Abstract

We experimentally investigate the first-order polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) tolerance of two polarization-multiplexed (POLMUX) RZ-DQPSK signals at overall 40 Gb/s. The polarization demultiplexing is enabled by an automatic endless polarization stabilizer. Time-interleaving the two orthogonally polarized RZ-DQPSK signals minimizes the crosstalk due to the non-ideal polarization stabilization, while it represents the worst-case for the PMD-induced crosstalk. Bit-error rate measurements are performed both in back-to-back and after 25-km standard single-mode fiber. The PMD tolerance is evaluated as a function of the instantaneous differential group delay, introduced by a first-order PMD emulator. 40-Gb/s POLMUX RZ-DQPSK is more sensitive to PMD than single-polarization 20-Gb/s DQPSK, while it is more PMD-tolerant than 40-Gb/s NRZ-OOK. Besides, its chromatic dispersion robustness is similar to the single-polarization 20-Gb/s DQPSK. The combination of POLMUX and DQPSK is therefore very promising in view of transmission systems at high bit-rate.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. R. Doerr et al, "Tunable dispersion compensator with integrated wavelength locking,", in OFC Conference, 2005 OSA Technical Digest CD (2005), paper PDP9.
  2. J. McNicol et al, "Electrical domain compensation of optical dispersion," in OFC Conference, 2005 OSA Technical Digest CD (2005), paper OThJ3.
  3. F. Buchali and H. Bülow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE,  94, 952-985 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Duelk, "Next-generation 100G Ethernet," in Proc. of European Conference on Optical Communication Technical Digest CD (2005), paper Tu3.1.2.
  6. H. Kim and R.-J. Essiambre, "Transmission of 8 x 20 Gb/s DQPSK signals over 310-km SMF with 0.8-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 769-771 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signalling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver," in Proc. of IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting (IEEE, 1999), TuM3 (1999).
  9. P. Boffi et al, "20 Gb/s differential quadrature phase-shift keying transmission over 2000 km in a 64-channel WDM system," Opt. Commun. 237, 319-323 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. van den Borne et al, "Line optimization in long-haul transmission systems with 42.8-Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK modulation," in OFC Conference, 2006 OSA Technical Digest CD (2006), paper OFD2.
  11. C. Wree et al, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. S. Cho et al, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4 x 100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656-658 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Bhandare et al, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40 x 2 x 2 x 40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Zhu et al, "1.6 bit/s/Hz orthogonally polarized CSRZ-DQPSK transmission of 8 x 40 Gbit/s over 320 km NDSF," in OFC Conference, 2004 OSA Technical Digest CD (2004), paper TuF1.
  15. Q1. D. van den Borne et al, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40 x 85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Ligthwave Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. E. Nelson and H. Kogelnik, "Coherent crosstalk impairments in polarization multiplexed transmission due to polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Express 7, 350-361 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, "PMD tolerance of polarization division multiplex transmission using return-to-zero coding," Opt. Express 9, 136-140 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Q2. D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, "PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission," J. Ligthwave Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Martinelli, P. Martelli, and S. M. Pietralunga, "Polarization stabilization in optical communications systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4172-4183 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Martelli et al, "Polarization stabilizer for polarization-division multiplexed optical systems," in Proc. of European Conference on Optical Communication Technical Digest CD (2007), paper 6.6.5.

2007

Q1. D. van den Borne et al, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40 x 85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Ligthwave Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE,  94, 952-985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Martinelli, P. Martelli, and S. M. Pietralunga, "Polarization stabilization in optical communications systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4172-4183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Bhandare et al, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40 x 2 x 2 x 40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q2. D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, "PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission," J. Ligthwave Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. Boffi et al, "20 Gb/s differential quadrature phase-shift keying transmission over 2000 km in a 64-channel WDM system," Opt. Commun. 237, 319-323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Buchali and H. Bülow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cho et al, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4 x 100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. Wree et al, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim and R.-J. Essiambre, "Transmission of 8 x 20 Gb/s DQPSK signals over 310-km SMF with 0.8-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 769-771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Hinz, D. Sandel, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, "PMD tolerance of polarization division multiplex transmission using return-to-zero coding," Opt. Express 9, 136-140 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

Bhandare, S.

S. Bhandare et al, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40 x 2 x 2 x 40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boffi, P.

P. Boffi et al, "20 Gb/s differential quadrature phase-shift keying transmission over 2000 km in a 64-channel WDM system," Opt. Commun. 237, 319-323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buchali, F.

Bülow, H.

Chandrasekhar, S.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, P. S.

P. S. Cho et al, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4 x 100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

Q2. D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, "PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission," J. Ligthwave Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.-J.

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE,  94, 952-985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim and R.-J. Essiambre, "Transmission of 8 x 20 Gb/s DQPSK signals over 310-km SMF with 0.8-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 769-771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hecker-Denschlag, N. E.

Q2. D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, "PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission," J. Ligthwave Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hinz, S.

Khoe, G. D.

Q2. D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, "PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission," J. Ligthwave Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim and R.-J. Essiambre, "Transmission of 8 x 20 Gb/s DQPSK signals over 310-km SMF with 0.8-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 769-771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson and H. Kogelnik, "Coherent crosstalk impairments in polarization multiplexed transmission due to polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Express 7, 350-361 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, P.

Martinelli, M.

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson and H. Kogelnik, "Coherent crosstalk impairments in polarization multiplexed transmission due to polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Express 7, 350-361 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, T. N.

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Noé, R.

Pietralunga, S. M.

Sandel, D.

van den Borne, D.

Q1. D. van den Borne et al, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40 x 85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Ligthwave Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q2. D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, "PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission," J. Ligthwave Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE,  94, 952-985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wree, C.

C. Wree et al, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wüst, F.

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, C. Dorrer, and S. Chandrasekhar, "Linear and nonlinear performance of 42.7-Gb/s single-polarization RZ-DQPSK format," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 883-885 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Wree et al, "High spectral efficiency 1.6-b/s/Hz transmission (8 x 40 Gb/s with a 25-GHz grid) over 200-km SSMF using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1303-1305 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cho et al, "Investigation of 2-b/s/Hz 40-Gb/s DWDM transmission over 4 x 100 km SMF-28 fiber using RZ-DQPSK and polarization multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 656-658 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Bhandare et al, "5.94-Tb/s 1.49-b/s/Hz (40 x 2 x 2 x 40 Gb/s) RZ-DQPSK polarization-division multiplex C-band transmission over 324 km," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 914-916 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, T. N. Nielsen, and H. Kogelnik, "Observation of PMD-induced coherent crosstalk in polarization-multiplexed transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 738-740 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim and R.-J. Essiambre, "Transmission of 8 x 20 Gb/s DQPSK signals over 310-km SMF with 0.8-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency, " IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 769-771 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Ligthwave Technol.

Q1. D. van den Borne et al, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1700 km of SSMF using 40 x 85.6-Gb/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Ligthwave Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q2. D. van den Borne, N. E. Hecker-Denschlag, G. D. Khoe, and H. de Waardt, "PMD-induced transmission penalties in polarization-multiplexed transmission," J. Ligthwave Technol. 23, 4004-4015 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Boffi et al, "20 Gb/s differential quadrature phase-shift keying transmission over 2000 km in a 64-channel WDM system," Opt. Commun. 237, 319-323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE,  94, 952-985 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Duelk, "Next-generation 100G Ethernet," in Proc. of European Conference on Optical Communication Technical Digest CD (2005), paper Tu3.1.2.

C. R. Doerr et al, "Tunable dispersion compensator with integrated wavelength locking,", in OFC Conference, 2005 OSA Technical Digest CD (2005), paper PDP9.

J. McNicol et al, "Electrical domain compensation of optical dispersion," in OFC Conference, 2005 OSA Technical Digest CD (2005), paper OThJ3.

D. van den Borne et al, "Line optimization in long-haul transmission systems with 42.8-Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK modulation," in OFC Conference, 2006 OSA Technical Digest CD (2006), paper OFD2.

W. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, "Demonstration of return-to-zero signalling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver," in Proc. of IEEE-LEOS Annual Meeting (IEEE, 1999), TuM3 (1999).

Y. Zhu et al, "1.6 bit/s/Hz orthogonally polarized CSRZ-DQPSK transmission of 8 x 40 Gbit/s over 320 km NDSF," in OFC Conference, 2004 OSA Technical Digest CD (2004), paper TuF1.

P. Martelli et al, "Polarization stabilizer for polarization-division multiplexed optical systems," in Proc. of European Conference on Optical Communication Technical Digest CD (2007), paper 6.6.5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set up for measuring 40-Gb/s POLMUX RZ-DQPSK tolerance towards first-order PMD.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Working principle of the double-stage polarization stabilizer, through Poincaré sphere projections.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured OSNR (resolution 0.5 nm) for 10-6 BER vs. accumulated DGD for NRZ-DQPSK at 20 Gb/s (blue lines) in back-to-back condition (squares) and after uncompensated 25-km SSMF (circles); for 50% RZ -DQPSK at 20 Gb/s (red lines) in back-to-back condition (squares) and after uncompensated 25-km SSMF (circles); for NRZ-OOK (green lines) in back-to-back condition (open squares) and after uncompensated 25-km SSMF (open circles). In the inset the measured eye diagram in back-to-back condition are presented for NRZ-DQPSK at 0-ps and 55-ps DGD and for RZ-DQPSK at 0-ps and 60-ps DGD.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured OSNR (resolution 0.5 nm) for 10-6 BER level vs. accumulated DGD for single channel RZ-DQPSK transmission at equivalent 20 Gb/s without SOP stabilizer in back-to-back condition (red squares) and after uncompensated 25-km SSMF (red circles) and for POLMUX RZ-DQPSK transmission at equivalent 40 Gb/s with active SOP stabilizer in back-to-back (purple squares) and after uncompensated 25-km SSMF (purple circles).

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