Abstract

We report a novel polarization-maintaining fiber based optical coherence tomography for single detector imaging of tissue reflectivity and birefringence. A single depth scan yields quantitative birefringence information along the A-line accurately. Since the orthogonal polarization channels are frequency multiplexed, the polarization information is extracted by using digital band-pass filters. Here, we introduce the optical system and present the reflectivity and birefringence images of biological tissues with an axial resolution of 7.9 µm and SNR of 30 dB.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

2001 (6)

J. E. Roth, J. A. Kozak, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "Simplified method for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 1069-1071 (2001). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-14-1069
[CrossRef]

M. G. Ducros, J. D. Marsack, H. G. RylanderIII, S. L. Thomsen, and T. E. Milner, "Primate retina imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2945-2956 (2001). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josaa-18-12-2945
[CrossRef]

C. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, T. Chen, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

Digant P. Dave, Taner Akkin, Thomas E. Milner and H. Grady RylanderIII, "Phase-sensitive frequency-multiplexed optical low-coherence reflectometery," Opt. Commun. 193, 39-43 (2001). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-4379G98-6/2/13fd586a34580152423fd2c6b958a9b8
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1999 (3)

1998 (3)

1997 (1)

Akkin, T.

Akkin, Taner

Digant P. Dave, Taner Akkin, Thomas E. Milner and H. Grady RylanderIII, "Phase-sensitive frequency-multiplexed optical low-coherence reflectometery," Opt. Commun. 193, 39-43 (2001). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-4379G98-6/2/13fd586a34580152423fd2c6b958a9b8
[CrossRef]

Baumann, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Brezinski, JG

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

Cense, B.

Chen, T.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, T. Chen, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Z.

Choma, M.

Chou, C.

Chou, N. -K.

Colston, B. W.

Da Silva, L. B.

Dave, Digant P.

Digant P. Dave, Taner Akkin, Thomas E. Milner and H. Grady RylanderIII, "Phase-sensitive frequency-multiplexed optical low-coherence reflectometery," Opt. Commun. 193, 39-43 (2001). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-4379G98-6/2/13fd586a34580152423fd2c6b958a9b8
[CrossRef]

Davé, D. P.

de Boer, J. F.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing," Opt. Express 16, 1096-1103 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1096
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, M. Mujat, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, "Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using a single line scan camera," Opt. Express 15, 2421-2431 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2421
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-21-2067
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, T. Chen, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1355
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 300-302 (1999). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-24-5-300
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200-1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Desjardins, A. E.

Drexler,

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

Ducros, M. G.

Everett, M. J.

Fercher, A.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fujimoto, MB

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

Goetzinger, E.

Götzinger, E.

Grady Rylander, H.

Digant P. Dave, Taner Akkin, Thomas E. Milner and H. Grady RylanderIII, "Phase-sensitive frequency-multiplexed optical low-coherence reflectometery," Opt. Commun. 193, 39-43 (2001). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-4379G98-6/2/13fd586a34580152423fd2c6b958a9b8
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Huang, H. -J.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Jesser, D

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

Jung, W.

Kozak, J. A.

Kuo, W. -C.

Lai, C. -M.

Leitgeb, R.

Li, C

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

Lodge, S

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

Madjarova, V. D.

Maitland, D. J.

Makita, S.

Marsack, J. D.

Martin, K

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

Milner, T. E.

Milner, Thomas E.

Digant P. Dave, Taner Akkin, Thomas E. Milner and H. Grady RylanderIII, "Phase-sensitive frequency-multiplexed optical low-coherence reflectometery," Opt. Commun. 193, 39-43 (2001). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-4379G98-6/2/13fd586a34580152423fd2c6b958a9b8
[CrossRef]

Mujat, M.

Nelson, J.

Nelson, J. S.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, T. Chen, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1355
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 300-302 (1999). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-24-5-300
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200-1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oh, W. Y.

Park, B. H.

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing," Opt. Express 16, 1096-1103 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1096
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, M. Mujat, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, "Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using a single line scan camera," Opt. Express 15, 2421-2431 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2421
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-21-2067
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, T. Chen, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1355
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200-1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pham, T. H.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200-1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Pitris, X

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

Rollins, A. M.

Roth, J. E.

Rylander, H. G.

Sampson, D. D.

Sarunic, M.

Saunders, C

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, T. Chen, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxer, C. E.

Schoenenberger, K.

Shishkov, M.

Shyu, J. -J.

Smith, E. D. J.

Srinivas, S. M.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, T. Chen, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200-1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stamper, W

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

Sticker, M.

Tearney, G. J.

Thomsen, S. L.

Vakoc, B. J.

Wang, L. V.

Wang, S. -S.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.

Yao, G.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yazdanfar, S.

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, J.

Zhao, Y.

Zvyagin, A. V.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1200-1204 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J Rheumatol (1)

DrexlerW , StamperD , JesserC , LiX , PitrisC , SaundersK , MartinS , LodgeMB , FujimotoJG , BrezinskiME , "Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis," J Rheumatol 28,1311-1318 (2001)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, T. Chen, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

Digant P. Dave, Taner Akkin, Thomas E. Milner and H. Grady RylanderIII, "Phase-sensitive frequency-multiplexed optical low-coherence reflectometery," Opt. Commun. 193, 39-43 (2001). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TVF-4379G98-6/2/13fd586a34580152423fd2c6b958a9b8
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (10)

C. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-9-13-780
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, "Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-8-889
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Y. Oh, S. H. Yun, B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishkov, A. E. Desjardins, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed polarization sensitive optical frequency domain imaging with frequency multiplexing," Opt. Express 16, 1096-1103 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1096
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, "Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation," Opt. Express 16, 5892-5906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, W. Jung, J. Nelson, and Z. Chen, "Full range polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 6033-6039 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-6033
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-25-10217
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method," Opt. Express 14, 6502-6515 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6502
[PubMed]

B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Single camera based spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 15, 1054-1063 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-3-1054
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, M. Mujat, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, "Polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography using a single line scan camera," Opt. Express 15, 2421-2431 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2421
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (12)

W. Y. Oh, B. J. Vakoc, S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Single-detector polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging using high-speed intra A-line polarization modulation," Opt. Lett. 33, 1330-1332 (2008). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-12-1330
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Davé, T. Akkin, and T. E. Milner, "Polarization-maintaining fiber-based optical low-coherence reflectometer for characterization and ranging of birefringence," Opt. Lett. 28, 1775-1777 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-19-1775
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-21-2067
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. D. J. Smith, A. V. Zvyagin, and D. D. Sampson, "Real-time dispersion compensation in scanning interferometry," Opt. Lett. 27, 1998-2000 (2002). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-27-22-1998
[CrossRef]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin," Opt. Lett. 25, 1355-1357 (2000). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-18-1355
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, J. A. Kozak, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "Simplified method for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 26, 1069-1071 (2001). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-14-1069
[CrossRef]

D. P. Davé and T. E. Milner, "Optical low-coherence reflectometer for differential phase measurement," Opt. Lett. 25, 227-229 (2000). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-4-227
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line," Opt. Lett. 22, 1811-1813 (1997). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-22-23-1811
[CrossRef]

M. J. Everett, K. Schoenenberger, B. W. Colston, Jr., and L. B. Da Silva, "Birefringence characterization of biological tissue by use of optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 23, 228-230 (1998). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-23-3-228
[CrossRef]

M. J. Everett, K. Schoenenberger, B. W. Colston, Jr., and L. B. Da Silva, "Birefringence characterization of biological tissue by use of optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 23, 228-230 (1998). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-23-3-228
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of the depth-resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 300-302 (1999). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-24-5-300
[CrossRef]

G. Yao and L. V. Wang, "Two-dimensional depth-resolved Mueller matrix characterization of biological tissue by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 537-539 (1999). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-24-8-537
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization-sensitive low-coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903- (1992). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-6-903
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the interferometer. All fibers are polarization maintaining. SLD - Superluminscent diode, FB - fiber bench, FSI - free-space isolator, C - collimator, PSC - polarization splitter/combiner, PMod - phase modulator (LiNbO3), FG - function generator, G - grating, , L - lens, GM - galvo mirror, M - mirror, BCW - birefringent calcite wedges, QWP - quarter-wave plate

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Phase retardance measurement of a voltage controlled liquid crystal variable retarder using single- and dual-detector PM-OCT setups. (b) Retardance after the phase anomaly is corrected, and the manufacturer’s test data.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measurements of the LCVR’s fast axis orientation, and rotation insensitivity for phase retardance

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Single-detector PM-OCT images of a mouse tail. (a) Polarization-insensitive reflectivity image, (b) retardance image shows a banding pattern that is due to tissue birefringence.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dual-detector PM-OCT images of a mouse foot. (a) Polarization-insensitive intensity image, (b) retardance image, and (c) relative fast axis orientation image. The retardance image clearly shows the extensor tendons that are not easily recognized in the intensity image.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E s = R [ sin δ · e j 2 θ cos δ ]
I ( d ) = k R ( d ) . e ( Δ d l c ) 2 . ( sin δ . cos ( f 1 t + 2 θ ) + cos δ . cos ( 2 f 1 t ) )
R ( d ) ~ U 1 2 + U 2 2
δ = arctan ( U 1 U 2 )
θ = ( ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ) 2

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