Abstract

The mechanism involved during solution doping process has been systematically investigated by correlating the soot characteristics and solution parameters with the amount of rare earth (RE) incorporated in the core of optical fiber. Experiments show that the amount of RE incorporation may be controlled with better precision by adjusting Al ion concentration in the soaking solution. A model has been developed on the basis of cooperative adsorption mechanism correlating different parameters in the overall process. Theoretical estimation shows good agreement with the experimental results and can be used to predict the extent of RE incorporation for any composition if the soot layer characteristics are known.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium doped fiber amplifiers-Fundamentals and technology, (Academic Press, 1999) pp. 13-30.
  2. J. E. Townsend, "The development of optical fibers doped with rare earth ions," Ph.D Thesis, University of Southampton (1990).
  3. K. Aria, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, and T. Honda, "Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430-3436 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+ doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1838-1845 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. F. MacDowell and G. H. Beall, "Immiscibility and crystallization in Al2O3-SiO2 glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 17-25 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. H. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. K. Senatorov, and E. M. Dianov, "Doping of optical fiber preforms via porous silica layer infiltration with salt solutions," Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl) 41, 363-368 (2005).
  7. Y. H. Kim, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, "Effect of soaking temperature on concentrations of rare-earth ions in optical fiber core in solution doping process," Proc. SPIE 4282, 123-132 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. Ringer, "Microscale inhomogeneities in Aluminium Solution-doping of silica-based optical fibers," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 23-28 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Dhar, M. Ch. Paul, M. Pal, A. Kr. Mondal, S. Sen, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "Characterization of porous core layer for controlling the rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Express 14, 9006-9015 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Dhar, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "An improved method of controlling rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 277, 329-334 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. Ringer, "Microscale inhomogeneities in Aluminium Solution-doping of silica-based optical fibers," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dhar, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "An improved method of controlling rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 277, 329-334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2001 (1)

Y. H. Kim, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, "Effect of soaking temperature on concentrations of rare-earth ions in optical fiber core in solution doping process," Proc. SPIE 4282, 123-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+ doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1838-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. Aria, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, and T. Honda, "Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430-3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. F. MacDowell and G. H. Beall, "Immiscibility and crystallization in Al2O3-SiO2 glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 17-25 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aria, K.

K. Aria, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, and T. Honda, "Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430-3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Barton, G. W.

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. Ringer, "Microscale inhomogeneities in Aluminium Solution-doping of silica-based optical fibers," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beall, G. H.

J. F. MacDowell and G. H. Beall, "Immiscibility and crystallization in Al2O3-SiO2 glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 17-25 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bhadra, S. K.

A. Dhar, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "An improved method of controlling rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 277, 329-334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bubnov, M. M.

V. H. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. K. Senatorov, and E. M. Dianov, "Doping of optical fiber preforms via porous silica layer infiltration with salt solutions," Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl) 41, 363-368 (2005).

Dhar, A.

A. Dhar, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "An improved method of controlling rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 277, 329-334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dhar, M. Ch. Paul, M. Pal, A. Kr. Mondal, S. Sen, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "Characterization of porous core layer for controlling the rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Express 14, 9006-9015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

V. H. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. K. Senatorov, and E. M. Dianov, "Doping of optical fiber preforms via porous silica layer infiltration with salt solutions," Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl) 41, 363-368 (2005).

Guryanov, A. N.

V. H. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. K. Senatorov, and E. M. Dianov, "Doping of optical fiber preforms via porous silica layer infiltration with salt solutions," Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl) 41, 363-368 (2005).

Han, W. T.

Y. H. Kim, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, "Effect of soaking temperature on concentrations of rare-earth ions in optical fiber core in solution doping process," Proc. SPIE 4282, 123-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

K. Aria, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, and T. Honda, "Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430-3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+ doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1838-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Khopin, V. H.

V. H. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. K. Senatorov, and E. M. Dianov, "Doping of optical fiber preforms via porous silica layer infiltration with salt solutions," Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl) 41, 363-368 (2005).

Kim, Y. H.

Y. H. Kim, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, "Effect of soaking temperature on concentrations of rare-earth ions in optical fiber core in solution doping process," Proc. SPIE 4282, 123-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kr, A.

Kumata, K.

K. Aria, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, and T. Honda, "Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430-3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

MacDowell, J. F.

J. F. MacDowell and G. H. Beall, "Immiscibility and crystallization in Al2O3-SiO2 glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 17-25 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Maiti, H. S.

A. Dhar, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "An improved method of controlling rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 277, 329-334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McNamara, P.

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. Ringer, "Microscale inhomogeneities in Aluminium Solution-doping of silica-based optical fibers," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+ doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1838-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Namikawa, H.

K. Aria, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, and T. Honda, "Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430-3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuki, T.

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+ doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1838-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. C.

Y. H. Kim, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, "Effect of soaking temperature on concentrations of rare-earth ions in optical fiber core in solution doping process," Proc. SPIE 4282, 123-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pal, M.

A. Dhar, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "An improved method of controlling rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 277, 329-334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Dhar, M. Ch. Paul, M. Pal, A. Kr. Mondal, S. Sen, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "Characterization of porous core layer for controlling the rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Express 14, 9006-9015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paul, M. C.

A. Dhar, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "An improved method of controlling rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 277, 329-334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paul, M. Ch.

Peyghambarian, N.

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+ doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1838-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ringer, S.

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. Ringer, "Microscale inhomogeneities in Aluminium Solution-doping of silica-based optical fibers," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sen, R.

A. Dhar, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "An improved method of controlling rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 277, 329-334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Senatorov, A. K.

V. H. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. K. Senatorov, and E. M. Dianov, "Doping of optical fiber preforms via porous silica layer infiltration with salt solutions," Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl) 41, 363-368 (2005).

Tang, F. Z.

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. Ringer, "Microscale inhomogeneities in Aluminium Solution-doping of silica-based optical fibers," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Umnikov, A. A.

V. H. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. K. Senatorov, and E. M. Dianov, "Doping of optical fiber preforms via porous silica layer infiltration with salt solutions," Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl) 41, 363-368 (2005).

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

J. F. MacDowell and G. H. Beall, "Immiscibility and crystallization in Al2O3-SiO2 glasses," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 52, 17-25 (1969).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Tang, P. McNamara, G. W. Barton, and S. Ringer, "Microscale inhomogeneities in Aluminium Solution-doping of silica-based optical fibers," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90, 23-28 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Aria, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, and T. Honda, "Aluminum or phosphorus co-doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium-doped silica glass," J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3430-3436 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+ doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 14, 1838-1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Dhar, M. C. Paul, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, H. S. Maiti, and R. Sen, "An improved method of controlling rare earth incorporation in optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 277, 329-334 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. H. Kim, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, "Effect of soaking temperature on concentrations of rare-earth ions in optical fiber core in solution doping process," Proc. SPIE 4282, 123-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

V. H. Khopin, A. A. Umnikov, A. N. Guryanov, M. M. Bubnov, A. K. Senatorov, and E. M. Dianov, "Doping of optical fiber preforms via porous silica layer infiltration with salt solutions," Inorg. Mater. (Engl. Transl) 41, 363-368 (2005).

P. C. Becker, N. A. Olsson, and J. R. Simpson, Erbium doped fiber amplifiers-Fundamentals and technology, (Academic Press, 1999) pp. 13-30.

J. E. Townsend, "The development of optical fibers doped with rare earth ions," Ph.D Thesis, University of Southampton (1990).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SiO2-GeO2 doped soot deposited at 1255°C (a) SEM micrograph, (b) FESEM micrograph.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of Al incorporation in case of preform sample using 0.3 and 0.6 (M) AlCl3 solution where core deposited at 1255°C.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic of theoretical model. Porous soot layer (a) before soaking, (b) at intermediate stage, (c) after completion of soaking.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Predicted and experimentally obtained Erbium ion incorporation with change in AlCl3 concentration in soaking solution. oe-16-17-12835-i001 Experimental value at 1255°C, oe-16-17-12835-i002 Experimental value at 1295°C, oe-16-17-12835-i003 Theoretically predicted result.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Predicted and experimentally obtained Aluminium ion incorporation with change in AlCl3 concentration in soaking solution. oe-16-17-12835-i004 Experimental value at 1255°C, oe-16-17-12835-i005 Experimental value at 1295°C, oe-16-17-12835-i006 Theoretically predicted result.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Different soot parameters with change in deposition temperature

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Table 2. Result of different preform runs

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Table 3. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results for Er incorporation

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Table 4. Pore retention and adsorption factors for Er species obtained from model

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Table 5a. Experimental and theoretical values with pore retention and adsorption factors for Al species at 1255°C

Tables Icon

Table 5b. Experimental and theoretical values with pore retention and adsorption factors for Al species at 1295°C

Equations (8)

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k 1 A l C A l ( 1 θ A l θ E r ) + k 1 A l k 4 C A l ( 1 θ A l θ E r ) m θ A l = k 2 A l θ A l
K Al C Al ( 1 θ Al θ Er ) ( 1 + k 4 ( 1 θ Al θ Er ) m 1 θ Al ) = θ Al
k 1 Er C Er ( 1 θ Al θ Er ) + k 1 Er k 3 C Er ( 1 θ Al θ Er ) n θ Al = k 2 Er θ Er
K Er C Er ( 1 θ Al θ Er ) ( 1 + k 3 ( 1 θ Al θ Er ) n 1 θ Al ) = θ Er
= C Al ε ( 1 ε ) ρ + θ Al A β
= C Er ε ( 1 ε ) ρ + θ Er A β
= [ C Al ε ρ ( 1 ε ) + θ Al A β ] X
= [ C Er ε ρ ( 1 ε ) + θ Er A β ] Y

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