Abstract

A photonic analog-to-digital converter (PADC) utilizing a slow-light photonic crystal Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is proposed, to enable the optically coded output of a PADC with reduced device size and power consumption. Assuming an index modulation for the MZI on the Taylor’s PADC structure, limiting factors in device size, speed, and effective number of bits are derived considering the signal transition time of the light and the slow light dispersion effects. Details of the device design and results of a time domain assessment of the device performance is described with discussions on the feasibility of sub-mm size, 20GS/s operation of the device having the ENOB (effective number of bits) >5.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-Digital Converter Survey and Analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, “High-Performance Optical-Fiber-Nonlinearity-based Optical Waveform Monitoring,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2012–2022 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15, 1955 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. F. Taylor, “An Optical Analog-to-Digital Converter-Design and Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 210 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, A. Yariv, “Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides: toward the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News 16, 36–40 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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  8. Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, R. M. Camacho, P. K. Vudyasetu, J. C. Howell, “Slow-Light Fourier Transform Interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 240801 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. R. Shroff, P. M. Fauchet, “Optical Jitter and Pulse Distortion in High Bit-rate, Slow-Light Mach-Zehnder Interferometers,” OSA Slow and Fast Light topical meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, July (2007)
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. F. J. Leonberger, C. E. Woodward, D. L. Spears, “Design and development of a high-speed electrooptic A/D converter,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Sys. 26, 1125–1131 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y.-H. Ye, J. Ding, D. Y. Jeong, I. C. Khoo, Q. M. Zhang, “Finite-size effect on one-dimensional coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 056604 (2004)
  14. M. Koshiba, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing and Demultiplexing with Photonic Crystal Waveguide Couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1970–1975 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  15. U. Peschel, A. L. Reynolds, B. Arredondo, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, P. J. I. de Maagt, “Transmission and reflection analysis of functional coupled cavity components,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 830–836 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electromagnetics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, (Boston, Artech House, 2000) 852.
  17. L. Yang, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Suggested procedure for the use of the effective-index method for high-index-contrast photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Eng. 44, 078002 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, “High-Speed Silicon Electrooptic Modulator Design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 660–668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15, 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, “Photonic analog-to-digital converters,” Opt. Express 15, 1955 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, R. M. Camacho, P. K. Vudyasetu, J. C. Howell, “Slow-Light Fourier Transform Interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 240801 (2007)
[CrossRef]

E. Parra, J. R. Lowell, “Toward Applications of Slow Light Technology,” Opt. Photon. News 18, 40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, “High-Performance Optical-Fiber-Nonlinearity-based Optical Waveform Monitoring,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2012–2022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Suggested procedure for the use of the effective-index method for high-index-contrast photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Eng. 44, 078002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, “High-Speed Silicon Electrooptic Modulator Design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, A. Yariv, “Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides: toward the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News 16, 36–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

Y.-H. Ye, J. Ding, D. Y. Jeong, I. C. Khoo, Q. M. Zhang, “Finite-size effect on one-dimensional coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 056604 (2004)

2002 (2)

M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).

U. Peschel, A. L. Reynolds, B. Arredondo, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, P. J. I. de Maagt, “Transmission and reflection analysis of functional coupled cavity components,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 830–836 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Koshiba, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing and Demultiplexing with Photonic Crystal Waveguide Couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1970–1975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-Digital Converter Survey and Analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

F. J. Leonberger, C. E. Woodward, D. L. Spears, “Design and development of a high-speed electrooptic A/D converter,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Sys. 26, 1125–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Taylor, “An Optical Analog-to-Digital Converter-Design and Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 210 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Amatya, R.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, “High-Performance Optical-Fiber-Nonlinearity-based Optical Waveform Monitoring,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2012–2022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Araghchini, M.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arredondo, B.

U. Peschel, A. L. Reynolds, B. Arredondo, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, P. J. I. de Maagt, “Transmission and reflection analysis of functional coupled cavity components,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 830–836 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. A.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Birge, J.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, R. M. Camacho, P. K. Vudyasetu, J. C. Howell, “Slow-Light Fourier Transform Interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 240801 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Byun, H.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, R. M.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, R. M. Camacho, P. K. Vudyasetu, J. C. Howell, “Slow-Light Fourier Transform Interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 240801 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Dahlem, M.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Maagt, P. J. I.

U. Peschel, A. L. Reynolds, B. Arredondo, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, P. J. I. de Maagt, “Transmission and reflection analysis of functional coupled cavity components,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 830–836 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DiLello, N. A.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

Y.-H. Ye, J. Ding, D. Y. Jeong, I. C. Khoo, Q. M. Zhang, “Finite-size effect on one-dimensional coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 056604 (2004)

Fan, S.

M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).

Fauchet, P. M.

A. R. Shroff, P. M. Fauchet, “Optical Jitter and Pulse Distortion in High Bit-rate, Slow-Light Mach-Zehnder Interferometers,” OSA Slow and Fast Light topical meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, July (2007)

Fukui, T.

L. Yang, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Suggested procedure for the use of the effective-index method for high-index-contrast photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Eng. 44, 078002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gan, F.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, “High-Speed Silicon Electrooptic Modulator Design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grein, M. E.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electromagnetics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, (Boston, Artech House, 2000) 852.

Hansryd, J.

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, “High-Performance Optical-Fiber-Nonlinearity-based Optical Waveform Monitoring,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2012–2022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, C. W.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Howell, J. C.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, R. M. Camacho, P. K. Vudyasetu, J. C. Howell, “Slow-Light Fourier Transform Interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 240801 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Hoyt, J. L.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).

Ippen, E.

M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).

Ippen, E. P.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

Jeong, D. Y.

Y.-H. Ye, J. Ding, D. Y. Jeong, I. C. Khoo, Q. M. Zhang, “Finite-size effect on one-dimensional coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 056604 (2004)

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).

Johnson, S. G.

M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).

Kartner, F. X.

F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, “High-Speed Silicon Electrooptic Modulator Design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khilo, A.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

Y.-H. Ye, J. Ding, D. Y. Jeong, I. C. Khoo, Q. M. Zhang, “Finite-size effect on one-dimensional coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 056604 (2004)

Kim, J.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

M. Koshiba, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing and Demultiplexing with Photonic Crystal Waveguide Couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1970–1975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

U. Peschel, A. L. Reynolds, B. Arredondo, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, P. J. I. de Maagt, “Transmission and reflection analysis of functional coupled cavity components,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 830–836 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

U. Peschel, A. L. Reynolds, B. Arredondo, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, P. J. I. de Maagt, “Transmission and reflection analysis of functional coupled cavity components,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 830–836 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lennon, D. M.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. J.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Leonberger, C. E. Woodward, D. L. Spears, “Design and development of a high-speed electrooptic A/D converter,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Sys. 26, 1125–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, “High-Performance Optical-Fiber-Nonlinearity-based Optical Waveform Monitoring,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2012–2022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

Liu, A.

Lowell, J. R.

E. Parra, J. R. Lowell, “Toward Applications of Slow Light Technology,” Opt. Photon. News 18, 40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, A.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Motohisa, J.

L. Yang, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Suggested procedure for the use of the effective-index method for high-index-contrast photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Eng. 44, 078002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

Orcutt, J. S.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paloczi, G. T.

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, A. Yariv, “Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides: toward the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News 16, 36–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

Park, M.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parra, E.

E. Parra, J. R. Lowell, “Toward Applications of Slow Light Technology,” Opt. Photon. News 18, 40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perrott, M.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

U. Peschel, A. L. Reynolds, B. Arredondo, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, P. J. I. de Maagt, “Transmission and reflection analysis of functional coupled cavity components,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 830–836 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Poon, J. K. S.

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, A. Yariv, “Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides: toward the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News 16, 36–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, A. L.

U. Peschel, A. L. Reynolds, B. Arredondo, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, P. J. I. de Maagt, “Transmission and reflection analysis of functional coupled cavity components,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 830–836 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

U. Peschel, A. L. Reynolds, B. Arredondo, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, P. J. I. de Maagt, “Transmission and reflection analysis of functional coupled cavity components,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 830–836 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

Scheuer, J.

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, A. Yariv, “Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides: toward the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News 16, 36–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schulein, R. T.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, R. M. Camacho, P. K. Vudyasetu, J. C. Howell, “Slow-Light Fourier Transform Interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 240801 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Shroff, A. R.

A. R. Shroff, P. M. Fauchet, “Optical Jitter and Pulse Distortion in High Bit-rate, Slow-Light Mach-Zehnder Interferometers,” OSA Slow and Fast Light topical meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, July (2007)

Smith, H. I.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soljacic, M.

M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).

Spears, D. L.

F. J. Leonberger, C. E. Woodward, D. L. Spears, “Design and development of a high-speed electrooptic A/D converter,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Sys. 26, 1125–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sunnerud, H.

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, “High-Performance Optical-Fiber-Nonlinearity-based Optical Waveform Monitoring,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2012–2022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electromagnetics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, (Boston, Artech House, 2000) 852.

Taylor, H. F.

H. F. Taylor, “An Optical Analog-to-Digital Converter-Design and Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 210 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Valley, G. C.

Vudyasetu, P. K.

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, R. M. Camacho, P. K. Vudyasetu, J. C. Howell, “Slow-Light Fourier Transform Interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 240801 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Walden, R. H.

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-Digital Converter Survey and Analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Westlund, M.

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, “High-Performance Optical-Fiber-Nonlinearity-based Optical Waveform Monitoring,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2012–2022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, R. C.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, C. E.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Leonberger, C. E. Woodward, D. L. Spears, “Design and development of a high-speed electrooptic A/D converter,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Sys. 26, 1125–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. Yang, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Suggested procedure for the use of the effective-index method for high-index-contrast photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Eng. 44, 078002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, A. Yariv, “Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides: toward the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News 16, 36–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Ye, J. Ding, D. Y. Jeong, I. C. Khoo, Q. M. Zhang, “Finite-size effect on one-dimensional coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 056604 (2004)

Yoon, J. U.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. M.

Y.-H. Ye, J. Ding, D. Y. Jeong, I. C. Khoo, Q. M. Zhang, “Finite-size effect on one-dimensional coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 056604 (2004)

Zhou, G. R.

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, “High-Performance Optical-Fiber-Nonlinearity-based Optical Waveform Monitoring,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2012–2022 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Koshiba, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing and Demultiplexing with Photonic Crystal Waveguide Couplers,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1970–1975 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

U. Peschel, A. L. Reynolds, B. Arredondo, F. Lederer, P. J. Roberts, T. F. Krauss, P. J. I. de Maagt, “Transmission and reflection analysis of functional coupled cavity components,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 830–836 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Taylor, “An Optical Analog-to-Digital Converter-Design and Analysis,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15, 210 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

R. H. Walden, “Analog-to-Digital Converter Survey and Analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Gan, F. X. Kartner, “High-Speed Silicon Electrooptic Modulator Design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1007–1009 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Circuits and Sys. (1)

F. J. Leonberger, C. E. Woodward, D. L. Spears, “Design and development of a high-speed electrooptic A/D converter,” IEEE Trans. Circuits and Sys. 26, 1125–1131 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

M. Soljačić, S. G. Johnson, S. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. Ippen, J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052–2059 (2002).

Opt. Eng. (1)

L. Yang, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Suggested procedure for the use of the effective-index method for high-index-contrast photonic crystal slabs,” Opt. Eng. 44, 078002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Photon. News (2)

E. Parra, J. R. Lowell, “Toward Applications of Slow Light Technology,” Opt. Photon. News 18, 40 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. K. S. Poon, A. Yariv, “Coupled Resonator Optical Waveguides: toward the slowing and storage of light,” Opt. Photon. News 16, 36–40 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

Y.-H. Ye, J. Ding, D. Y. Jeong, I. C. Khoo, Q. M. Zhang, “Finite-size effect on one-dimensional coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 056604 (2004)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Z. Shi, R. W. Boyd, R. M. Camacho, P. K. Vudyasetu, J. C. Howell, “Slow-Light Fourier Transform Interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 240801 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, “Wide-band electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converters,” Proc. IEEE 72, 802–819 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. X. Kärtner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popović, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. R. Shroff, P. M. Fauchet, “Optical Jitter and Pulse Distortion in High Bit-rate, Slow-Light Mach-Zehnder Interferometers,” OSA Slow and Fast Light topical meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, July (2007)

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electromagnetics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, (Boston, Artech House, 2000) 852.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3781 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematics of Taylor’s PADC [3] and its output (for a 3-bit A/D converter. red line: decision threshold for the digital conversion). Bottom: slow-light implementation of 2×2 MZI.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Device length and (b) ENOB of the PADC plotted for different coupling coefficients, at various target resolutions. (1550nm, σ=0.6, ρ=1.0%, and Λ=2µm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). CROW dispersion relation of the achieved design. (b) 3dB splitter (red rods tuned to r=0.18a) (c) CROW-PC waveguide adapter (purple and red rods tuned to r=0.22a and 0.15a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Demonstration of a 3-bit CROW PADC under a linear refractive index modulation (Media 1). The green and yellow regions show the modulation region (push-pull with different sign) of each MZI. For the figures on the right, the red dashed lines show the decision threshold.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Plot of the digitized output (black, magenta) from a 3-bit CROW PADC compared with its analog sinusoid input signal (yellow: 100GHz, cyan: 350GHz). (b) ENOB of the 3-bit PADC at different frequencies of analog input signals. The ENOB from the FDTD simulation (black) is compared to the ENOB values calculated from theory (in Section 2)

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L LSB Δ k = 2 b 1 π .
f s < 2 2 b 2 π · T b = 2 2 b 2 · υ g π · L LSB = 2 4 3 2 b π σ ρ · f 0
L LSB = υ g Δ ω 2 b 1 π 2 b 1 π κ σ ρ ,
Δ T m = d T m d ω Δ ω = d d ω ( L m υ g ) Δ ω
= L LSB · Δ ω 2 m 1 d ( 1 υ g ) = 2 b m · π 1 υ g 2 υ g k = 2 b m 1 κ f 0 cos ( k Λ ) sin 2 ( k Λ ) .
Δ T m 2 b m 1 κ f 0 · Δ k Λ = 2 b m 1 σ ρ κ 2 f 0 sin ( k Λ ) 2 b m 1 σ ρ κ 2 f 0 .

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