

C. Samuelis, E. Tiesinga, T. Laue, M. Elbs, H. Knockel, and E. Tiemann, "Cold atomic collisions studied by molecular spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012710 (2000).

Townsend, C. G.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trippenbach, M.

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Kempen, E. G. M.

E. G. M. van Kempen, S. J. J. M. F. Kokkelmans, D. J. Heinzen, and B. J. Verhaar, "Interisotope Determination of Ultracold Rubidium Interactions from Three High-Precision Experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhaar, B. J.

E. G. M. van Kempen, S. J. J. M. F. Kokkelmans, D. J. Heinzen, and B. J. Verhaar, "Interisotope Determination of Ultracold Rubidium Interactions from Three High-Precision Experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogels, J. M.

J. M. Vogels, J. K. Chin, and W. Ketterle, "Coherent Collisions between Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 030403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, J.

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. Zilio, and P. S. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J.

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westbrook, C. I.

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Observation of Atom Pairs in Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing of Two Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Widera, A.

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A. Widera, T. Rom, T. W. Hansch, and I. Bloch, "Controlled collisions for multiparticle entanglement of optically trapped atoms," Nature (London) 425, 937-940 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, A. C.

N. R. Thomas, N. Kjærgaard, P. S. J., and A. C. Wilson, "Imaging of s and d Partial-Wave Interference in Quantum Scattering of Identical Bosonic Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173201 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zilio, S.

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. Zilio, and P. S. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

L. Deng, E. W. Hagley, J. Wen, M. Trippenbach, Y. Band, P. S. Julienne, J. E. Simsarian, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, " Four-wave mixing with matter waves," Nature (London) 398, 218-220 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Mandel, M. Greiner, A. Widera, T. Rom, T. W. Hansch, and I. Bloch, "Controlled collisions for multiparticle entanglement of optically trapped atoms," Nature (London) 425, 937-940 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

C. Samuelis, E. Tiesinga, T. Laue, M. Elbs, H. Knockel, and E. Tiemann, "Cold atomic collisions studied by molecular spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. A 63, 012710 (2000).

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).

M. J. Bijlsma and H. T. C. Stoof, "Coherently scattering atoms from an excited Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 62, 013605 (2000).

U. V. Poulsen and K. Mølmer, "Scattering of atoms on a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 67, 013610 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (12)

A. Perrin, H. Chang, V. Krachmalnicoff, M. Schellekens, D. Boiron, A. Aspect, and C. I. Westbrook, "Observation of Atom Pairs in Spontaneous Four-Wave Mixing of Two Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150405 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Vogels, J. K. Chin, and W. Ketterle, "Coherent Collisions between Bose-Einstein Condensates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 030403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. M. van Kempen, S. J. J. M. F. Kokkelmans, D. J. Heinzen, and B. J. Verhaar, "Interisotope Determination of Ultracold Rubidium Interactions from Three High-Precision Experiments," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Buggle, J. Leonard, W. von Klitzing, and J. T. M. Walraven, "Interferometric Determination of the s and d-Wave Scattering Amplitudes in 87Rb," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173202 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Thomas, N. Kjærgaard, P. S. J., and A. C. Wilson, "Imaging of s and d Partial-Wave Interference in Quantum Scattering of Identical Bosonic Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 173201 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ottl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Brusdeylins, R. Bruce Doak, and J. Peter Toennies, "Measurement of the Dispersion Relation for Rayleigh Surface Phonons of LiF(001) by Inelastic Scattering of He Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 437-439 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

D. Farias and K. H. Rieder, "Atomic beam diffraction from solid surfaces," Rep. Prog. Phys. 61, 1575-1664 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. Weiner, V. S. Bagnato, S. Zilio, and P. S. Julienne, "Experiments and theory in cold and ultracold collisions," Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

E. Hulpke, ed., Helium Atom Scattering from Surfaces, Springer Series in Surface Sciences (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1992), Vol. 27.

G. Scoles, ed., Atomic and Molecular Beam Methods, (Oxford University Press, New York, 1992), Vol. 2.

A. S. Mellish, N. Kjærgaard, P. S. Julienne, and A. C. Wilson, "Quantum scattering of distinguishable bosons using an ultracold-atom collider," Phys. Rev. A 75, 020701(R) (2007).

Due to the rf ouput-coupling process we cannot avoid a weak density cloud of atoms in the |2,1_ state. In the numerical analysis, the position of these atoms during the scattering process is approximated to be identical to the position of the source condensate.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Color online) Schematic setup of the experiment. The two condensates are situated at different vertical positions in the same magnetic trap. (a) The atom laser is outputcoupled from the source condensate and (b) scattered off the target condensate. (c) The scattered probe pulse falls under gravity and (d) is imaged by near-resonant light incident along the long axis of the condensates. The confining magnetic fields are switched off before the image is taken, letting the condensates expand for 5ms.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color online) Non-averaged absorption pictures of the scattered probe pulse and the two condensates for atom numbers of (a) 0.05×106, (b) 0.16×106, (c) 0.45×106, (d) 0.87×106, (e) 1.25×106, and (f) 1.38×106atoms in the target condensate. The three images in each section are taken 0ms, 9ms and 22ms after output-coupling the atom laser pulse. The ballistic expansion time for the two condensates is 5ms. The graphs below each section show the density profile of the probe pulse, integrated over the width of the pulse along the propagation (y-) direction.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online) Width of the scattered atom laser pulse (FWHM) as a function of the atom number in the target condensate. The red dots indicate the results of the measurements, the blue circles show the best fit of the numerical simulations to the experimental data. The fall time of the atom pulse before measuring the pulse width is 22ms.

Equations (2)

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U ( x , y ) = U t ( x , y ) + U s ( x , y ) + mgy ,
U t ( x , y ) = g 12 μ t g 11 ( 1 ( y y t ) 2 + x 2 r t 2 ) θ ( r t 2 ( ( y y t ) 2 + x 2 ) ) ,

Metrics