Abstract

We describe a simple terahertz (THz) time domain spectrometer with a bandwidth extending up to 7.5 THz. We show that by keeping the generation and detection crystals close to each other a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be achieved without using lock-in detection and dry nitrogen flushing. The observed spectra show very good agreement with the spectra calculated based on a simple model which includes phase matching and absorption in the generation and detection crystals. Using this set-up we have measured the absorption lines in D-tartaric acid from 0.5 THz up to 7 THz. We show that the high frequency region >3 THz is the better choice to measure small changes in the water content of a hygroscopic sample compared to the low frequency region.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor," Opt. Lett. 14, 1128-1131 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by optical mixing," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207-232 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Kubler, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband terahertz pulses:generation and field-resolved detection," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S128-S133 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Mittleman, R. Jacobsen, and M. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, "Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. Chamberlain, "Where Optics Meets Electronics: Recent Progress in Decreasing the Terahertz Gap," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 199-213 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. C.. Cho, P. Y. Han, X. C. Zhang, and H. J. Bakker, "Optical phonon dynamics of GaAs studied with time resolved terahertz spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 25, 1609-1611 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. van Exter, and C. Fattinger, "Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, "High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337-339 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. C. J. van der Valk and P. C. M. Planken, "Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip." Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558-1560 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, "Fourier-transform terahertz near-field imaging of one-dimensional slit arrays: mapping of electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and Poynting vectors," Opt. Express 15, 11781-11789 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. J. L. Adam, J. M. Brok, S. M. A., K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. Nagel, and P. C. M. Planken, "Advanced terahertz electric near field measurements at subwavelength diameter metallic apertures," Opt. Express 16, 7407-7417 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, and W. T. Wenckebach, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. C. J. van der Valk, P. C. M. Planken, A. N. Buijserd, and H. J. Bakker, "Influence of pump wavelength and crystal length on the phase matching of optical rectification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1714-1718 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Faure, J. Van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling Laser-Based Table-Top THz Sources: Optical Rectification, Propagation and Electro-Optic Sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz timedomain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol 20, 246-253 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition with broad band THz spectroscopy," Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2005 (3)

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz timedomain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol 20, 246-253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Kubler, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband terahertz pulses:generation and field-resolved detection," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S128-S133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. C. J. van der Valk, P. C. M. Planken, A. N. Buijserd, and H. J. Bakker, "Influence of pump wavelength and crystal length on the phase matching of optical rectification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1714-1718 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. M. Chamberlain, "Where Optics Meets Electronics: Recent Progress in Decreasing the Terahertz Gap," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 199-213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Faure, J. Van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling Laser-Based Table-Top THz Sources: Optical Rectification, Propagation and Electro-Optic Sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

N. C. J. van der Valk and P. C. M. Planken, "Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip." Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558-1560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, and W. T. Wenckebach, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, "Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Mittleman, R. Jacobsen, and M. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (2)

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, "High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337-339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of water vapor," Opt. Lett. 14, 1128-1131 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by optical mixing," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207-232 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

Auston, D. H.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, "Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brok, J. M.

Buijserd, A. N.

Chamberlain, J. M.

J. M. Chamberlain, "Where Optics Meets Electronics: Recent Progress in Decreasing the Terahertz Gap," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 362, 199-213 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. C.

Fattinger, C.

Faure, J.

J. Faure, J. Van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling Laser-Based Table-Top THz Sources: Optical Rectification, Propagation and Electro-Optic Sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition with broad band THz spectroscopy," Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz timedomain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol 20, 246-253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Heinz, T. F.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition with broad band THz spectroscopy," Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz timedomain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol 20, 246-253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz timedomain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol 20, 246-253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

C. Kubler, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband terahertz pulses:generation and field-resolved detection," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S128-S133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, S.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R.

D. Mittleman, R. Jacobsen, and M. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, "Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jeoung, S. C.

Jepsen, P. U.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition with broad band THz spectroscopy," Proc. IEEE 95, 1592-1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz timedomain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol 20, 246-253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaindl, R. A.

J. Faure, J. Van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling Laser-Based Table-Top THz Sources: Optical Rectification, Propagation and Electro-Optic Sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

Keiding, S.

Keiding, S. R.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

Knox, W. H.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kubler, C.

C. Kubler, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband terahertz pulses:generation and field-resolved detection," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S128-S133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Lee, J. W.

Leemans, W. P.

J. Faure, J. Van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling Laser-Based Table-Top THz Sources: Optical Rectification, Propagation and Electro-Optic Sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

C. Kubler, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Ultrabroadband terahertz pulses:generation and field-resolved detection," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S128-S133 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D.

D. Mittleman, R. Jacobsen, and M. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, "Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Modjesch, G.

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, G. Modjesch, and P. U. Jepsen, "Chemical recognition in terahertz timedomain spectroscopy and imaging," Semicond. Sci. Technol 20, 246-253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, "Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M.

D. Mittleman, R. Jacobsen, and M. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, "Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

Planken, P. C. M.

Schall, M.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schouten, R. N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, and W. T. Wenckebach, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schyja, V.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M. A.

Shah, J.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, "Far-infrared generation by optical mixing," Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 207-232 (1976).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, and W. T. Wenckebach, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N. C. J.

N. C. J. van der Valk, P. C. M. Planken, A. N. Buijserd, and H. J. Bakker, "Influence of pump wavelength and crystal length on the phase matching of optical rectification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1714-1718 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. C. J. van der Valk and P. C. M. Planken, "Electro-optic detection of subwavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near field of a metal tip." Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558-1560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

Van Tilborg, J.

J. Faure, J. Van Tilborg, R. A. Kaindl, and W. P. Leemans, "Modelling Laser-Based Table-Top THz Sources: Optical Rectification, Propagation and Electro-Optic Sampling," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 681-697 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Weling, A. S.

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wenckebach, W. T.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, and W. T. Wenckebach, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winnewisser, C.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-R3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

H. J. Bakker, G. C. Cho, H. Kurz, Q. Wu, and X.-C. Zhang, "Distortion of terahertz pulses in electro-optic sampling," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1795-1801 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, and W. T. Wenckebach, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, and M. C. Nuss, "Gas sensing using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 67, 379-390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

L. Xu, X.-C. Zhang, and D. H. Auston, "Terahertz beam generation by femtosecond optical pulses in electro-optic materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1784-1786 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, "Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1516-1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, "Free-space electro-optic sampling of terahertz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3523-3525 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, "A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2321-2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, C. Fattinger, and D. Grischkowsky, "High-brightness terahertz beams characterized with an ultrafast detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337-339 (1989).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up to generate and detect THz radiation in the quasi-near field. Both the generation and detection crystals have High Reflectivity (HR) coating on one surface and Anti Reflection (AR) coating on the other surface. The detection crystal is placed very close to the generation crystal with the HR surfaces facing each other. The probe beam is reflected back from the HR surface of the detection crystal and a beam splitter (BS) sends the pulse to a conventional electro-optic detection set-up.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)–(c) Measured temporal wave forms of THz pulses generated by a GaP (110) crystal and detected very close to the generation crystal with a 300 µm thick GaP (110) crystal (a)–(c) and their corresponding spectra (d)–(f). The figures are normalized to their maximum.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured temporal wave forms of THz pulses generated by a GaP (110) crystal and detected very close to the generation crystal with a 100 µm thick GaP (110) crystal (a)–(c)and their corresponding spectra (d)–(f). The figures are normalized to their maximum.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The contribution to the measured electro-optic signal when the THz pulse and the probe pulse in the detection crystal are counter propagating as a function of THz frequency.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Calculated spectra of THz radiation generated by GaP (110) crystal of thickness (a) 100 µm (b) 300 µm and (c) 500 µm and detected with 300 µm thick GaP (110) crystal. The calculation take phase matching effects and absorption of THz radiation in both generation and detection crystals into account.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) The frequency spectra measured with and without the D-tartaric acid pellet in between the generation and detection crystals. (b) The absorption spectrum of D-tartaric acid calculated from (a). The arrows indicate the THz absorption band positions.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The time evolution of the absorption spectrum of a freeze dried coffee sample at eight times after exposure to ambient air.

Equations (12)

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Δ I 0 l d dz dt I p E ( z , t )
Δ I E 0 l d v g [ sin ( 2 k T l ) 2 k T l ]
E Tg ( ω ) = 2 π χ ( 2 ) ( ω ) n T ( ω ) 2 n g 2 τ p E 0 2 exp [ ω 2 τ p 2 4 ] [ 1 2 ( 1 + n g n T ( ω ) ) exp ( i ω n T ( ω ) l g c )
+ 1 2 ( 1 n g n T ( ω ) ) exp ( i ω n T ( ω ) l g c ) exp ( i ω n g l g c ) ]
ε ( ω ) = ε el + ε st ω TO 2 ω TO 2 ω 2 + 2 i γ ω
R in ( ω ) = ( ε ( ω ) 1 ) ( ε ( ω ) + 1 )
T in ( ω ) = 2 ( ε ( ω ) + 1 )
R out ( ω ) = ( 1 ε ( ω ) ) ( 1 + ε ( ω ) )
T out ( ω ) = 2 ε ( ω ) ε ( ω ) + 1
T f p g = 1 / [ 1 + R o u t 2 e x p ( i 2 n T ( ω ) ω l g / c ) ] T f p d = 1 / [ 1 + R i n 2 e x p ( i 2 n T ( ω ) ω l g / c ) ]
T eos c i ω ( n T ( ω ) n g ) [ exp ( il d ( n T n g ) ω c ) 1 ] exp ( τ p 2 ω 2 4 )
E T ( ω ) E Tg T out T fpg T in T fpd T eos

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