Abstract

We demonstrate a powerful and practical spectral interferometer with near-field scanning microscopy (NSOM) probes for measuring the spatiotemporal electric field of tightly focused ultrashort pulses with high spatial and spectral resolution. Our measurements involved numerical apertures as high as 0.44 and yielded the spatiotemporal field at and around the foci produced by two microscope objectives and several different lenses. For the first time, we measure the spatiotemporal field of the Bessel-like X-shaped pulse caused by spherical aberrations and a “fore-runner pulse” due to chromatic aberrations. We observed spatial features smaller than 1µm and verified these results with non-paraxial simulations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Zs. Bor, "Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses and lens systems," J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1907-1918 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Bor, "Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses," Opt. Lett. 14, 119-121 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Zs. Bor and Z. L. Horvath, "Distortion of femtosecond pulses in lenses. Wave optical description," Opt. Commun. 94, 249-258 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Kempe, U. Stamm, B. Wilhelmi, and W. Rudolph, "Spatial and temporal transformation of femtosecond laser pulses by lenses and lens systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1158-1165 (1992).
  5. M. Kempe and W. Rudolph, "Femtosecond pulses in the focal region of lenses," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4721-4729 (1993).
  6. Simin Feng and Herbert G. Winful, "Spatiotemporal structure of isodiffracting ultrashort electromagnetic pulses," Phys. Rev. E 61, 862-873 (2000).
  7. P. Saari, "Evolution of subcycle pulses in nonparaxial Gaussian beams," Opt. Express 8, 590-598 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. U. Fuchs, U. D. Zeitner, and A. Tuennermann, "Ultra-short pulse propagation in complex optical systems," Opt. Express 13, 3852-3861 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Z. L. Horvath and Zs. Bor, "Diffraction of short pulses with boundary diffraction wave theory," Phys. Rev. E 63, 1-11 (2001).
  10. P. Saari, K. Reivelt, and H. Valta, "Ultralocalized Superluminal Light Pulses," Laser Phys. 17, 297-301 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Chadwick, E. Spahr, J. A. Squier, and C. G. Durfee, "Fringe-free, background-free, collinear third-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating measurements for multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 3366-3368 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Jasapara and W. Rudolph, "Characterization of sub-10-fs pulse focusing with high-numerical-aperture microscope objectives," Opt. Lett. 24, 777-779 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Amir, T. A. Planchon, C. G. Durfee, J. A. Squier, P. Gabolde, R. Trebino, and M. Mueller, "Simultaneous visualizations of spatial and chromatic abberations by two-dimensional Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Opt. Lett. 31, 2927-2929 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Gabolde and R. Trebino, "Single-shot measurement of the full spatio-temporal field of ultrashort pulses with multi-spectral digital holography," Opt. Express 14, 11460-11467 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M.L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time," Science 294, (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. L. M Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Phase Mapping of Optical Fields in Integrated Optical Waveguide Structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1169 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Gersen, E. M. H. P. van Dijk, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066609 (2004).
  19. H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Tracking ultrashort pulses through dispersive media: Experiement and theory," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
  20. P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, M. A. Coughlan, R. Trebino, and R. J. Levis, "Measuring the spatiotemporal electric field of ultrashort pulses with high spatial and spectral resolution," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, A81-A92 (2008).
  21. P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, and R. Trebino, "Directly measuring the spatio-temporal electric field of focusing ultrashort pulses," Opt. Express 15, 10219-10230 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Schreenath, K. McGresham, and R. Trebino, "Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time," Opt. Express 14, 11892-11900 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time Impulse Responce and time Frequency Responce of Optical Pupils," Nouvelle Revue D'Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. C. Kovaecs, K. Osvay, Bor, Zs , "Group-delay measurement on laser mirrors by spectrally resolved white-light interferometry," Opt. Lett. 20, 788-791 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Misawa and T. Kobayashi, "Femtosecond Sangac interferometer for phase spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 20, 1550-1552 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Meshulach, D. Yelin, and Y. Silbergerg, "Real-Time Spatial-Spectral Interference Measurements of Ultrashort Optical Pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2095-2098 (1997).
  27. J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, S. Rebibo, and J. C. Gauthier, "Single-shot spectral interferometry with chirped pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 1612-1614 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  28. E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, "Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088-2090 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  29. E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier: Optical Microscopy of a Nanometer Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. Y. H. Fu, F. H. Ho, W. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, and D. P. Tsau, "Study of the focused laser spots generated by various polarized laser beam conditions," J. Microsc. 201, 225-228 (2002).
  31. I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, and N. Gregersen, "Transfer funcion and near-field detection of evanescent waves," Appl. Opt. 45, 4054-4061 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeld, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758-2764 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. Gabolde, D. Lee, S. Akturk, and R. Trebino, "Describing first-order spatio-temporal distortions in ultrashort pulses using normalized parameters," Opt. Express 15, 242-251 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. "OSLO Optical Design Program," (Lambda Research Corporation, 2004).

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (5)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

H. Gersen, E. M. H. P. van Dijk, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066609 (2004).

2003 (1)

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Tracking ultrashort pulses through dispersive media: Experiement and theory," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).

2002 (1)

Y. H. Fu, F. H. Ho, W. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, and D. P. Tsau, "Study of the focused laser spots generated by various polarized laser beam conditions," J. Microsc. 201, 225-228 (2002).

2001 (5)

2000 (1)

Simin Feng and Herbert G. Winful, "Spatiotemporal structure of isodiffracting ultrashort electromagnetic pulses," Phys. Rev. E 61, 862-873 (2000).

1999 (2)

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeld, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758-2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Jasapara and W. Rudolph, "Characterization of sub-10-fs pulse focusing with high-numerical-aperture microscope objectives," Opt. Lett. 24, 777-779 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (3)

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Kovaecs, K. Osvay, Bor, Zs , "Group-delay measurement on laser mirrors by spectrally resolved white-light interferometry," Opt. Lett. 20, 788-791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Misawa and T. Kobayashi, "Femtosecond Sangac interferometer for phase spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 20, 1550-1552 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

M. Kempe and W. Rudolph, "Femtosecond pulses in the focal region of lenses," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4721-4729 (1993).

1992 (2)

Zs. Bor and Z. L. Horvath, "Distortion of femtosecond pulses in lenses. Wave optical description," Opt. Commun. 94, 249-258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Kempe, U. Stamm, B. Wilhelmi, and W. Rudolph, "Spatial and temporal transformation of femtosecond laser pulses by lenses and lens systems," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1158-1165 (1992).

1991 (1)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier: Optical Microscopy of a Nanometer Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

Zs. Bor, "Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses and lens systems," J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1907-1918 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, "Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088-2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time Impulse Responce and time Frequency Responce of Optical Pupils," Nouvelle Revue D'Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Achermann, M.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeld, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758-2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Akturk, S.

Amir, W.

Audebert, P.

Balistreri, M. L. M

Balistreri, M.L. M.

M.L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time," Science 294, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Ami, U.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier: Optical Microscopy of a Nanometer Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, "Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088-2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeld, H.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeld, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758-2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bor, K.

Bor, Z.

Bor, Zs.

Z. L. Horvath and Zs. Bor, "Diffraction of short pulses with boundary diffraction wave theory," Phys. Rev. E 63, 1-11 (2001).

Zs. Bor and Z. L. Horvath, "Distortion of femtosecond pulses in lenses. Wave optical description," Opt. Commun. 94, 249-258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zs. Bor, "Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses and lens systems," J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1907-1918 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bowlan, P.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Chadwick, R.

Coughlan, M. A.

Diamant, D.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

Fish, G.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Froehly, Cl.

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time Impulse Responce and time Frequency Responce of Optical Pupils," Nouvelle Revue D'Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. H.

Y. H. Fu, F. H. Ho, W. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, and D. P. Tsau, "Study of the focused laser spots generated by various polarized laser beam conditions," J. Microsc. 201, 225-228 (2002).

Fuchs, U.

Gabolde, P.

Gauthier, J. C.

Geindre, J. P.

Gersen, H.

H. Gersen, E. M. H. P. van Dijk, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066609 (2004).

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Tracking ultrashort pulses through dispersive media: Experiement and theory," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).

M.L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time," Science 294, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregersen, N.

Harris, T. D.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier: Optical Microscopy of a Nanometer Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, F. H.

Y. H. Fu, F. H. Ho, W. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, and D. P. Tsau, "Study of the focused laser spots generated by various polarized laser beam conditions," J. Microsc. 201, 225-228 (2002).

Horvath, Z. L.

Z. L. Horvath and Zs. Bor, "Diffraction of short pulses with boundary diffraction wave theory," Phys. Rev. E 63, 1-11 (2001).

Zs. Bor and Z. L. Horvath, "Distortion of femtosecond pulses in lenses. Wave optical description," Opt. Commun. 94, 249-258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Isaacson, M.

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, "Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088-2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jasapara, J.

Katz, S.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeld, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758-2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kempe, M.

Kobayashi, T.

Korterik, J. P.

H. Gersen, E. M. H. P. van Dijk, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066609 (2004).

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Tracking ultrashort pulses through dispersive media: Experiement and theory," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).

M.L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time," Science 294, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Phase Mapping of Optical Fields in Integrated Optical Waveguide Structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kostelak, R. L.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier: Optical Microscopy of a Nanometer Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovaecs, A. C.

Kuck, N.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

H. Gersen, E. M. H. P. van Dijk, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066609 (2004).

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Tracking ultrashort pulses through dispersive media: Experiement and theory," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).

M. L. M Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Phase Mapping of Optical Fields in Integrated Optical Waveguide Structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M.L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time," Science 294, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacourt, A.

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time Impulse Responce and time Frequency Responce of Optical Pupils," Nouvelle Revue D'Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

Levis, R. J.

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, "Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088-2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, K.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. C.

Y. H. Fu, F. H. Ho, W. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, and D. P. Tsau, "Study of the focused laser spots generated by various polarized laser beam conditions," J. Microsc. 201, 225-228 (2002).

Liu, W. C.

Y. H. Fu, F. H. Ho, W. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, and D. P. Tsau, "Study of the focused laser spots generated by various polarized laser beam conditions," J. Microsc. 201, 225-228 (2002).

Lubovsky, L.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McGresham, K.

Meshulach, D.

Misawa, K.

Mueller, M.

Nechay, B. A.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeld, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758-2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Osvay, K.

Planchon, T. A.

Radko, I. P.

Rebibo, S.

Reivelt, K.

P. Saari, K. Reivelt, and H. Valta, "Ultralocalized Superluminal Light Pulses," Laser Phys. 17, 297-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roth, M.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, W.

Saar, A.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saari, P.

P. Saari, K. Reivelt, and H. Valta, "Ultralocalized Superluminal Light Pulses," Laser Phys. 17, 297-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Saari, "Evolution of subcycle pulses in nonparaxial Gaussian beams," Opt. Express 8, 590-598 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreenath, A.

Siegner, U.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeld, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758-2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Silbergerg, Y.

Spahr, E.

Squier, J. A.

Stamm, U.

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier: Optical Microscopy of a Nanometer Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

Tsau, D. P.

Y. H. Fu, F. H. Ho, W. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, and D. P. Tsau, "Study of the focused laser spots generated by various polarized laser beam conditions," J. Microsc. 201, 225-228 (2002).

Tuennermann, A.

Valta, H.

P. Saari, K. Reivelt, and H. Valta, "Ultralocalized Superluminal Light Pulses," Laser Phys. 17, 297-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Dijk, E. M. H. P.

H. Gersen, E. M. H. P. van Dijk, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066609 (2004).

van Hulst, N. F.

H. Gersen, E. M. H. P. van Dijk, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066609 (2004).

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Tracking ultrashort pulses through dispersive media: Experiement and theory," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).

M.L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time," Science 294, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Phase Mapping of Optical Fields in Integrated Optical Waveguide Structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vienot, J. Ch.

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time Impulse Responce and time Frequency Responce of Optical Pupils," Nouvelle Revue D'Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier: Optical Microscopy of a Nanometer Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilhelmi, B.

Yelin, D.

Zeitner, U. D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Betzig, M. Isaacson, and A. Lewis, "Collection mode near-field scanning optical microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 2088-2090 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Microsc. (1)

Y. H. Fu, F. H. Ho, W. C. Lin, W. C. Liu, and D. P. Tsau, "Study of the focused laser spots generated by various polarized laser beam conditions," J. Microsc. 201, 225-228 (2002).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

Zs. Bor, "Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses and lens systems," J. Mod. Opt. 35, 1907-1918 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Laser Phys. (1)

P. Saari, K. Reivelt, and H. Valta, "Ultralocalized Superluminal Light Pulses," Laser Phys. 17, 297-301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nouvelle Revue D'Optique (1)

Cl. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. Ch. Vienot, "Time Impulse Responce and time Frequency Responce of Optical Pupils," Nouvelle Revue D'Optique 4, 183-196 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Zs. Bor and Z. L. Horvath, "Distortion of femtosecond pulses in lenses. Wave optical description," Opt. Commun. 94, 249-258 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Kempe and W. Rudolph, "Femtosecond pulses in the focal region of lenses," Phys. Rev. A 48, 4721-4729 (1993).

Phys. Rev. E (4)

Simin Feng and Herbert G. Winful, "Spatiotemporal structure of isodiffracting ultrashort electromagnetic pulses," Phys. Rev. E 61, 862-873 (2000).

Z. L. Horvath and Zs. Bor, "Diffraction of short pulses with boundary diffraction wave theory," Phys. Rev. E 63, 1-11 (2001).

H. Gersen, E. M. H. P. van Dijk, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Phase mapping of ultrashort pulses in bimodal photonic structures: A window on local group velocity dispersion," Phys. Rev. E 70, 066609 (2004).

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, "Tracking ultrashort pulses through dispersive media: Experiement and theory," Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeld, and U. Keller, "Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 2758-2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scanning (1)

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, "NSOM the Fourth Dimension: Integrating Nanometric Spatial and Femtosecond Time Resolution," Scanning 17, 3-10 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

E. Betzig, J. K. Trautman, T. D. Harris, J. S. Weiner, and R. L. Kostelak, "Breaking the Diffraction Barrier: Optical Microscopy of a Nanometer Scale," Science 251, 1468-1470 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, "Tracking Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Space and Time," Science 294, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 2002).
[CrossRef]

"OSLO Optical Design Program," (Lambda Research Corporation, 2004).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (2085 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

NSOM-Scanning SEA TADPOLE experimental setup: An NSOM fiber samples the focusing pulse. The reference pulse is coupled into an identical fiber without an NSOM probe on its end. At the outputs of the fibers, the diverging beams are collimated using a spherical lens (f). After propagating a distance f, the collimated beams cross, and a camera records the resulting interference. In the other dimension, a grating and a lens map wavelength onto the camera’s horizontal axis (x c ). The NSOM probe is scanned in x and z, so that E(x,z,λ) is measured.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured transfer function for two different NSOM fiber probes. Each measurement shows the power transmitted through the NSOM probe as a function of the incidence angle of the input beam. Left: An NSOM probe that is suitable for out measurements and has an NA of 0.5. Right: A damaged NSOM probe that would k-vector-filter the focusing pulse in a complicated and unacceptable way.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured E(x,z,t) for a pulse focused with a 10x microscope objective. Each box shows the E(x,t) at a certain distance from the focus (z) which is written above the box. The (false) color in the plot is the instantaneous frequency of the pulse as indicated by the color bar.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured E(x,z,t) for a pulse focused with a 20x microscope objective. Each box shows the E(x,t) at a certain distance from the focus (z) which is written above the box. The color in the plot is the color of the pulse as indicated by the color bar.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured E(x,z,t) for a pulse focused with a 0.28 NA SFll plano-convex lens. Each box shows the E(x,t) at a certain distance from the focus (z), written above the box. Redder colors precede bluer ones in time due to the material dispersion introduced by the lens. The ripples that appear before the focus are due to spherical aberrations. The smallest features in the data have a width of 1 µm, which illustrates our spatial resolution.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured |E(x,z,t)| for a pulse focused with a 0.28 NA SFll plano-convex lens. Here the results are plotted using color to represent the intensity as indicated by the color bar and the phase information of this pulse is not shown here.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured E(x,z,t) for a pulse focused with a 0.44 NA aspheric lens. Each box shows E(x,t) a certain distance from the focus (z) written above the box. In addition to the distortions seen in our previous measurements, here the color also varies along the x direction due to the severe chromatic aberrations that are present. The combination of overfilling the lens and chromatic aberrations result in the additional “fore-runner” pulse ahead of the main pulse before the focus.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(Media 1) Movie of a focusing pulse from the 0.4 NA aspheric lens: Due to the severe chromatic aberrations, the pulses’ color varies in x, t, and z.

Metrics