Abstract

Precision frequency measurements of terahertz (THz) waves are required to establish metrology in the THz spectral region. However, frequency measurement techniques in this region are immature. We propose a THz spectrum analyzer to measure the absolute frequency and spectral shape of continuous-wave THz waves. Based on a stable frequency comb generated in a photoconductive antenna, the absolute frequency of a sub-THz test source was determined at a precision of 2.8×10-11. Furthermore, the spectral bandwidth of the THz spectrum analyzer can be extended over 1 THz, as demonstrated by measurement of a THz test source. This spectrum analyzer has the potential to become a powerful tool for THz frequency metrology.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. M. Mittleman, Sensing with THz radiation (Springer, 2003).
  2. F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, and T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4016- 4021 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Orihashi, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, "One THz harmonic oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 233501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, "Measuring optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling," Nat. Photonics 1, 577-580 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Morikawa, M. Tani, M. Fujita, and M. Hangyo, "Heterodyne receiver using a photoconductive antenna and a continuous-wave laser diode in sub-THz region," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L951-L953 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multi-frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. H. Kolner and D. M. Bloom, "Electro-optic sampling in GaAs integrated circuits," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 79-93 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, "Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 2383-2391 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, T. Itoh, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, "Ultrabroadband THz field detection beyond 170THz with a photoconductive antenna," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (2008), CTuX6.
  13. M. Tani, S. Matsuura, K. Sakai, Kiyomi, and S. Nakashima, "Emission characteristics of photoconductive antennas based on low-temperature-grown GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs," Appl. Opt. 36, 7853-7859 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, "Measuring optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling," Nat. Photonics 1, 577-580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Morikawa, M. Tani, M. Fujita, and M. Hangyo, "Heterodyne receiver using a photoconductive antenna and a continuous-wave laser diode in sub-THz region," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L951-L953 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multi-frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, and T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4016- 4021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Orihashi, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, "One THz harmonic oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 233501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, "Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 2383-2391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

B. H. Kolner and D. M. Bloom, "Electro-optic sampling in GaAs integrated circuits," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 79-93 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multi-frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asada, M.

N. Orihashi, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, "One THz harmonic oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 233501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethea, C. G.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

B. H. Kolner and D. M. Bloom, "Electro-optic sampling in GaAs integrated circuits," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 79-93 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bulmer, C. H.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, "Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 2383-2391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, "Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 2383-2391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, M.

O. Morikawa, M. Tani, M. Fujita, and M. Hangyo, "Heterodyne receiver using a photoconductive antenna and a continuous-wave laser diode in sub-THz region," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L951-L953 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, T.

H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, and T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4016- 4021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, "Measuring optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling," Nat. Photonics 1, 577-580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gopalakrishnan, G. K.

G. K. Gopalakrishnan, W. K. Burns, and C. H. Bulmer, "Microwave-optical mixing in LiNbO3 modulators," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 41, 2383-2391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

O. Morikawa, M. Tani, M. Fujita, and M. Hangyo, "Heterodyne receiver using a photoconductive antenna and a continuous-wave laser diode in sub-THz region," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L951-L953 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, H. Y.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishibashi, T.

H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, and T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4016- 4021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, and T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4016- 4021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kabetani, Y.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multi-frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kiyomi, K.

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolner, B. H.

B. H. Kolner and D. M. Bloom, "Electro-optic sampling in GaAs integrated circuits," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 79-93 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. C.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martini, R.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, S.

Morikawa, O.

O. Morikawa, M. Tani, M. Fujita, and M. Hangyo, "Heterodyne receiver using a photoconductive antenna and a continuous-wave laser diode in sub-THz region," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L951-L953 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Myers, T. L.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, F.

H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, and T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4016- 4021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, S.

Orihashi, N.

N. Orihashi, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, "One THz harmonic oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 233501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, M. B.

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, "Measuring optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling," Nat. Photonics 1, 577-580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, "Measuring optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling," Nat. Photonics 1, 577-580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, K.

Saneyoshi, E.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multi-frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sergent, A. M.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

N. Orihashi, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, "One THz harmonic oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 233501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

O. Morikawa, M. Tani, M. Fujita, and M. Hangyo, "Heterodyne receiver using a photoconductive antenna and a continuous-wave laser diode in sub-THz region," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L951-L953 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tani, S. Matsuura, K. Sakai, Kiyomi, and S. Nakashima, "Emission characteristics of photoconductive antennas based on low-temperature-grown GaAs and semi-insulating GaAs," Appl. Opt. 36, 7853-7859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taubman, M. S.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, E. A.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, "Measuring optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling," Nat. Photonics 1, 577-580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yasui, T.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multi-frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, S.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multi-frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, and T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4016- 4021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, "Terahertz frequency comb by multi-frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Orihashi, S. Suzuki, and M. Asada, "One THz harmonic oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 233501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, and T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4016- 4021 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).
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B. H. Kolner and D. M. Bloom, "Electro-optic sampling in GaAs integrated circuits," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 79-93 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

O. Morikawa, M. Tani, M. Fujita, and M. Hangyo, "Heterodyne receiver using a photoconductive antenna and a continuous-wave laser diode in sub-THz region," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L951-L953 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

P. Gaal, M. B. Raschke, K. Reimann, and M. Woerner, "Measuring optical frequencies in the 0-40 THz range with non-synchronized electro-optic sampling," Nat. Photonics 1, 577-580 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

D. M. Mittleman, Sensing with THz radiation (Springer, 2003).

M. Ashida, R. Akai, H. Shimosato, I. Katayama, T. Itoh, K. Miyamoto, and H. Ito, "Ultrabroadband THz field detection beyond 170THz with a photoconductive antenna," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (2008), CTuX6.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of THz spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Geometry of a measured CW-THz wave and probe pulse light on the PCA, and (b) the corresponding spectral behavior in optical, THz, and RF regions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup of THz spectrum analyzer for measurement of a sub-THz test source. fs-ML Ti:S laser: femtosecond mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser; PZT: piezoelectric transducer; BS: beam splitter; L: objective lens; PCA: photoconductive antenna; Si-L: silicon lens; PD: photodetector; AMP: amplifier.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectra of the PCA current under irradiation of a CW-THz wave (freq.=90,008,480,000 Hz) with frequency span of (a) 1000 MHz and (b) 100 MHz. (c) Linear-scale and (d) logarithmic-scale spectra of the fb beat signal when the fb value is set below 1 MHz.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Spectra of the fb beat signal when the laser mode-locked frequency (f) is set at 81,823,757 (red curve) Hz and 81,823,857 Hz (blue curve).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectrum of the EM-THz comb. The upper and lower horizontal coordinates give the frequency scale in the RF and THz spectrum analyzers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Results of absolute frequency measurement of the sub-THz test source when tuning its output frequency from 75 to 110 GHz at 5-GHz intervals.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f b = f x mf .
m = δ f b δ f .
f x = mf + f b ( δ f b δ f < 0 )
f x = mf f b ( δ f b δ f > 0 ) .
m = δ f b δ f = 333,027.731 454,027.976 81,823,857.000 81,823,757.000 = 1210.00245
δ f b δ f < 0 .
f x = mf + f b = 1210 × 81,823,757 + 454,027.976 = 99,007,119,997.976 Hz .

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