Abstract

Elliptical core D-fiber is difficult to fusion splice to other types of fiber due to its small core and D-shaped cladding. The presented method of splicing D-fiber to PANDA fiber involves using E-fiber in a bridge splice. The E-fiber core is expanded to match the mode of the PANDA fiber. The D-fiber is then connected to the E-fiber with a low temperature splice. Total system loss for fibers spliced using this method is 0.72 dB with a polarization crosstalk of less than 25 dB.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Johnson, J. Kvavle, R. Selfridge, S. Schultz, R. Forber, W. Wang, and D. Zang, "Electric field sensing with a hybrid polymer/glass fiber," Appl. Opt. 46, 6953-6958 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Smith, B. Ipson, T. Lowder, A. Hawkins, R. Selfridge, and S. Schultz, "Surface-relief fiber Bragg gratings for sensing applications," Appl. Opt. 45, 1669-1675 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Iocco, H. Limberger, R. Salathe, L. Everall, K. Chisholm, J. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1217-1221 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Al-Raweshidy, F. Muhammad, and J. Senior, "D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems," Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings 143, 370-374 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Dyott, and J. Bello, "Polarization holding directional coupler mode from elliptically cored fiber having a D section," Electron. Lett. 19, 607-608 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Dyott, J. Bello, and V. Handerek, "Indium-coated D-shaped fiber polarizer," Opt. Lett. 12, 287-289 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Dyott, Elliptical Fiber Waveguides, Chapter 8, (Arctech House, 1995).
  10. H. Tam, "Simple Fusion Splicing Technique for Reducing Splicing Loss between Standard Singlemode Fibres and Erbium-Doped Fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Ando, and H. Hanafusa, "Low-Loss Optical Connector Between Dissimilar Single-Mode Fibers using Local Core Expansion Technique by Thermal Diffusion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1028-1031 (1992)
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Zheng, "Automated Fusion-Splicing of Polarization Maintaining Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 125-134 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Kato, "Fusion splicing of polarization preserving fibers," Appl. Opt. 24, 2346-2350 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, "Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61-66 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-Maintaining Fibers and Their Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1089 (1986).
  16. "Optical Fibre: Panda Fibre," www.fujikura.co.uk/fibre_optics/products/speciality_fibre/panda_fibre.html
  17. "KVH E-Core Polarization Maintaining Optical Fiber," www.kvh.com/pdf/EcorePMFiber_6.04.pdf
  18. H. Tsuchiya, and N. Imoto, "Dispersion-Free Single-Mode Fibre in 1-5 μm Wavelength Region," Electron. Lett. 15, 476-478 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill, 1992).
  20. A. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing, (Springer, 2005)
  21. L. Ohzawa, S. Yaguchi, J. Suzuki, N. Kawanishi, and S. Saito, "Development of a New Optical Fusion Splicer for Factory Use," Proc. of the 48th IWCS at Atlantic City, 644-649 (1999).
  22. T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, "Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523-525 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

1999 (2)

A. Iocco, H. Limberger, R. Salathe, L. Everall, K. Chisholm, J. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1217-1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, "Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

H. Tam, "Simple Fusion Splicing Technique for Reducing Splicing Loss between Standard Singlemode Fibres and Erbium-Doped Fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Zheng, "Automated Fusion-Splicing of Polarization Maintaining Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 125-134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Al-Raweshidy, F. Muhammad, and J. Senior, "D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems," Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings 143, 370-374 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Y. Ando, and H. Hanafusa, "Low-Loss Optical Connector Between Dissimilar Single-Mode Fibers using Local Core Expansion Technique by Thermal Diffusion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1028-1031 (1992)
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-Maintaining Fibers and Their Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1089 (1986).

1985 (1)

1983 (2)

R. Dyott, and J. Bello, "Polarization holding directional coupler mode from elliptically cored fiber having a D section," Electron. Lett. 19, 607-608 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, "Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61-66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. Tsuchiya, and N. Imoto, "Dispersion-Free Single-Mode Fibre in 1-5 μm Wavelength Region," Electron. Lett. 15, 476-478 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Al-Raweshidy, H.

H. Al-Raweshidy, F. Muhammad, and J. Senior, "D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems," Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings 143, 370-374 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ando, Y.

Y. Ando, and H. Hanafusa, "Low-Loss Optical Connector Between Dissimilar Single-Mode Fibers using Local Core Expansion Technique by Thermal Diffusion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1028-1031 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Armenise, M.

T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, "Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbarossa, G.

T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, "Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bello, J.

R. Dyott, J. Bello, and V. Handerek, "Indium-coated D-shaped fiber polarizer," Opt. Lett. 12, 287-289 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dyott, and J. Bello, "Polarization holding directional coupler mode from elliptically cored fiber having a D section," Electron. Lett. 19, 607-608 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Chisholm, K.

Conese, T.

T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, "Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dyott, R.

R. Dyott, J. Bello, and V. Handerek, "Indium-coated D-shaped fiber polarizer," Opt. Lett. 12, 287-289 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dyott, and J. Bello, "Polarization holding directional coupler mode from elliptically cored fiber having a D section," Electron. Lett. 19, 607-608 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Edahiro, T.

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, "Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61-66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Everall, L.

Forber, R.

Gordon, J.

Hanafusa, H.

Y. Ando, and H. Hanafusa, "Low-Loss Optical Connector Between Dissimilar Single-Mode Fibers using Local Core Expansion Technique by Thermal Diffusion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1028-1031 (1992)
[CrossRef]

Handerek, V.

Hawkins, A.

Imoto, N.

H. Tsuchiya, and N. Imoto, "Dispersion-Free Single-Mode Fibre in 1-5 μm Wavelength Region," Electron. Lett. 15, 476-478 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Iocco, A.

Ipson, B.

Johnson, E.

Kato, Y.

Kvavle, J.

Limberger, H.

Lowder, T.

Monte, T. D.

Muhammad, F.

H. Al-Raweshidy, F. Muhammad, and J. Senior, "D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems," Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings 143, 370-374 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Noda, J.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-Maintaining Fibers and Their Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1089 (1986).

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, "Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61-66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-Maintaining Fibers and Their Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1089 (1986).

Salathe, R.

Sasaki, Y.

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-Maintaining Fibers and Their Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1089 (1986).

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, "Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61-66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

Selfridge, R.

Senior, J.

H. Al-Raweshidy, F. Muhammad, and J. Senior, "D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems," Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings 143, 370-374 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, N.

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, "Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61-66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K.

Tam, H.

H. Tam, "Simple Fusion Splicing Technique for Reducing Splicing Loss between Standard Singlemode Fibres and Erbium-Doped Fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, H.

H. Tsuchiya, and N. Imoto, "Dispersion-Free Single-Mode Fibre in 1-5 μm Wavelength Region," Electron. Lett. 15, 476-478 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wang, W.

Williams, J.

Zang, D.

Zheng, W.

W. Zheng, "Automated Fusion-Splicing of Polarization Maintaining Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 125-134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. Dyott, and J. Bello, "Polarization holding directional coupler mode from elliptically cored fiber having a D section," Electron. Lett. 19, 607-608 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Tam, "Simple Fusion Splicing Technique for Reducing Splicing Loss between Standard Singlemode Fibres and Erbium-Doped Fibre," Electron. Lett. 27, 1597-1599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Tsuchiya, and N. Imoto, "Dispersion-Free Single-Mode Fibre in 1-5 μm Wavelength Region," Electron. Lett. 15, 476-478 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proceedings (1)

H. Al-Raweshidy, F. Muhammad, and J. Senior, "D-fibre antenna for microcellular mobile communication systems," Optoelectronics, IEE Proceedings 143, 370-374 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Ando, and H. Hanafusa, "Low-Loss Optical Connector Between Dissimilar Single-Mode Fibers using Local Core Expansion Technique by Thermal Diffusion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1028-1031 (1992)
[CrossRef]

T. Conese, G. Barbarossa, and M. Armenise, "Accurate Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber/D-fiber Splice by Vectorial Finite-Element Method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 523-525 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

W. Zheng, "Automated Fusion-Splicing of Polarization Maintaining Fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 125-134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Noda, N. Shibata, T. Edahiro, and Y. Sasaki, "Splicing of single polarization-maintaining fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 1, 61-66 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, and Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-Maintaining Fibers and Their Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 1071-1089 (1986).

A. Iocco, H. Limberger, R. Salathe, L. Everall, K. Chisholm, J. Williams, and I. Bennion, "Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1217-1221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (6)

R. Dyott, Elliptical Fiber Waveguides, Chapter 8, (Arctech House, 1995).

"Optical Fibre: Panda Fibre," www.fujikura.co.uk/fibre_optics/products/speciality_fibre/panda_fibre.html

"KVH E-Core Polarization Maintaining Optical Fiber," www.kvh.com/pdf/EcorePMFiber_6.04.pdf

R. Syms and J. Cozens, Optical Guided Waves and Devices, (McGraw-Hill, 1992).

A. Yablon, Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing, (Springer, 2005)

L. Ohzawa, S. Yaguchi, J. Suzuki, N. Kawanishi, and S. Saito, "Development of a New Optical Fusion Splicer for Factory Use," Proc. of the 48th IWCS at Atlantic City, 644-649 (1999).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of the cross-section of PANDA fiber (d1=7.805 µm, d2=7.954 µm, NA=0.12).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM image of the cross-section of D-fiber (d1=4.689 µm, d2=2.181 µm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). A cross-sectional SEM image of standard D-fiber and (b) a cross-sectional SEM image of D-fiber after a high temperature arc.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM image of the cross-section of E-fiber (d1=4.885 µm, d2=2.152 µm, NA=0.32).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Illustration with cross-sectional SEM images of expanded elliptical core.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Illustration of the surface tension forces and an overlay of the two cross sections showing a core separation of d=10.6 µm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

A plot of the relative loss as measured through the splice joint during the splice from PANDA to E-fiber. The gap was estimated from the splice parameters, the FSM -40 PM splicer manual, and the relative loss. The plot of the arc current shows the three phases of the splice, the prefuse, the arc, and the sweep. The splice parameters for both splices are included.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a). A boxplot of splice loss for PANDA to E-fiber and E-fiber to D-fiber splices. (b). A boxplot of polarization crosstalk for PANDA to E-fiber and E-fiber to D-fiber splices.

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