Abstract

The biogeochemical characterization of marine particles suspended in sea water, is of fundamental importance in many areas of ocean science. Previous studies based on theoretical calculations and field measurements have demonstrated the importance of the use of the polarized light field in the retrieval of the suspended marine particles properties. However, because of the weakness of the water leaving polarized signal and of the limited number of appropriate spatial sensors, such measurements have never been exploited from space. Here we show that the marine polarized remote sensing reflectance, as detected from the POLarization and Directionality of the Earth’s Reflectances (POLDER) sensor, can be measured from space over bright waters and in absence of aerosols. This feasibility study is carried out over two oceanic areas characterized by different nature of the bulk particulate assemblage: the Barents sea during an intense coccolithophore bloom, and the Rio de la Plata estuary waters dominated by suspended sediments. The retrieved absolute values of the degree of polarization, P, its angular pattern, and its behavior with the scattering level are consistent with theory and field measurements. Radiative transfer simulations confirm the sensitivity of the POLDER-2 P values to the nature of the particulate assemblage. These preliminary results are very promising for the assessment of the bulk particle composition from remote sensing of the polarized signal, at least over highly scattering waters.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

L. Duforet, P. Dubuisson, and R. Frouin. 2007, "Importance and estimation of aerosol vertical structure in satellite ocean-color remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 46, 1107-1119 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami and D. McKee, "Determination of biogeochemical properties of marine particles using above water measurements of the degree of polarization at the Brewster angle," Opt. Express 15, 9494-9509 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chami, "Importance of the polarization in the retrieval of oceanic constituents from the remote sensing reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami and M. Defoin-Platel, "Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of the reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05037, doi:10.1029/2006JC003758 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Siegel, T. Ohde, M. Gerth, G. Lavik, and T. Leipe, "Identification of coccolithophore blooms in the SE Atlantic Ocean off Namibia by satellites and in-situ methods," Cont. Shelf Res. 27, 258-274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation with their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, "Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean," J. Geophys. Res 111, C09024, doi:10.1029/2005JC003367 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and A. S. Hooker, "Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005, doi:10.1029/2005JC003207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, "Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil," Limnol. Oceanogr. 4, 237-253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. J. Park, and G. Moore, "Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: the similarity spectrum for turbid waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, N. Cherukuru, and S. J. Lavender, "Apparent and inherent optical properties of turbid estuarine waters: measurements, empirical quantification relationships, and modeling, " Appl. Opt. 45, 2310-2324 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F.-M. Bréon, "Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery," Deep-Sea Research Part I - Instruments and Methods 52, 1989-2004 (2005).

M. Stramska and D. Stramski, "Variability of particulate organic carbon concentration in the north polar Atlantic based on ocean color observations with Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C10018, doi:10.1029/2004JC002762 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. J. Smyth, T. Tyrrell, and B. Tarrant, "Time series of coccolithophore activity in the Barents Sea, from twenty years of satellite imagery," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L11302, doi:10.1029/2004GL019735 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the particulate matter in the global ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, "Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 3228, doi:10.1029/2001JC000965 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Case studies of aerosol Retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383-397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. R. Gordon and T. Du, "Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi," Limnol. Oceanogr. 46,1438-1454. (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, E. Bosc, D. Stramski, K. Oubelker, and P.-Y. Deschamps, "Seasonal variability of the backscattering coefficients in the Mediterranean Sea based on Satellite SeaWIFS imagery," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4203-4206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, "Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 40, 2398-2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106,14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Goloub, M. Herman, M. Chepfer, J. Riedi, G. Brogniez, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud thermodynamical phase classification from the POLDER aspaceborn instrument," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14747-14759 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, E. Jakmeman, and K. I. Hopcraft, "Polarization properties of light multiply scattered by non-spherical Rayleigh particles,"Wav. Rand. Med. 9, 415-426. (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, "Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing," Science 285, 239-242 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

1996

W. M. Balch, K. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. Harbour, and E. Fernandez, "The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central north Atlantic II: relating optics to coccolith concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41,1684-1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

G. Kattawar and C. Adams, "Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to Rayleigh phase matrix," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1463-1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984

1974

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering by planetary atmosphere," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968

1961

A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, "A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda," Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129-148 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1958

A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, "Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization," J. Mar. Res. 16, 283-307 (1958).

1954

Adams, C.

G. Kattawar and C. Adams, "Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to Rayleigh phase matrix," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1463-1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alvain, S.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F.-M. Bréon, "Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery," Deep-Sea Research Part I - Instruments and Methods 52, 1989-2004 (2005).

Balch, W. M.

W. M. Balch, K. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. Harbour, and E. Fernandez, "The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central north Atlantic II: relating optics to coccolith concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41,1684-1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, A. H.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106,14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beardsley, G. F.

Berthon, J. F.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation with their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bosc, E.

H. Loisel, E. Bosc, D. Stramski, K. Oubelker, and P.-Y. Deschamps, "Seasonal variability of the backscattering coefficients in the Mediterranean Sea based on Satellite SeaWIFS imagery," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4203-4206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106,14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Breon, F.-M.

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F.-M.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F.-M. Bréon, "Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery," Deep-Sea Research Part I - Instruments and Methods 52, 1989-2004 (2005).

J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, "Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil," Limnol. Oceanogr. 4, 237-253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brogniez, G.

P. Goloub, M. Herman, M. Chepfer, J. Riedi, G. Brogniez, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud thermodynamical phase classification from the POLDER aspaceborn instrument," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14747-14759 (2000).
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P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
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Chang, P. C. Y.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, E. Jakmeman, and K. I. Hopcraft, "Polarization properties of light multiply scattered by non-spherical Rayleigh particles,"Wav. Rand. Med. 9, 415-426. (1999).
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Chepfer, M.

P. Goloub, M. Herman, M. Chepfer, J. Riedi, G. Brogniez, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud thermodynamical phase classification from the POLDER aspaceborn instrument," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14747-14759 (2000).
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Cherukuru, N.

Chowdhary, J.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters," Appl. Opt. 45, 5542-5567 (2006).
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J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, "Case studies of aerosol Retrievals over the ocean from multiangle, multispectral photopolarimetric remote sensing data," J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 383-397 (2002).
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A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, "Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil," Limnol. Oceanogr. 4, 237-253 (2006).
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J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and A. S. Hooker, "Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005, doi:10.1029/2005JC003207 (2006).
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Couvert, P.

P. Goloub, M. Herman, M. Chepfer, J. Riedi, G. Brogniez, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud thermodynamical phase classification from the POLDER aspaceborn instrument," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14747-14759 (2000).
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Cox, C.

Dandonneau, Y.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F.-M. Bréon, "Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery," Deep-Sea Research Part I - Instruments and Methods 52, 1989-2004 (2005).

De Cauwer, V.

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. J. Park, and G. Moore, "Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: the similarity spectrum for turbid waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179 (2006).
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M. Chami and M. Defoin-Platel, "Sensitivity of the retrieval of the inherent optical properties of marine particles in coastal waters to the directional variations and the polarization of the reflectance," J. Geophys. Res. 112, C05037, doi:10.1029/2006JC003758 (2007).
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P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
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H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the particulate matter in the global ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 (2002).
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H. Loisel, E. Bosc, D. Stramski, K. Oubelker, and P.-Y. Deschamps, "Seasonal variability of the backscattering coefficients in the Mediterranean Sea based on Satellite SeaWIFS imagery," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4203-4206 (2001).
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J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
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J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
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Doxaran, D.

Du, T.

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Duforet, L.

Fernandez, E.

W. M. Balch, K. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. Harbour, and E. Fernandez, "The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central north Atlantic II: relating optics to coccolith concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41,1684-1696 (1996).
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L. Duforet, P. Dubuisson, and R. Frouin. 2007, "Importance and estimation of aerosol vertical structure in satellite ocean-color remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 46, 1107-1119 (2007).
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H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the particulate matter in the global ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 (2002).
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Fry, E. S.

Gerth, M.

H. Siegel, T. Ohde, M. Gerth, G. Lavik, and T. Leipe, "Identification of coccolithophore blooms in the SE Atlantic Ocean off Namibia by satellites and in-situ methods," Cont. Shelf Res. 27, 258-274 (2007).
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Goloub, P.

J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, M. Herman, M. Chepfer, J. Riedi, G. Brogniez, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud thermodynamical phase classification from the POLDER aspaceborn instrument," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14747-14759 (2000).
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Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon and T. Du, "Light scattering by nonspherical particles: application to coccoliths detached from Emiliania huxleyi," Limnol. Oceanogr. 46,1438-1454. (2001).
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Hansell, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, "Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 3228, doi:10.1029/2001JC000965 (2002)
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Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, "Light scattering by planetary atmosphere," Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527-610 (1974).
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Harbour, D.

W. M. Balch, K. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. Harbour, and E. Fernandez, "The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central north Atlantic II: relating optics to coccolith concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41,1684-1696 (1996).
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Harmel, T.

Herman, M.

J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
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P. Goloub, M. Herman, M. Chepfer, J. Riedi, G. Brogniez, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud thermodynamical phase classification from the POLDER aspaceborn instrument," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14747-14759 (2000).
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Holligan, P. M.

W. M. Balch, K. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. Harbour, and E. Fernandez, "The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central north Atlantic II: relating optics to coccolith concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41,1684-1696 (1996).
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Hooker, A. S.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and A. S. Hooker, "Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005, doi:10.1029/2005JC003207 (2006).
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Hopcraft, K. I.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, E. Jakmeman, and K. I. Hopcraft, "Polarization properties of light multiply scattered by non-spherical Rayleigh particles,"Wav. Rand. Med. 9, 415-426. (1999).
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A. Ivanoff and T. H. Waterman, "Factors, mainly depth and wavelength, affecting the degree of underwater light polarization," J. Mar. Res. 16, 283-307 (1958).

Jakmeman, E.

P. C. Y. Chang, J. G. Walker, E. Jakmeman, and K. I. Hopcraft, "Polarization properties of light multiply scattered by non-spherical Rayleigh particles,"Wav. Rand. Med. 9, 415-426. (1999).
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Jerlov, N.

A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, "A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda," Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129-148 (1961).
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Kahru, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, "Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing," Science 285, 239-242 (1999).
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Kattawar, G.

G. Kattawar and C. Adams, "Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to Rayleigh phase matrix," Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1463-1472 (1989).
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Kilpatrick, K.

W. M. Balch, K. Kilpatrick, P. M. Holligan, D. Harbour, and E. Fernandez, "The 1991 coccolithophore bloom in the central north Atlantic II: relating optics to coccolith concentration," Limnol. Oceanogr. 41,1684-1696 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lafrance, B.

J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
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Lavender, S. J.

Lavik, G.

H. Siegel, T. Ohde, M. Gerth, G. Lavik, and T. Leipe, "Identification of coccolithophore blooms in the SE Atlantic Ocean off Namibia by satellites and in-situ methods," Cont. Shelf Res. 27, 258-274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leipe, T.

H. Siegel, T. Ohde, M. Gerth, G. Lavik, and T. Leipe, "Identification of coccolithophore blooms in the SE Atlantic Ocean off Namibia by satellites and in-situ methods," Cont. Shelf Res. 27, 258-274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, M.

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Loisel, H.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation with their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, "Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean," J. Geophys. Res 111, C09024, doi:10.1029/2005JC003367 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the particulate matter in the global ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, E. Bosc, D. Stramski, K. Oubelker, and P.-Y. Deschamps, "Seasonal variability of the backscattering coefficients in the Mediterranean Sea based on Satellite SeaWIFS imagery," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4203-4206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzi-Kayser, M.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, "Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 3228, doi:10.1029/2001JC000965 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, J. B.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106,14129-14142 (2001).
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Maignan, F.

J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, M.

J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, "Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 3228, doi:10.1029/2001JC000965 (2002)
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McKee, D.

Mériaux, X.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation with their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, "Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing," Science 285, 239-242 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, G.

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. J. Park, and G. Moore, "Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: the similarity spectrum for turbid waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

J. Uitz, H. Claustre, A. Morel, and A. S. Hooker, "Vertical distribution of phytoplankton communities in open ocean: an assessment based on surface chlorophyll," J. Geophys. Res. 111, C08005, doi:10.1029/2005JC003207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Stramski, A. Bricaud, and A. Morel, "Modeling the inherent optical properties of the ocean based on the detailed composition of the planktonic community," Appl. Opt. 40, 2929-2945 (2001).
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Moulin, C.

S. Alvain, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, and F.-M. Bréon, "Remote sensing of phytoplankton groups in case 1 waters from global SeaWiFS imagery," Deep-Sea Research Part I - Instruments and Methods 52, 1989-2004 (2005).

Munk, W.

Nadal, F.

J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N. B.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, "Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 3228, doi:10.1029/2001JC000965 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Nicolas, J. M.

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, "Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean," J. Geophys. Res 111, C09024, doi:10.1029/2005JC003367 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, P.-Y. Deschamps, and R. Frouin, "Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the particulate matter in the global ocean," Geophys. Res. Lett. 29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ohde, T.

H. Siegel, T. Ohde, M. Gerth, G. Lavik, and T. Leipe, "Identification of coccolithophore blooms in the SE Atlantic Ocean off Namibia by satellites and in-situ methods," Cont. Shelf Res. 27, 258-274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oubelker, K.

H. Loisel, E. Bosc, D. Stramski, K. Oubelker, and P.-Y. Deschamps, "Seasonal variability of the backscattering coefficients in the Mediterranean Sea based on Satellite SeaWIFS imagery," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4203-4206 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. J.

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. J. Park, and G. Moore, "Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: the similarity spectrum for turbid waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pegau, W. S.

M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106,14129-14142 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perry, G.

J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Podaire, A.

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pope, R. M.

Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, X. Mériaux, J. F. Berthon, and A. Poteau, "Investigation of the optical backscattering to scattering ratio of marine particles in relation with their biogeochemical composition in the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea," Limnol. Oceanogr. 52, 739-752 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, "Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean," J. Geophys. Res 111, C09024, doi:10.1029/2005JC003367 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, "Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing," Science 285, 239-242 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedi, J.

P. Goloub, M. Herman, M. Chepfer, J. Riedi, G. Brogniez, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud thermodynamical phase classification from the POLDER aspaceborn instrument," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14747-14759 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W.

Ruddick, K. G.

K. G. Ruddick, V. De Cauwer, Y. J. Park, and G. Moore, "Seaborne measurements of near infrared water-leaving reflectance: the similarity spectrum for turbid waters," Limnol. Oceanogr. 51, 1167-1179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

Sciandra, A.

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, "Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean," J. Geophys. Res 111, C09024, doi:10.1029/2005JC003367 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seze, G.

P. Y. Deschamps, F.-M. Breon, M. Leroy, A. Podaire, A. Bricaud, J. C. Buriez, and G. Seze, "The Polder Mission - Instrument Characteristics And Scientific Objectives," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 32, 598-615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sèze, G.

P. Goloub, M. Herman, M. Chepfer, J. Riedi, G. Brogniez, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud thermodynamical phase classification from the POLDER aspaceborn instrument," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14747-14759 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, "Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 3228, doi:10.1029/2001JC000965 (2002)
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson, "Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: the black pixel assumption," Appl. Opt. 39, 3582-3591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, H.

H. Siegel, T. Ohde, M. Gerth, G. Lavik, and T. Leipe, "Identification of coccolithophore blooms in the SE Atlantic Ocean off Namibia by satellites and in-situ methods," Cont. Shelf Res. 27, 258-274 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, T. J.

T. J. Smyth, T. Tyrrell, and B. Tarrant, "Time series of coccolithophore activity in the Barents Sea, from twenty years of satellite imagery," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L11302, doi:10.1029/2004GL019735 (2004).
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Stramska, M.

M. Stramska and D. Stramski, "Variability of particulate organic carbon concentration in the north polar Atlantic based on ocean color observations with Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C10018, doi:10.1029/2004JC002762 (2005).
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Stramski, D.

H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, "Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean," J. Geophys. Res 111, C09024, doi:10.1029/2005JC003367 (2006).
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H. Loisel, E. Bosc, D. Stramski, K. Oubelker, and P.-Y. Deschamps, "Seasonal variability of the backscattering coefficients in the Mediterranean Sea based on Satellite SeaWIFS imagery," Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 4203-4206 (2001).
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T. J. Smyth, T. Tyrrell, and B. Tarrant, "Time series of coccolithophore activity in the Barents Sea, from twenty years of satellite imagery," Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L11302, doi:10.1029/2004GL019735 (2004).
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H. Loisel, J. M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, "Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean," J. Geophys. Res 111, C09024, doi:10.1029/2005JC003367 (2006).
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J. L. Deuzé, F.-M. Bréon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, M. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, and D. Tanré, "Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements," J. Geophys. Res. 106,4913-4926 (2001).
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M. Stramska and D. Stramski, "Variability of particulate organic carbon concentration in the north polar Atlantic based on ocean color observations with Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)," J. Geophys. Res. 110, C10018, doi:10.1029/2004JC002762 (2005).
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D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, "Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials," J. Geophys. Res. 107, 3228, doi:10.1029/2001JC000965 (2002)
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P. Goloub, M. Herman, M. Chepfer, J. Riedi, G. Brogniez, P. Couvert, and G. Sèze, "Cloud thermodynamical phase classification from the POLDER aspaceborn instrument," J. Geophys. Res. 105, 14747-14759 (2000).
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M. S. Twardowski, E. Boss, J. B. Macdonald, W. S. Pegau, A. H. Barnard, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, "A model for estimating bulk refractive index from optical backscattering ratio and the implications for understanding particle composition in case I and case II waters," J. Geophys. Res. 106,14129-14142 (2001).
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A. Ivanoff, N. Jerlov, and T. H. Waterman, "A comparative study of irradiance, beam transmittance and scattering in the sea near Bermuda," Limnol. Oceanogr. 6, 129-148 (1961).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Degree of polarization P (in %) as a function of the scattering angle, θ, for two extreme refractive index relative to waters, n, and for two different values of the PSD slope, ζ: a) ζ=3, and b) ζ=4. c) Contour diagrams of P(90) as a function of the parameters n (x-axis), and ζ (y-axis). Note that the P values presented in this figure are not affected by multiple scattering in contrast to what happens in the ocean.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

POLDER2 selected scenes of RGB composites, over (a) the Rio de la Plata estuary (26 of May 2003), and (b) off Norway in the Barents sea (19 of July 2003). The red line in panel a corresponds to a transect specifically examined, and the numbers represent the pixel number (see text for details).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Maps of R rs, R rs-p, and P at 670 nm for the Rio de la Plata estuary (left column), and the Barents Sea areas (right column).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evolution of R rs, R rs-p, and P along a transect in the Rio de la Plata estuary (represented by the red line in Fig. 2a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatter plot of R rs as a function of P at 670 nm for (a) the Rio de la Plata estuary, and (b) the Barents Sea areas. The black lines in panel a and b correspond to the fits described by the equations 2 and 3, respectively. The square correlation coefficient (r2) is given. Note the different scales of the two panels.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variation of R rs as a function of P for the value of the scattering angle of (a) 120° and (b) 130° for the Rio de la Plata estuary waters. The colored symbols represent data obtained from the radiative transfer simulations performed for different values of the refractive index, n, and PSD slope, ζ, as indicated. The black dots represent the data obtained from POLDER-2 observations. Note that the P values are lower than those presented in Fig. 1 for which the calculations did not account to multiple scattering.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R rs ( λ ) = L u ( λ ) E d ( λ )
P = ( Q 2 + U 2 + V 2 ) 0.5 I ,
P = 0.0099 R rs ( 0.768 ) ( r 2 = 0.88 )
P = 0.0054 R rs ( 0.739 ) ( r 2 = 0.89 )

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