Abstract

This paper presents work aimed at optimizing the fabrication of silicon nitride SixNy thin-film visible-light planar waveguides using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The effects of plasma frequency, precursor gas ratio, and thermal annealing in relation to waveguide optical properties (refractive index, propagation losses) are studied. Experimental results over a wide range of precursor gas ratios show convincingly that waveguides fabricated using low-frequency PECVD have lower propagation losses in the visible range compared to waveguides of equal refractive index fabricated with high-frequency PECVD.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Karunagaran, S. J. Chung, S. Velumani, anad E. K. Suh, "Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the properties of PECVD SiNx thin films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 106, 130-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Yoo, S. K. Dhungel, and Y. Junsin, "Annealing optimization of silicon nitride film for solar cell application," Thin Solid Films 515, 7611-14 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, U. Pieles, and M. Ehrat, "Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides," Sens. Actuators B: Chemical B 38, 88-95 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. M. Grandin, B. Stadler, M. Textor, J. Voros, "Waveguide excitation fluorescence microscopy: A new tool for sensing and imaging the biointerface," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1476-82 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Hoffmann, K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-7 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Sriram, W. D. Partlow, and C. S. Liu, "Low-loss optical waveguides using plasma-deposited silicon nitride," Appl. Opt. 22, 26645 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Valentino, S. M. Troian, and S. Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Thin Solid Films 515, 3816-19 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Gonzalez, R. G. Luna, M. Tudanca, O. Sanchez, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, "Plasma-enhanced chemically vapour deposited Si3N4 thin films for optical waveguides," Thin Solid Films 220, 311-14 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Ay and A. Aydinli, "Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides," Opt. Mater. 26, 33-46 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. A. Lanford and M. J. Rand, "The hydrogen content of plasma-deposited silicon nitride," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2473-7 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, P. D. Doshi, and A. Rohatgi, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin film silicon nitride," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 193-197 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).
  15. R. Swanepoel, "determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E 16,1214 (1983)
  16. M. McClain, A. Feldman, D. Kahaner, Y. Xuantong, "An algorithm and computer program for the calculation of envelope curves," Comput. Phys. 5, 45-8 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. C. Tan, S. Kobayashi, T. Aoki, R. E. Johanson, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of amorphous silicon nitride thin-films prepared by VHF-PECVD using silane and nitrogen," J. Mater. Sci. - Mater. Electron. (2007)
  18. A. M. Perez, C. Santiago, F. Renero, C. Zuniga, "Optical properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films," Opt. Eng. 45, 123802 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Tauc, Optical Properties of Solids, F. Abeles, ed., (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1971).
  20. Z. Yin and F.W. Smith, "Tetrahedron model for the optical dielectric function of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride alloys," Phys. Rev. B: Condensed Matter 42, 3658-65 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Aydmli, A. Serpenguzel, D. Vardar, "Visible photoluminescence from low temperature deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride," Solid State Commun. 98, 273-7 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (5)

B. Karunagaran, S. J. Chung, S. Velumani, anad E. K. Suh, "Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the properties of PECVD SiNx thin films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 106, 130-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Yoo, S. K. Dhungel, and Y. Junsin, "Annealing optimization of silicon nitride film for solar cell application," Thin Solid Films 515, 7611-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Hoffmann, K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Thin Solid Films 515, 3816-19 (2007)
[CrossRef]

W. C. Tan, S. Kobayashi, T. Aoki, R. E. Johanson, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of amorphous silicon nitride thin-films prepared by VHF-PECVD using silane and nitrogen," J. Mater. Sci. - Mater. Electron. (2007)

2006 (3)

A. M. Perez, C. Santiago, F. Renero, C. Zuniga, "Optical properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films," Opt. Eng. 45, 123802 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

H. M. Grandin, B. Stadler, M. Textor, J. Voros, "Waveguide excitation fluorescence microscopy: A new tool for sensing and imaging the biointerface," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1476-82 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. P. Valentino, S. M. Troian, and S. Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, "Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides," Opt. Mater. 26, 33-46 (2004)
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, P. D. Doshi, and A. Rohatgi, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin film silicon nitride," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 193-197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, U. Pieles, and M. Ehrat, "Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides," Sens. Actuators B: Chemical B 38, 88-95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Aydmli, A. Serpenguzel, D. Vardar, "Visible photoluminescence from low temperature deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride," Solid State Commun. 98, 273-7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. M. Gonzalez, R. G. Luna, M. Tudanca, O. Sanchez, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, "Plasma-enhanced chemically vapour deposited Si3N4 thin films for optical waveguides," Thin Solid Films 220, 311-14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. McClain, A. Feldman, D. Kahaner, Y. Xuantong, "An algorithm and computer program for the calculation of envelope curves," Comput. Phys. 5, 45-8 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Z. Yin and F.W. Smith, "Tetrahedron model for the optical dielectric function of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride alloys," Phys. Rev. B: Condensed Matter 42, 3658-65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

R. Swanepoel, "determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E 16,1214 (1983)

S. Sriram, W. D. Partlow, and C. S. Liu, "Low-loss optical waveguides using plasma-deposited silicon nitride," Appl. Opt. 22, 26645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

W. A. Lanford and M. J. Rand, "The hydrogen content of plasma-deposited silicon nitride," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2473-7 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Albella, J. M.

J. M. Gonzalez, R. G. Luna, M. Tudanca, O. Sanchez, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, "Plasma-enhanced chemically vapour deposited Si3N4 thin films for optical waveguides," Thin Solid Films 220, 311-14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, T.

W. C. Tan, S. Kobayashi, T. Aoki, R. E. Johanson, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of amorphous silicon nitride thin-films prepared by VHF-PECVD using silane and nitrogen," J. Mater. Sci. - Mater. Electron. (2007)

Araujo, D.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Ay, F.

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, "Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides," Opt. Mater. 26, 33-46 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Aydinli, A.

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, "Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides," Opt. Mater. 26, 33-46 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Aydmli, A.

A. Aydmli, A. Serpenguzel, D. Vardar, "Visible photoluminescence from low temperature deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride," Solid State Commun. 98, 273-7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bar, E.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, U. Pieles, and M. Ehrat, "Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides," Sens. Actuators B: Chemical B 38, 88-95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Belluti, P.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brandenburg, A.

C. Hoffmann, K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bremond, G.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Budach, W.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, U. Pieles, and M. Ehrat, "Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides," Sens. Actuators B: Chemical B 38, 88-95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chung, S. J.

B. Karunagaran, S. J. Chung, S. Velumani, anad E. K. Suh, "Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the properties of PECVD SiNx thin films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 106, 130-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crivellari, M.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De la Torre, J.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Dhungel, S. K.

J. Yoo, S. K. Dhungel, and Y. Junsin, "Annealing optimization of silicon nitride film for solar cell application," Thin Solid Films 515, 7611-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Doshi, P. D.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, P. D. Doshi, and A. Rohatgi, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin film silicon nitride," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 193-197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duveneck, G. L.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, U. Pieles, and M. Ehrat, "Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides," Sens. Actuators B: Chemical B 38, 88-95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ehrat, M.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, U. Pieles, and M. Ehrat, "Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides," Sens. Actuators B: Chemical B 38, 88-95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Epicier, T.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Feldman, A.

M. McClain, A. Feldman, D. Kahaner, Y. Xuantong, "An algorithm and computer program for the calculation of envelope curves," Comput. Phys. 5, 45-8 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, J. M.

J. M. Gonzalez, R. G. Luna, M. Tudanca, O. Sanchez, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, "Plasma-enhanced chemically vapour deposited Si3N4 thin films for optical waveguides," Thin Solid Films 220, 311-14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grandin, H. M.

H. M. Grandin, B. Stadler, M. Textor, J. Voros, "Waveguide excitation fluorescence microscopy: A new tool for sensing and imaging the biointerface," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1476-82 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, C.

C. Hoffmann, K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jaussaud, C.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, P. D. Doshi, and A. Rohatgi, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin film silicon nitride," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 193-197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johanson, R. E.

W. C. Tan, S. Kobayashi, T. Aoki, R. E. Johanson, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of amorphous silicon nitride thin-films prepared by VHF-PECVD using silane and nitrogen," J. Mater. Sci. - Mater. Electron. (2007)

Junsin, Y.

J. Yoo, S. K. Dhungel, and Y. Junsin, "Annealing optimization of silicon nitride film for solar cell application," Thin Solid Films 515, 7611-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kageyama, J.

J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Thin Solid Films 515, 3816-19 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Kahaner, D.

M. McClain, A. Feldman, D. Kahaner, Y. Xuantong, "An algorithm and computer program for the calculation of envelope curves," Comput. Phys. 5, 45-8 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, A.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Karunagaran, B.

B. Karunagaran, S. J. Chung, S. Velumani, anad E. K. Suh, "Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the properties of PECVD SiNx thin films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 106, 130-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S. O.

W. C. Tan, S. Kobayashi, T. Aoki, R. E. Johanson, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of amorphous silicon nitride thin-films prepared by VHF-PECVD using silane and nitrogen," J. Mater. Sci. - Mater. Electron. (2007)

Kintaka, K.

J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Thin Solid Films 515, 3816-19 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

W. C. Tan, S. Kobayashi, T. Aoki, R. E. Johanson, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of amorphous silicon nitride thin-films prepared by VHF-PECVD using silane and nitrogen," J. Mater. Sci. - Mater. Electron. (2007)

Kompocholis, C.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lanford, W. A.

W. A. Lanford and M. J. Rand, "The hydrogen content of plasma-deposited silicon nitride," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2473-7 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lelievre, J.-F.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Lemiti, M.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Liu, C. S.

S. Sriram, W. D. Partlow, and C. S. Liu, "Low-loss optical waveguides using plasma-deposited silicon nitride," Appl. Opt. 22, 26645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lui, A.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luna, R. G.

J. M. Gonzalez, R. G. Luna, M. Tudanca, O. Sanchez, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, "Plasma-enhanced chemically vapour deposited Si3N4 thin films for optical waveguides," Thin Solid Films 220, 311-14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Duart, J. M.

J. M. Gonzalez, R. G. Luna, M. Tudanca, O. Sanchez, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, "Plasma-enhanced chemically vapour deposited Si3N4 thin films for optical waveguides," Thin Solid Films 220, 311-14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McClain, M.

M. McClain, A. Feldman, D. Kahaner, Y. Xuantong, "An algorithm and computer program for the calculation of envelope curves," Comput. Phys. 5, 45-8 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Melchiorri, M.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meyrueis, P.

C. Hoffmann, K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Modine, F. A.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, P. D. Doshi, and A. Rohatgi, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin film silicon nitride," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 193-197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monna, R.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Neuschafer, D.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, U. Pieles, and M. Ehrat, "Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides," Sens. Actuators B: Chemical B 38, 88-95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Thin Solid Films 515, 3816-19 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Partlow, W. D.

S. Sriram, W. D. Partlow, and C. S. Liu, "Low-loss optical waveguides using plasma-deposited silicon nitride," Appl. Opt. 22, 26645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pawlak, M.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, U. Pieles, and M. Ehrat, "Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides," Sens. Actuators B: Chemical B 38, 88-95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Perez, A. M.

A. M. Perez, C. Santiago, F. Renero, C. Zuniga, "Optical properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films," Opt. Eng. 45, 123802 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Pieles, U.

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, U. Pieles, and M. Ehrat, "Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides," Sens. Actuators B: Chemical B 38, 88-95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pirot, M.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Pucker, G.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rachid El Bouayadi, M.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Rand, M. J.

W. A. Lanford and M. J. Rand, "The hydrogen content of plasma-deposited silicon nitride," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2473-7 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Renero, F.

A. M. Perez, C. Santiago, F. Renero, C. Zuniga, "Optical properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films," Opt. Eng. 45, 123802 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Ribeyron, P.-J.

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

Riboli, F.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rohatgi, A.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, P. D. Doshi, and A. Rohatgi, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin film silicon nitride," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 193-197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez, O.

J. M. Gonzalez, R. G. Luna, M. Tudanca, O. Sanchez, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, "Plasma-enhanced chemically vapour deposited Si3N4 thin films for optical waveguides," Thin Solid Films 220, 311-14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Santiago, C.

A. M. Perez, C. Santiago, F. Renero, C. Zuniga, "Optical properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films," Opt. Eng. 45, 123802 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Sbrana, F.

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, B.

C. Hoffmann, K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

C. Hoffmann, K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Serpenguzel, A.

A. Aydmli, A. Serpenguzel, D. Vardar, "Visible photoluminescence from low temperature deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride," Solid State Commun. 98, 273-7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, F.W.

Z. Yin and F.W. Smith, "Tetrahedron model for the optical dielectric function of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride alloys," Phys. Rev. B: Condensed Matter 42, 3658-65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sriram, S.

S. Sriram, W. D. Partlow, and C. S. Liu, "Low-loss optical waveguides using plasma-deposited silicon nitride," Appl. Opt. 22, 26645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, B.

H. M. Grandin, B. Stadler, M. Textor, J. Voros, "Waveguide excitation fluorescence microscopy: A new tool for sensing and imaging the biointerface," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1476-82 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, "determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E 16,1214 (1983)

Tan, W. C.

W. C. Tan, S. Kobayashi, T. Aoki, R. E. Johanson, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of amorphous silicon nitride thin-films prepared by VHF-PECVD using silane and nitrogen," J. Mater. Sci. - Mater. Electron. (2007)

Textor, M.

H. M. Grandin, B. Stadler, M. Textor, J. Voros, "Waveguide excitation fluorescence microscopy: A new tool for sensing and imaging the biointerface," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1476-82 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Troian, S. M.

J. P. Valentino, S. M. Troian, and S. Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tudanca, M.

J. M. Gonzalez, R. G. Luna, M. Tudanca, O. Sanchez, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, "Plasma-enhanced chemically vapour deposited Si3N4 thin films for optical waveguides," Thin Solid Films 220, 311-14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Valentino, J. P.

J. P. Valentino, S. M. Troian, and S. Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vardar, D.

A. Aydmli, A. Serpenguzel, D. Vardar, "Visible photoluminescence from low temperature deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride," Solid State Commun. 98, 273-7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Velumani, S.

B. Karunagaran, S. J. Chung, S. Velumani, anad E. K. Suh, "Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the properties of PECVD SiNx thin films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 106, 130-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Voros, J.

H. M. Grandin, B. Stadler, M. Textor, J. Voros, "Waveguide excitation fluorescence microscopy: A new tool for sensing and imaging the biointerface," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1476-82 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

J. P. Valentino, S. M. Troian, and S. Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xuantong, Y.

M. McClain, A. Feldman, D. Kahaner, Y. Xuantong, "An algorithm and computer program for the calculation of envelope curves," Comput. Phys. 5, 45-8 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Z.

Z. Yin and F.W. Smith, "Tetrahedron model for the optical dielectric function of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride alloys," Phys. Rev. B: Condensed Matter 42, 3658-65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J.

J. Yoo, S. K. Dhungel, and Y. Junsin, "Annealing optimization of silicon nitride film for solar cell application," Thin Solid Films 515, 7611-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zuniga, C.

A. M. Perez, C. Santiago, F. Renero, C. Zuniga, "Optical properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films," Opt. Eng. 45, 123802 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

S. Sriram, W. D. Partlow, and C. S. Liu, "Low-loss optical waveguides using plasma-deposited silicon nitride," Appl. Opt. 22, 26645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. P. Valentino, S. M. Troian, and S. Wagner, "Microfluidic detection and analysis by integration of thermocapillary actuation with a thin-film optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 184101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

H. M. Grandin, B. Stadler, M. Textor, J. Voros, "Waveguide excitation fluorescence microscopy: A new tool for sensing and imaging the biointerface," Biosens. Bioelectron. 21, 1476-82 (2006)
[CrossRef]

C. Hoffmann, K. Schmitt, B. Schirmer, A. Brandenburg, and P. Meyrueis, "Interferometric biosensor based on planar optical waveguide sensor chips for label-free detection of surface bound bioreactions," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2591-7 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. (1)

M. McClain, A. Feldman, D. Kahaner, Y. Xuantong, "An algorithm and computer program for the calculation of envelope curves," Comput. Phys. 5, 45-8 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. A. Lanford and M. J. Rand, "The hydrogen content of plasma-deposited silicon nitride," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 2473-7 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. - Mater. Electron. (1)

W. C. Tan, S. Kobayashi, T. Aoki, R. E. Johanson, and S. O. Kasap, "Optical properties of amorphous silicon nitride thin-films prepared by VHF-PECVD using silane and nitrogen," J. Mater. Sci. - Mater. Electron. (2007)

J. Phys. E (1)

R. Swanepoel, "determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E 16,1214 (1983)

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. Karunagaran, S. J. Chung, S. Velumani, anad E. K. Suh, "Effect of rapid thermal annealing on the properties of PECVD SiNx thin films," Mater. Chem. Phys. 106, 130-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. (1)

N. Daldosso, M. Melchiorri, F. Riboli, F. Sbrana, L. Pavesi, G. Pucker, C. Kompocholis, M. Crivellari, P. Belluti, and A. Lui, "Fabrication and optical characterization of thin two-dimensional Si3N4 waveguides," Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 7,453-458 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. M. Perez, C. Santiago, F. Renero, C. Zuniga, "Optical properties of amorphous hydrogenated silicon nitride thin films," Opt. Eng. 45, 123802 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater. (1)

F. Ay and A. Aydinli, "Comparative investigation of hydrogen bonding in silicon based PECVD grown dielectrics for optical waveguides," Opt. Mater. 26, 33-46 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B: Condensed Matter (1)

Z. Yin and F.W. Smith, "Tetrahedron model for the optical dielectric function of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride alloys," Phys. Rev. B: Condensed Matter 42, 3658-65 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B: Chemical B (1)

G. L. Duveneck, M. Pawlak, D. Neuschafer, E. Bar, W. Budach, U. Pieles, and M. Ehrat, "Novel bioaffinity sensors for trace analysis based on luminescence excitation by planar waveguides," Sens. Actuators B: Chemical B 38, 88-95 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

A. Aydmli, A. Serpenguzel, D. Vardar, "Visible photoluminescence from low temperature deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride," Solid State Commun. 98, 273-7 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (5)

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, P. D. Doshi, and A. Rohatgi, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin film silicon nitride," Thin Solid Films 313-314, 193-197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Lelievre, J. De la Torre, A. Kaminski, G. Bremond, M. Lemiti, Rachid El Bouayadi, D. Araujo, T. Epicier, R. Monna, M. Pirot, P.-J. Ribeyron, and C. Jaussaud, "Correlation of optical and photoluminescence properties in amorphous SiNx:H thin films deposited by PECVD or UVCVD," Thin Solid Films,  511-512, 103-107 (2006).

J. Yoo, S. K. Dhungel, and Y. Junsin, "Annealing optimization of silicon nitride film for solar cell application," Thin Solid Films 515, 7611-14 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Kageyama, K. Kintaka, and J. Nishii, "Transmission loss characteristics of silicon nitride waveguides fabricated by liquid source plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Thin Solid Films 515, 3816-19 (2007)
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gonzalez, R. G. Luna, M. Tudanca, O. Sanchez, J. M. Albella, and J. M. Martinez-Duart, "Plasma-enhanced chemically vapour deposited Si3N4 thin films for optical waveguides," Thin Solid Films 220, 311-14 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. Tauc, Optical Properties of Solids, F. Abeles, ed., (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1971).

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Figures (6)

Figs. 1.
Figs. 1.

(a, b, c). Refractive index n (λ) of SixNy films obtained by HF-PECVD (13.56 MHz) and LF-PECVD (380 kHz) as a function of gas ratio at selected wavelengths (473 nm, 532 nm, 633 nm); (d, e, f) Absorption coefficient of the SixNy films obtained by HF-PECVD (13.56 MHz) and LF-PECVD (380 kHz) as a function of gas ratio at selected wavelengths (473 nm, 532 nm, 633 nm).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption coefficient of SixNy films obtained by HF-PECVD (13.56 MHz) and LF-PECVD (380 kHz) as a function of refractive index, at selected wavelengths (473 nm, 532 nm, and 632 nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Effect of 5 min rapid thermal annealing (RTA) bake at 400°C on the absorption coefficient of the silicon nitride SixNy films as a function of precursor gas ratio and refractive index @ 532 nm

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example results of top-side surface measurements of scattered light intensity along the propagation axis of the planar waveguides (n=1.96 and λ=532 nm): (a) HF-PECVD at 13.56 MHz, (b) LF-PECVD at 380 kHz. The data were fitted to an exponential model yielding an estimation of the attenuation coefficient (propagation losses), α (dB/cm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Propagation losses as a function of precursor gas ratio for planar waveguides fabricated with LF-PECVD (380 kHz) and HF-PECVD (13.56 MHz), for orthogonal optical polarizations at λ=532 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Propagation losses as a function of refractive index for for planar waveguides fabricated with LF-PECVD (380 kHz) and HF-PECVD (13.56 MHz) at λ=532 nm (TE polarization only).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Propagation losses for planar waveguides at TE polarization as a function of refractive index, at selected wavelengths

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