Abstract

We demonstrate a novel on-board chip-to-chip optical interconnect using long-range surface plasmon polariton (LR-SPP) waveguides that feature 2.5-cm-long gold strips embedded in a low loss polymer cladding. A TM-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) operating at a wavelength of 1.3 µm was butt-coupled into the waveguides in order to excite a fundamental LR-SPP mode and then the transmitted light was received with a photo-diode (PD). The waveguide width is varied in the range of 1.5–5.0 µm in order to optimize the insertion loss where the 3-µm-wide waveguide provides a minimum insertion loss of -17 dB, consisting of 6 dB/cm propagation loss and 2 dB coupling loss. An interconnect system based on the optimized waveguide with a 4-channel array is assembled with the arrayed optoelectronic chips. It shows the feasibility of 10 Gbps (2.5 Gbps×4 channels) signal transmission indicating that the LR-SPP waveguide is a potential transmission line for optical interconnection.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waeguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polarition waveguides," IEEE.J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 1233-1241 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 5833-5835 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Jetté-Charbonneau, P. Berini, "External cavity laser using a long-range surface plasmon grating as a distributed Bragg reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M -s. Kim, and M -H. Lee, "Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Park, M -s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M -H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 μm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. J. Ju, M -s. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M -H. Lee, "10 Gbps optical signal transmission via long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. J. Ju, S. Park, M -s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M -H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides in silica," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 053105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Park, M -s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M -H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 μm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

J. J. Ju, M -s. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M -H. Lee, "10 Gbps optical signal transmission via long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M -s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M -H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides in silica," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 053105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, P. Berini, "External cavity laser using a long-range surface plasmon grating as a distributed Bragg reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M -s. Kim, and M -H. Lee, "Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polarition waveguides," IEEE.J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 1233-1241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waeguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, P. Berini, "External cavity laser using a long-range surface plasmon grating as a distributed Bragg reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides in silica," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 053105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, C. Scales, I. Breukelaar, S. Fafard, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Passive integrated optics elements based on long-range surface plasmon polaritons," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 477-494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polarition waveguides," IEEE.J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 1233-1241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polarition waveguides," IEEE.J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 1233-1241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waeguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Breukelaar, I.

Charbonneau, R.

Fafard, S.

Jetté-Charbonneau, S.

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, P. Berini, "External cavity laser using a long-range surface plasmon grating as a distributed Bragg reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J. J.

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M -s. Kim, and M -H. Lee, "Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, M -s. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M -H. Lee, "10 Gbps optical signal transmission via long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M -s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M -H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. T.

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M -s. Kim, and M -H. Lee, "Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lahoud, N.

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waeguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mattiussi, G.

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waeguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

S. Park, M -s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M -H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 μm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M -s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M -H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M -s. Kim, and M -H. Lee, "Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. K.

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M -s. Kim, and M -H. Lee, "Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salakhutdinov, I.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waeguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scales, C.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 5833-5835 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, P. Berini, "External cavity laser using a long-range surface plasmon grating as a distributed Bragg reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waeguides at telecommunication wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, S. Park, M -s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, Y. J. Park, and M -H. Lee, "40 Gbit/s light signal transmission in long-range surface plasmon waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 171117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

ETRI J. (1)

J. J. Ju, M -s. Kim, S. Park, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, and M -H. Lee, "10 Gbps optical signal transmission via long-range surface plasmon polariton waveguide," ETRI J. 29, 808-810 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. T. Kim, S. Park, J. J. Ju, S. K. Park, M -s. Kim, and M -H. Lee, "Low-loss polymer-based long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1374-1376 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Berini, "Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides in silica," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 053105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (1)

A. Boltasseva and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Directional couplers using long-range surface plasmon polarition waveguides," IEEE.J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 1233-1241 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Park, M -s. Kim, J. T. Kim, S. K. Park, J. J. Ju, and M -H. Lee, "Long range surface plasmon polariton waveguides at 1.31 and 1.55 μm wavelengths," Opt. Commun. 281, 2057-2061 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Berini, "Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484-10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Architectural view of on-board chip-to-chip optical interconnect using polymer-based Au long-range surface plasmon polariton (LR-SPP) waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of chip-to-chip optical interconnect transmission test set-up.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mode field diameter and insertion loss as functions of metal strip width. Values are measured at 1.3 µm wavelength.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Horizontal and vertical 3 dB alignment tolerances of the Au LR-SPP with the TM-polarized VCSEL in relation to the metal strip width.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Assembled chip-to-chip optical interconnect system using the Au LR-SPP waveguide (the inset shows the coupling between the TM-polarized VCSEL and the Au LR-SPP waveguide), and (b) measured optical eye diagram for one channel (2.5 Gbps data rate) of the four receiver channels.

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