Abstract

This paper describes a rapid data acquisition photon-counting time-of-flight ranging technique that is designed for the avoidance of range ambiguity, an issue commonly found in high repetition frequency time-off-light systems. The technique transmits a non-periodic pulse train based on the random bin filling of a high frequency time clock. A received pattern is formed from the arrival times of the returning single photons and the correlation between the transmitted and received patterns was used to identify the unique target time-of-flight. The paper describes experiments in laboratory and in free space at over several hundred meters range at clock frequencies of 1GHz. Unambiguous photon-counting range-finding is demonstrated with centimeter accuracy.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. S. Massa, A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, S. J. Fancey and A. C. Walker, "Laser depth measurement based on time-correlated single photon counting," Opt. Lett. 22, 543 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. A. Ridley and J. G. Rarity, "A multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting," Rev. Sci.Instrum. 76, 083112-083112-7 (2005).
  3. G. S. Buller and A. M. Wallace "Recent advances in Ranging and Three-Dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 13, 1006-1015 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. E. Warburton, A McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, "Sub-centimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 2266-2268 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. "GT6558, PC-based Time Interval Analyzer," http://www.jitter.com/products/pcBase/658_1.htm
  6. C. Elachi and J. Van Zyl, Introduction to the Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing, 2nd Edition, (John Wiley & Sons, 2006) pp. 232-234.
  7. C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, "Quantum Cryptography: Public-key distribution and coin tossing," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Proc 175 - 179, (1984).
  8. R. J. Hughes, T. E. Chapuran, N. Dallmann, P. A. Hiskett, K. P. McCabe, P. M. Montano, J. E. Nordholt, C.G. Peterson, R. J. Runser, R. Sedillo, K. Tyagi, and C. C. Wipf, "A quantum key distribution system for optical fiber networks," Proc. SPIE Quantum Communication and Quantum Imaging 5893, 589301.1-589301.10 (2005).
  9. P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, S. Nam, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "A novel switched interferometric quantum key distribution system," Proc SPIE Quantum Communication and Quantum Imaging V. 6710, 67100S-67100S-12 (2007).
  10. G. W. Stimson, Introduction to Airborne Radar, 2nd Ed. (SciTech Publishing Inc, 1998), pp. 156-157.
  11. S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, "Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, "Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

G. S. Buller and A. M. Wallace "Recent advances in Ranging and Three-Dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 13, 1006-1015 (2007)
[CrossRef]

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, "Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Warburton, A McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, "Sub-centimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 2266-2268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, "Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Buller, G. S.

G. S. Buller and A. M. Wallace "Recent advances in Ranging and Three-Dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 13, 1006-1015 (2007)
[CrossRef]

R. E. Warburton, A McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, "Sub-centimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 2266-2268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, "Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Massa, A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, S. J. Fancey and A. C. Walker, "Laser depth measurement based on time-correlated single photon counting," Opt. Lett. 22, 543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, "Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, "Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fancey, S. J.

Ghioni, M.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, "Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gulinatti, A.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, "Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

Hernandez-Marin, S.

Massa, J. S.

McCarthy, A

Nam, S. W.

Pellegrini, S.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, "Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, "Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. M.

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, "Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Walker, A. C.

Wallace, A. M.

R. E. Warburton, A McCarthy, A. M. Wallace, S. Hernandez-Marin, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and G. S. Buller, "Sub-centimeter depth resolution using a single-photon counting time-of-flight laser ranging system at 1550nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 2266-2268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Buller and A. M. Wallace "Recent advances in Ranging and Three-Dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 13, 1006-1015 (2007)
[CrossRef]

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, "Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Massa, A. M. Wallace, G. S. Buller, S. J. Fancey and A. C. Walker, "Laser depth measurement based on time-correlated single photon counting," Opt. Lett. 22, 543 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, R. E.

Zappa, F.

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, "Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Ghioni, A. Gulinatti, I. Rech, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, "Progress in silicon single-photon avalanche diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 852-862 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

G. S. Buller and A. M. Wallace "Recent advances in Ranging and Three-Dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 13, 1006-1015 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Pellegrini, G. S. Buller, J. M. Smith, A. M. Wallace, and S. Cova, "Laser-based distance measurement using picosecond resolution time-correlated single-photon counting," Meas. Sci. Technol. 11, 712-716 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (7)

G. S. Buller, R. D. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. A. Hiskett, G. R. MacKinnon, G. R. Smith, R. Sung, A. M. Wallace, R. A. Lamb, K. A. Ridley and J. G. Rarity, "A multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting," Rev. Sci.Instrum. 76, 083112-083112-7 (2005).

"GT6558, PC-based Time Interval Analyzer," http://www.jitter.com/products/pcBase/658_1.htm

C. Elachi and J. Van Zyl, Introduction to the Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing, 2nd Edition, (John Wiley & Sons, 2006) pp. 232-234.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, "Quantum Cryptography: Public-key distribution and coin tossing," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Proc 175 - 179, (1984).

R. J. Hughes, T. E. Chapuran, N. Dallmann, P. A. Hiskett, K. P. McCabe, P. M. Montano, J. E. Nordholt, C.G. Peterson, R. J. Runser, R. Sedillo, K. Tyagi, and C. C. Wipf, "A quantum key distribution system for optical fiber networks," Proc. SPIE Quantum Communication and Quantum Imaging 5893, 589301.1-589301.10 (2005).

P. A. Hiskett, C. G. Peterson, D. Rosenberg, S. Nam, A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, R. J. Hughes, and J. E. Nordholt, "A novel switched interferometric quantum key distribution system," Proc SPIE Quantum Communication and Quantum Imaging V. 6710, 67100S-67100S-12 (2007).

G. W. Stimson, Introduction to Airborne Radar, 2nd Ed. (SciTech Publishing Inc, 1998), pp. 156-157.

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