Abstract

The design, fabrication, characterization, and modeling of basic building blocks of plasmonic circuitry based on dielectric-loaded surface polariton waveguides, such as bends, splitters, and Mach-Zehnder interferometers are presented. The plasmonic components are realized by depositing subwavelength dielectric ridges on a smooth gold film using mass-production-compatible UV-photolithography. The near-field characterization at telecommunication wavelengths shows the strong mode confinement and low radiation and bend losses. The performance of the devices is found in good agreement with results obtained by full vectorial three-dimensional finite element simulations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  2. R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, "Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology," Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface-plasmon circuitry," Phys. Today 61, 44-50 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824-830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, "Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding," Nat. Photonics 1, 641-648 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, "Channel polaritons," Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002).
  9. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440, 508-511 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T.W. Ebbesen, "Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons," Nano Lett. 7, 880-884 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 31, 1307-1309 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
  15. A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, "Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonz`alez, and R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, "Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectricloaded SPP waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 78, 045425 (2008).
  18. T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Kumar and S. Aditya, "Performance of s-bends for integrated-optic waveguides," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 19, 289-292 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2008

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface-plasmon circuitry," Phys. Today 61, 44-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, "Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectricloaded SPP waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 78, 045425 (2008).

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T.W. Ebbesen, "Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons," Nano Lett. 7, 880-884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, "Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonz`alez, and R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, "Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding," Nat. Photonics 1, 641-648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, "Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology," Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 31, 1307-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, "Channel polaritons," Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002).

1998

A. Kumar and S. Aditya, "Performance of s-bends for integrated-optic waveguides," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 19, 289-292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aditya, S.

A. Kumar and S. Aditya, "Performance of s-bends for integrated-optic waveguides," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 19, 289-292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonz`alez, and R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface-plasmon circuitry," Phys. Today 61, 44-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T.W. Ebbesen, "Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons," Nano Lett. 7, 880-884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Reinhardt, S. Passinger, B. N. Chichkov, C. Marquart, I. P. Radko, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Laser-fabricated dielectric optical components for surface plasmon polaritons," Opt. Lett. 31, 1307-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, "Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology," Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chandran, A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, "Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology," Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

Dereux, A.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonz`alez, and R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

des Francs, G. C.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonz`alez, and R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T.W. Ebbesen, "Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons," Nano Lett. 7, 880-884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface-plasmon circuitry," Phys. Today 61, 44-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T.W.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T.W. Ebbesen, "Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons," Nano Lett. 7, 880-884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface-plasmon circuitry," Phys. Today 61, 44-50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gonz`alez, M. U.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonz`alez, and R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonz`alez, and R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, "Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding," Nat. Photonics 1, 641-648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).

Krasavin, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, "Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectricloaded SPP waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 78, 045425 (2008).

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, "Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar and S. Aditya, "Performance of s-bends for integrated-optic waveguides," Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 19, 289-292 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lal, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, "Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding," Nat. Photonics 1, 641-648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J.-Y.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T.W. Ebbesen, "Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons," Nano Lett. 7, 880-884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

S. Lal, S. Link, and N. J. Halas, "Nano-optics from sensing to waveguiding," Nat. Photonics 1, 641-648 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: Localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maradudin, A. A.

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, "Channel polaritons," Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002).

Markey, L.

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, "Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonz`alez, and R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marquart, C.

Massenot, S.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonz`alez, and R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, I. V.

I. V. Novikov and A. A. Maradudin, "Channel polaritons," Phys. Rev. B 66, 035403 (2002).

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passinger, S.

Quidant, R.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonz`alez, and R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radko, I. P.

Reinhardt, C.

Renger, J.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonz`alez, and R. Quidant, "Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by Fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, "Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology," Mater. Today 9, 20-27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Steinberger, B.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T.W. Ebbesen, "Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons," Nano Lett. 7, 880-884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature (London) 440, 508-511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J.-C.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Plasmonic tapers and S-bends: (a) SEM image of a taper waveguide structure comprising a 10-µm-long S-bend with an offset of 10 µm; (b) topographical and (c) near-field optical (λ=1,550 nm) images of the SPP excitation in the taper region and coupling into the single-mode waveguide; (d) topographical and (e) near-field optical (λ=1,550 nm) images of the SPP mode propagation in a 10-µm-long S-bend with an offset of 5 µm (note the out-coupling of the SPP waveguide mode into a free-propagating and diverging SPP wave at the waveguide termination). [(f) and (g)] As (d) and (e) but for a waveguide offset of 10 µm. [(h) and (i)] As (f) and (g) but for a waveguide offset of 15 µm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

S-bend transmission dependence on the offset distance between the arms for the 10-µm-long S-bends (λ=1,550 nm) determined experimentally from SNOM images (similar to those shown in Fig. 1) and by modeling with 3D-FEM simulations. Insets show calculated intensity distributions in two S-bends with different offsets that should be compared to the optical images shown in Fig. 1(e) and Fig. 1(i). The error bars are obtained from single measurements and, thus, represent the uncertainty in each measurement due to variations in the optical signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plasmonic Y-splitters composed of two mirrored S-bends: (a) SEM image of a taper waveguide structure comprising a 10-µm-long Y-splitter with the arm separation of 10 µm; (b) topographical and (c) near-field optical (λ=1,550 nm) images of the Y-splitter shown in (a) along with an inset showing an SEM image of the junction area. [(d) and (e)] As (b) and (c) but for the arm separation of 20 µm. [(f) and (g)] As (d) and (e) but for the arm separation of 30 µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission of 10-µm-long Y-splitters (λ=1,550 nm) as a function of arm separation determined experimentally from the SNOM images similar to the ones shown in Fig. 3 and by modeling with 3D-FEM simulations. Insets show the calculated intensity distributions in 10-µm-wide Y-splitters having adiabatic arm separation and 300-nm-radius rounding of the junction area respectively (the latter should be compared to the optical image in Fig. 3(c)).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Mach-Zehnder interferometer with an arm separation of 3 µm: (a) topographical and (b) near-field optical (λ=1,550 nm) images, respectively. The SPP mode propagates from left to right.

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