Abstract

We report on conjugated polymer nanoparticles of polyfluorene that were formed to exhibit higher fluorescence quantum efficiency in film (68%) and reduce undesired emission peak wavelength shifts in film (by 20 nm), compared to the solid-state polymer thin film made directly out of the same polymer solution without forming nanoparticles. Using the facile reprecipitation method, solutions of poly[9,9-dihexyl-9H-fluorene] in THF were added at different volume ratios to obtain different size distributions of nanoparticle dispersions in water. This allowed us to control the size-dependent optical emission of our polyfluorene nanoparticles. Such organic nanoparticles hold great promise for use as efficient emitters in optoelectronic device applications.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcacer, and J. Morgado, "Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143519 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Charas, J. Morgado, J. M. Martinho, A. Fedorov, L. Alcecer, and F. Cacialli, "Excitation energy transfer and spatial exciton confinement in polyfluorene blends for application in light-emitting diodes," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3523-3527 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. O. Huyal, T. Ozel, U. Koldemir, S. Nizamoglu, D. Tuncel, and H. V. Demir, "White emitting polyfluorene functionalized with azide hybridized on near-UV light emitting diode for high color rendering index," Opt. Express 16, 1115-1124 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. O. Huyal, U. Koldemir, T. Ozel, H. V. Demir, and D. Tuncel, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3568 - 3574 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. C. J. Meskers, J. Hübner, M. Oestreich, and H. Bassler, "Time-resolved fluorescence studies and Monte Carlo simulations of relaxation dynamics of photoexcitations in a polyfluorene film," Chem. Phys. Lett. 339, 223-228 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Haugeneder, U. Lemmer, and U. Scherf, "Exciton dissociation dynamics in a conjugated polymer containing aggregate states," Chem. Phys. Lett. 351, 354-358 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Gierschner, H.-J. Egelhaaf, D. Oelkrug, and K. Müllen, "Electronic deactivation and energy transfer in doped oligophenylenevinylene nanoparticles," J. Fluorescence 8, 37-44 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. B. Martini, A. D. Smith, and B. J. Schwartz, "Exciton-exciton annihilation and the production of interchain comparing the ultrafast stimulated species in conjugated polymer films: emission and photoluminescence dynamics of MEH-PPV," Phys. Rev. B 69, 035204 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. B. Dias, A. L. Macanita, J. S. de Melo, and H. D. Burrows, "Picosecond conformational relaxation of singlet excited polyfluorene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7119-7126 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Kietzke, D. Neher, K. Landfester, R. Montenegro, R. Güntner, and U. Scherf, "Novel approaches to polymer blends based on polymer nanoparticles," Nature 2, 408-412 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Kurokawa, H. Yoshikawa, N. Hirota, K. Hyodo, and H. Masuhara, "Size-Dependent Spectroscopic Properties and Thermochromic Behavior in Poly(substituted thiophene) Nanoparticles," ChemPhysChem 5, 1609-1615 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Syzmanski, C. Wu, J. Hooper, M. A. Salazar, A. Perdomo, A. Dukes, and J. McNeill, "Single Molecule Nanoparticles of the Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV, Preparation and Characterization by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem B 109, 8543-8546 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Kong, Y. M. Sun, and R. K. Yuan, "Enhanced resonance energy transfer from PVK to MEH-PPV in nanoparticles," Nanotechnol. 18, 265707 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Kong, X. L. Wu, G. S. Huang, R. K. Yuan, and P. K. Chu, "Tunable emission from composite polymer nanoparticles based on resonance energy transfer," Thin Sol. Films doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.12.055 (2008).
  17. X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, "A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis," Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Wang, M.-Y. Han, K. Y. Mya, Y. Wang, and Y.-H. Lai, "Aggregation-Driven Growth of Size-Tunable Organic Nanoparticles Using Electronically Altered Conjugated Polymers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 10350-10355 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Wu, H. Peng, Y. Jiang, and J. McNeill, "Energy Transfer Mediated Fluorescence from Blended Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem B 110, 14148-14154 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Kasai, H. Kamatani, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, "Size-Dependent Colors and Luminescences of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L221-L223 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Wu, C. Syzmanski, and J. McNeill, "Preparation and Encapsulation of Highly Fluorescent Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," Langmuir 22, 2956-2960 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

F. Kong, Y. M. Sun, and R. K. Yuan, "Enhanced resonance energy transfer from PVK to MEH-PPV in nanoparticles," Nanotechnol. 18, 265707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

C. Wu, C. Syzmanski, and J. McNeill, "Preparation and Encapsulation of Highly Fluorescent Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," Langmuir 22, 2956-2960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcacer, and J. Morgado, "Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, H. Peng, Y. Jiang, and J. McNeill, "Energy Transfer Mediated Fluorescence from Blended Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem B 110, 14148-14154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, "A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis," Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, M.-Y. Han, K. Y. Mya, Y. Wang, and Y.-H. Lai, "Aggregation-Driven Growth of Size-Tunable Organic Nanoparticles Using Electronically Altered Conjugated Polymers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 10350-10355 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Syzmanski, C. Wu, J. Hooper, M. A. Salazar, A. Perdomo, A. Dukes, and J. McNeill, "Single Molecule Nanoparticles of the Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV, Preparation and Characterization by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem B 109, 8543-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

N. Kurokawa, H. Yoshikawa, N. Hirota, K. Hyodo, and H. Masuhara, "Size-Dependent Spectroscopic Properties and Thermochromic Behavior in Poly(substituted thiophene) Nanoparticles," ChemPhysChem 5, 1609-1615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. B. Martini, A. D. Smith, and B. J. Schwartz, "Exciton-exciton annihilation and the production of interchain comparing the ultrafast stimulated species in conjugated polymer films: emission and photoluminescence dynamics of MEH-PPV," Phys. Rev. B 69, 035204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

F. B. Dias, A. L. Macanita, J. S. de Melo, and H. D. Burrows, "Picosecond conformational relaxation of singlet excited polyfluorene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7119-7126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Kietzke, D. Neher, K. Landfester, R. Montenegro, R. Güntner, and U. Scherf, "Novel approaches to polymer blends based on polymer nanoparticles," Nature 2, 408-412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Haugeneder, U. Lemmer, and U. Scherf, "Exciton dissociation dynamics in a conjugated polymer containing aggregate states," Chem. Phys. Lett. 351, 354-358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Charas, J. Morgado, J. M. Martinho, A. Fedorov, L. Alcecer, and F. Cacialli, "Excitation energy transfer and spatial exciton confinement in polyfluorene blends for application in light-emitting diodes," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3523-3527 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. C. J. Meskers, J. Hübner, M. Oestreich, and H. Bassler, "Time-resolved fluorescence studies and Monte Carlo simulations of relaxation dynamics of photoexcitations in a polyfluorene film," Chem. Phys. Lett. 339, 223-228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Gierschner, H.-J. Egelhaaf, D. Oelkrug, and K. Müllen, "Electronic deactivation and energy transfer in doped oligophenylenevinylene nanoparticles," J. Fluorescence 8, 37-44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Kasai, H. Kamatani, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, "Size-Dependent Colors and Luminescences of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L221-L223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Alcacer, L.

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcacer, and J. Morgado, "Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alcecer, L.

A. Charas, J. Morgado, J. M. Martinho, A. Fedorov, L. Alcecer, and F. Cacialli, "Excitation energy transfer and spatial exciton confinement in polyfluorene blends for application in light-emitting diodes," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3523-3527 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alves, H.

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcacer, and J. Morgado, "Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bassler, H.

S. C. J. Meskers, J. Hübner, M. Oestreich, and H. Bassler, "Time-resolved fluorescence studies and Monte Carlo simulations of relaxation dynamics of photoexcitations in a polyfluorene film," Chem. Phys. Lett. 339, 223-228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. C. C.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, H. D.

F. B. Dias, A. L. Macanita, J. S. de Melo, and H. D. Burrows, "Picosecond conformational relaxation of singlet excited polyfluorene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7119-7126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cacialli, F.

A. Charas, J. Morgado, J. M. Martinho, A. Fedorov, L. Alcecer, and F. Cacialli, "Excitation energy transfer and spatial exciton confinement in polyfluorene blends for application in light-emitting diodes," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3523-3527 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Charas, A.

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcacer, and J. Morgado, "Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Charas, J. Morgado, J. M. Martinho, A. Fedorov, L. Alcecer, and F. Cacialli, "Excitation energy transfer and spatial exciton confinement in polyfluorene blends for application in light-emitting diodes," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3523-3527 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. K.

F. Kong, X. L. Wu, G. S. Huang, R. K. Yuan, and P. K. Chu, "Tunable emission from composite polymer nanoparticles based on resonance energy transfer," Thin Sol. Films doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.12.055 (2008).

Dawson, M. D.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

de Melo, J. S.

F. B. Dias, A. L. Macanita, J. S. de Melo, and H. D. Burrows, "Picosecond conformational relaxation of singlet excited polyfluorene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7119-7126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

I. O. Huyal, U. Koldemir, T. Ozel, H. V. Demir, and D. Tuncel, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3568 - 3574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. O. Huyal, T. Ozel, U. Koldemir, S. Nizamoglu, D. Tuncel, and H. V. Demir, "White emitting polyfluorene functionalized with azide hybridized on near-UV light emitting diode for high color rendering index," Opt. Express 16, 1115-1124 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dias, F. B.

F. B. Dias, A. L. Macanita, J. S. de Melo, and H. D. Burrows, "Picosecond conformational relaxation of singlet excited polyfluorene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7119-7126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dukes, A.

C. Syzmanski, C. Wu, J. Hooper, M. A. Salazar, A. Perdomo, A. Dukes, and J. McNeill, "Single Molecule Nanoparticles of the Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV, Preparation and Characterization by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem B 109, 8543-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Egelhaaf, H.-J.

J. Gierschner, H.-J. Egelhaaf, D. Oelkrug, and K. Müllen, "Electronic deactivation and energy transfer in doped oligophenylenevinylene nanoparticles," J. Fluorescence 8, 37-44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, A.

A. Charas, J. Morgado, J. M. Martinho, A. Fedorov, L. Alcecer, and F. Cacialli, "Excitation energy transfer and spatial exciton confinement in polyfluorene blends for application in light-emitting diodes," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3523-3527 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gierschner, J.

J. Gierschner, H.-J. Egelhaaf, D. Oelkrug, and K. Müllen, "Electronic deactivation and energy transfer in doped oligophenylenevinylene nanoparticles," J. Fluorescence 8, 37-44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, C.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Güntner, R.

T. Kietzke, D. Neher, K. Landfester, R. Montenegro, R. Güntner, and U. Scherf, "Novel approaches to polymer blends based on polymer nanoparticles," Nature 2, 408-412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.-Y.

F. Wang, M.-Y. Han, K. Y. Mya, Y. Wang, and Y.-H. Lai, "Aggregation-Driven Growth of Size-Tunable Organic Nanoparticles Using Electronically Altered Conjugated Polymers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 10350-10355 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haugeneder, A.

A. Haugeneder, U. Lemmer, and U. Scherf, "Exciton dissociation dynamics in a conjugated polymer containing aggregate states," Chem. Phys. Lett. 351, 354-358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Heliotis, G.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hirota, N.

N. Kurokawa, H. Yoshikawa, N. Hirota, K. Hyodo, and H. Masuhara, "Size-Dependent Spectroscopic Properties and Thermochromic Behavior in Poly(substituted thiophene) Nanoparticles," ChemPhysChem 5, 1609-1615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holder, E.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, J.

C. Syzmanski, C. Wu, J. Hooper, M. A. Salazar, A. Perdomo, A. Dukes, and J. McNeill, "Single Molecule Nanoparticles of the Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV, Preparation and Characterization by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem B 109, 8543-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. S.

F. Kong, X. L. Wu, G. S. Huang, R. K. Yuan, and P. K. Chu, "Tunable emission from composite polymer nanoparticles based on resonance energy transfer," Thin Sol. Films doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.12.055 (2008).

Hübner, J.

S. C. J. Meskers, J. Hübner, M. Oestreich, and H. Bassler, "Time-resolved fluorescence studies and Monte Carlo simulations of relaxation dynamics of photoexcitations in a polyfluorene film," Chem. Phys. Lett. 339, 223-228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huyal, I. O.

I. O. Huyal, T. Ozel, U. Koldemir, S. Nizamoglu, D. Tuncel, and H. V. Demir, "White emitting polyfluorene functionalized with azide hybridized on near-UV light emitting diode for high color rendering index," Opt. Express 16, 1115-1124 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. O. Huyal, U. Koldemir, T. Ozel, H. V. Demir, and D. Tuncel, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3568 - 3574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hyodo, K.

N. Kurokawa, H. Yoshikawa, N. Hirota, K. Hyodo, and H. Masuhara, "Size-Dependent Spectroscopic Properties and Thermochromic Behavior in Poly(substituted thiophene) Nanoparticles," ChemPhysChem 5, 1609-1615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, C. W.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

C. Wu, H. Peng, Y. Jiang, and J. McNeill, "Energy Transfer Mediated Fluorescence from Blended Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem B 110, 14148-14154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kakuta, A.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kamatani, H.

H. Kasai, H. Kamatani, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, "Size-Dependent Colors and Luminescences of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L221-L223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, H.

H. Kasai, H. Kamatani, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, "Size-Dependent Colors and Luminescences of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L221-L223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kietzke, T.

T. Kietzke, D. Neher, K. Landfester, R. Montenegro, R. Güntner, and U. Scherf, "Novel approaches to polymer blends based on polymer nanoparticles," Nature 2, 408-412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koldemir, U.

Kong, F.

F. Kong, Y. M. Sun, and R. K. Yuan, "Enhanced resonance energy transfer from PVK to MEH-PPV in nanoparticles," Nanotechnol. 18, 265707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Kong, X. L. Wu, G. S. Huang, R. K. Yuan, and P. K. Chu, "Tunable emission from composite polymer nanoparticles based on resonance energy transfer," Thin Sol. Films doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.12.055 (2008).

Kurokawa, N.

N. Kurokawa, H. Yoshikawa, N. Hirota, K. Hyodo, and H. Masuhara, "Size-Dependent Spectroscopic Properties and Thermochromic Behavior in Poly(substituted thiophene) Nanoparticles," ChemPhysChem 5, 1609-1615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, Y.-H.

F. Wang, M.-Y. Han, K. Y. Mya, Y. Wang, and Y.-H. Lai, "Aggregation-Driven Growth of Size-Tunable Organic Nanoparticles Using Electronically Altered Conjugated Polymers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 10350-10355 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landfester, K.

T. Kietzke, D. Neher, K. Landfester, R. Montenegro, R. Güntner, and U. Scherf, "Novel approaches to polymer blends based on polymer nanoparticles," Nature 2, 408-412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

A. Haugeneder, U. Lemmer, and U. Scherf, "Exciton dissociation dynamics in a conjugated polymer containing aggregate states," Chem. Phys. Lett. 351, 354-358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, "A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis," Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macanita, A. L.

F. B. Dias, A. L. Macanita, J. S. de Melo, and H. D. Burrows, "Picosecond conformational relaxation of singlet excited polyfluorene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7119-7126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martinho, J. M.

A. Charas, J. Morgado, J. M. Martinho, A. Fedorov, L. Alcecer, and F. Cacialli, "Excitation energy transfer and spatial exciton confinement in polyfluorene blends for application in light-emitting diodes," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3523-3527 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martini, I. B.

I. B. Martini, A. D. Smith, and B. J. Schwartz, "Exciton-exciton annihilation and the production of interchain comparing the ultrafast stimulated species in conjugated polymer films: emission and photoluminescence dynamics of MEH-PPV," Phys. Rev. B 69, 035204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Masuhara, H.

N. Kurokawa, H. Yoshikawa, N. Hirota, K. Hyodo, and H. Masuhara, "Size-Dependent Spectroscopic Properties and Thermochromic Behavior in Poly(substituted thiophene) Nanoparticles," ChemPhysChem 5, 1609-1615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsuda, H.

H. Kasai, H. Kamatani, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, "Size-Dependent Colors and Luminescences of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L221-L223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McNeill, J.

C. Wu, H. Peng, Y. Jiang, and J. McNeill, "Energy Transfer Mediated Fluorescence from Blended Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem B 110, 14148-14154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, C. Syzmanski, and J. McNeill, "Preparation and Encapsulation of Highly Fluorescent Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," Langmuir 22, 2956-2960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Syzmanski, C. Wu, J. Hooper, M. A. Salazar, A. Perdomo, A. Dukes, and J. McNeill, "Single Molecule Nanoparticles of the Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV, Preparation and Characterization by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem B 109, 8543-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meskers, S. C. J.

S. C. J. Meskers, J. Hübner, M. Oestreich, and H. Bassler, "Time-resolved fluorescence studies and Monte Carlo simulations of relaxation dynamics of photoexcitations in a polyfluorene film," Chem. Phys. Lett. 339, 223-228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Minami, N.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Montenegro, R.

T. Kietzke, D. Neher, K. Landfester, R. Montenegro, R. Güntner, and U. Scherf, "Novel approaches to polymer blends based on polymer nanoparticles," Nature 2, 408-412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morgado, J.

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcacer, and J. Morgado, "Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Charas, J. Morgado, J. M. Martinho, A. Fedorov, L. Alcecer, and F. Cacialli, "Excitation energy transfer and spatial exciton confinement in polyfluorene blends for application in light-emitting diodes," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3523-3527 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mukoh, A.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

J. Gierschner, H.-J. Egelhaaf, D. Oelkrug, and K. Müllen, "Electronic deactivation and energy transfer in doped oligophenylenevinylene nanoparticles," J. Fluorescence 8, 37-44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mutlugun, E.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mya, K. Y.

F. Wang, M.-Y. Han, K. Y. Mya, Y. Wang, and Y.-H. Lai, "Aggregation-Driven Growth of Size-Tunable Organic Nanoparticles Using Electronically Altered Conjugated Polymers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 10350-10355 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakanishi, H.

H. Kasai, H. Kamatani, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, "Size-Dependent Colors and Luminescences of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L221-L223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nalwa, H. S.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Neher, D.

T. Kietzke, D. Neher, K. Landfester, R. Montenegro, R. Güntner, and U. Scherf, "Novel approaches to polymer blends based on polymer nanoparticles," Nature 2, 408-412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nizamoglu, S.

I. O. Huyal, T. Ozel, U. Koldemir, S. Nizamoglu, D. Tuncel, and H. V. Demir, "White emitting polyfluorene functionalized with azide hybridized on near-UV light emitting diode for high color rendering index," Opt. Express 16, 1115-1124 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oelkrug, D.

J. Gierschner, H.-J. Egelhaaf, D. Oelkrug, and K. Müllen, "Electronic deactivation and energy transfer in doped oligophenylenevinylene nanoparticles," J. Fluorescence 8, 37-44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oestreich, M.

S. C. J. Meskers, J. Hübner, M. Oestreich, and H. Bassler, "Time-resolved fluorescence studies and Monte Carlo simulations of relaxation dynamics of photoexcitations in a polyfluorene film," Chem. Phys. Lett. 339, 223-228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, H.

H. Kasai, H. Kamatani, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, "Size-Dependent Colors and Luminescences of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L221-L223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okada, S.

H. Kasai, H. Kamatani, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, "Size-Dependent Colors and Luminescences of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L221-L223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ono, K.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ozel, T.

I. O. Huyal, U. Koldemir, T. Ozel, H. V. Demir, and D. Tuncel, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3568 - 3574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. O. Huyal, T. Ozel, U. Koldemir, S. Nizamoglu, D. Tuncel, and H. V. Demir, "White emitting polyfluorene functionalized with azide hybridized on near-UV light emitting diode for high color rendering index," Opt. Express 16, 1115-1124 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H.

C. Wu, H. Peng, Y. Jiang, and J. McNeill, "Energy Transfer Mediated Fluorescence from Blended Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem B 110, 14148-14154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Q.

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, "A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis," Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perdomo, A.

C. Syzmanski, C. Wu, J. Hooper, M. A. Salazar, A. Perdomo, A. Dukes, and J. McNeill, "Single Molecule Nanoparticles of the Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV, Preparation and Characterization by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem B 109, 8543-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salazar, M. A.

C. Syzmanski, C. Wu, J. Hooper, M. A. Salazar, A. Perdomo, A. Dukes, and J. McNeill, "Single Molecule Nanoparticles of the Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV, Preparation and Characterization by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem B 109, 8543-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sari, E.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

T. Kietzke, D. Neher, K. Landfester, R. Montenegro, R. Güntner, and U. Scherf, "Novel approaches to polymer blends based on polymer nanoparticles," Nature 2, 408-412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Haugeneder, U. Lemmer, and U. Scherf, "Exciton dissociation dynamics in a conjugated polymer containing aggregate states," Chem. Phys. Lett. 351, 354-358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, B. J.

I. B. Martini, A. D. Smith, and B. J. Schwartz, "Exciton-exciton annihilation and the production of interchain comparing the ultrafast stimulated species in conjugated polymer films: emission and photoluminescence dynamics of MEH-PPV," Phys. Rev. B 69, 035204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. D.

I. B. Martini, A. D. Smith, and B. J. Schwartz, "Exciton-exciton annihilation and the production of interchain comparing the ultrafast stimulated species in conjugated polymer films: emission and photoluminescence dynamics of MEH-PPV," Phys. Rev. B 69, 035204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stavrinou, P. N.

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. M.

F. Kong, Y. M. Sun, and R. K. Yuan, "Enhanced resonance energy transfer from PVK to MEH-PPV in nanoparticles," Nanotechnol. 18, 265707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Syzmanski, C.

C. Wu, C. Syzmanski, and J. McNeill, "Preparation and Encapsulation of Highly Fluorescent Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," Langmuir 22, 2956-2960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Syzmanski, C. Wu, J. Hooper, M. A. Salazar, A. Perdomo, A. Dukes, and J. McNeill, "Single Molecule Nanoparticles of the Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV, Preparation and Characterization by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem B 109, 8543-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, N.

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tuncel, D.

Wang, F.

F. Wang, M.-Y. Han, K. Y. Mya, Y. Wang, and Y.-H. Lai, "Aggregation-Driven Growth of Size-Tunable Organic Nanoparticles Using Electronically Altered Conjugated Polymers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 10350-10355 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, "A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis," Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

F. Wang, M.-Y. Han, K. Y. Mya, Y. Wang, and Y.-H. Lai, "Aggregation-Driven Growth of Size-Tunable Organic Nanoparticles Using Electronically Altered Conjugated Polymers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 10350-10355 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, H. Peng, Y. Jiang, and J. McNeill, "Energy Transfer Mediated Fluorescence from Blended Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem B 110, 14148-14154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, C. Syzmanski, and J. McNeill, "Preparation and Encapsulation of Highly Fluorescent Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," Langmuir 22, 2956-2960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Syzmanski, C. Wu, J. Hooper, M. A. Salazar, A. Perdomo, A. Dukes, and J. McNeill, "Single Molecule Nanoparticles of the Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV, Preparation and Characterization by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem B 109, 8543-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

F. Kong, X. L. Wu, G. S. Huang, R. K. Yuan, and P. K. Chu, "Tunable emission from composite polymer nanoparticles based on resonance energy transfer," Thin Sol. Films doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.12.055 (2008).

Yoshikawa, H.

N. Kurokawa, H. Yoshikawa, N. Hirota, K. Hyodo, and H. Masuhara, "Size-Dependent Spectroscopic Properties and Thermochromic Behavior in Poly(substituted thiophene) Nanoparticles," ChemPhysChem 5, 1609-1615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, R. K.

F. Kong, Y. M. Sun, and R. K. Yuan, "Enhanced resonance energy transfer from PVK to MEH-PPV in nanoparticles," Nanotechnol. 18, 265707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Kong, X. L. Wu, G. S. Huang, R. K. Yuan, and P. K. Chu, "Tunable emission from composite polymer nanoparticles based on resonance energy transfer," Thin Sol. Films doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.12.055 (2008).

Zhuang, J.

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, "A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis," Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Charas, H. Alves, L. Alcacer, and J. Morgado, "Use of cross-linkable polyfluorene in the fabrication of multilayer polyfluorene-based light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, D. C. C. Bradley, E. Gu, C. Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light-emitting diodes using fluorene-based red-, green-, blue-, and white-light-emitting polymer overlayer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 103505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. C. J. Meskers, J. Hübner, M. Oestreich, and H. Bassler, "Time-resolved fluorescence studies and Monte Carlo simulations of relaxation dynamics of photoexcitations in a polyfluorene film," Chem. Phys. Lett. 339, 223-228 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Haugeneder, U. Lemmer, and U. Scherf, "Exciton dissociation dynamics in a conjugated polymer containing aggregate states," Chem. Phys. Lett. 351, 354-358 (2002).
[CrossRef]

ChemPhysChem (1)

N. Kurokawa, H. Yoshikawa, N. Hirota, K. Hyodo, and H. Masuhara, "Size-Dependent Spectroscopic Properties and Thermochromic Behavior in Poly(substituted thiophene) Nanoparticles," ChemPhysChem 5, 1609-1615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

F. Wang, M.-Y. Han, K. Y. Mya, Y. Wang, and Y.-H. Lai, "Aggregation-Driven Growth of Size-Tunable Organic Nanoparticles Using Electronically Altered Conjugated Polymers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 10350-10355 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

F. B. Dias, A. L. Macanita, J. S. de Melo, and H. D. Burrows, "Picosecond conformational relaxation of singlet excited polyfluorene in solution," J. Chem. Phys. 118, 7119-7126 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluorescence (1)

J. Gierschner, H.-J. Egelhaaf, D. Oelkrug, and K. Müllen, "Electronic deactivation and energy transfer in doped oligophenylenevinylene nanoparticles," J. Fluorescence 8, 37-44 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

A. Charas, J. Morgado, J. M. Martinho, A. Fedorov, L. Alcecer, and F. Cacialli, "Excitation energy transfer and spatial exciton confinement in polyfluorene blends for application in light-emitting diodes," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 3523-3527 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. O. Huyal, U. Koldemir, T. Ozel, H. V. Demir, and D. Tuncel, J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3568 - 3574 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem B (2)

C. Syzmanski, C. Wu, J. Hooper, M. A. Salazar, A. Perdomo, A. Dukes, and J. McNeill, "Single Molecule Nanoparticles of the Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV, Preparation and Characterization by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy," J. Phys. Chem B 109, 8543-8546 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, H. Peng, Y. Jiang, and J. McNeill, "Energy Transfer Mediated Fluorescence from Blended Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," J. Phys. Chem B 110, 14148-14154 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, "A Novel Preparation Method of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132-L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, H. Kamatani, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, "Size-Dependent Colors and Luminescences of Organic Microcrystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L221-L223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

C. Wu, C. Syzmanski, and J. McNeill, "Preparation and Encapsulation of Highly Fluorescent Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles," Langmuir 22, 2956-2960 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Kong, Y. M. Sun, and R. K. Yuan, "Enhanced resonance energy transfer from PVK to MEH-PPV in nanoparticles," Nanotechnol. 18, 265707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

X. Wang, J. Zhuang, Q. Peng, and Y. Li, "A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis," Nature 437, 121-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kietzke, D. Neher, K. Landfester, R. Montenegro, R. Güntner, and U. Scherf, "Novel approaches to polymer blends based on polymer nanoparticles," Nature 2, 408-412 (2003).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. V. Demir, S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Mutlugun, I. O. Huyal, E. Sari, E. Holder, and N. Tian, "White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers," New J. Phys. 9, 362 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

I. B. Martini, A. D. Smith, and B. J. Schwartz, "Exciton-exciton annihilation and the production of interchain comparing the ultrafast stimulated species in conjugated polymer films: emission and photoluminescence dynamics of MEH-PPV," Phys. Rev. B 69, 035204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. Kong, X. L. Wu, G. S. Huang, R. K. Yuan, and P. K. Chu, "Tunable emission from composite polymer nanoparticles based on resonance energy transfer," Thin Sol. Films doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2007.12.055 (2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of PF in different forms: (a) stock solution and polymer thin film as the control group, (b) large nanoparticle (LNP) dispersion and LNP film, and (c) small nanoparticle (SNP) dispersion and SNP film.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Molar absorption coefficient of PF control solution and NP dispersions along with the absorption coefficient of PF control film and NP films in the inset (semi-logarithmic scale) and (b) transmittance spectra of PF control film and NP films.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral PL shifts for 0-0 electronic transition of PF LNPs (large nanoparticles) and SNPs (small nanoparticles) in their dispersion and film states relative to their stock solution and polymer thin films.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

AFM images and line profiles for PF LNPs and SNPs with size distributions ranging from 5–70 nm and 5–30 nm, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Peak emission wavelengths (λ) and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the first (0-0), second (0–1), third (0–2), and fourth (0–3) emission bands of PF solution, PF thin film, PF large nanoparticle (LNP) dispersion, PF LNP film, PF small nanoparticle (SNP) dispersion, and PF SNP film.

Metrics