Abstract

In vivo measurement of retinal blood flow is obtained by measuring the blood velocity of erythrocytes and lumen diameters of the blood vessels using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Erythrocyte velocity is measured by tracking erythrocytes moving across a horizontal scanning line. This approach provides high temporal bandwidth measurements, allowing the fluctuation of blood flow during cardiac cycles to be measured. The technique is most applicable to medium-sized blood vessels.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Candido, and T. J. Allen, "Haemodynamics in microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes," Diabetes/Metab. Res 18, 286-304 (2002).
  2. M. Emre, S. Orgul, K. Gugleta, and J. Flammer, "Ocular blood flow alteration in glaucoma is related to systemic vascular dysregulation," Br. J. Ophthalmol 88, 662-666 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, "Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol 128, 75-80 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Yang, S. Kim, and J. Kim, "Visualization of retinal and choroidal blood flow with fluorescein leukocyte angiography in rabbits," Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.  235, 27-31 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow-rate in human retinal-vessels," Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci 26, 1124-1132 (1985).
  6. C. E. Riva, S. Harino, B. L. Petrig, and R. D. Shonat, "Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic-nerve," Exp. Eye. Res. 55, 499-506 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol 121, 235-239 (2003).
  8. R. Ferguson, D. X. Hammer, A. E. Elsner, R. Weber, S. A. Burns, and J. Weiter, "Wide-field retinal hemodynamic imaging with the tracking scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Opt. Express 12, 5198-5208 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Riva, and B. L. Petrig, "Blue field entoptic phenomenon and blood velocity in the retinal capillaries," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1234-1238 (1980).
  11. A. Harris, L. Kagemann, and G. A. Cioffi, "Assessment of human ocular hemodynamics," Surv. Ophthalmol. 42, 509-533 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Z. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, "Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1313-1326 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, III, and H. Queener, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).
  15. B. P. Helmke, S. N. Bremner, B. W. Zweifach, R. Skalak, and G. W. Schmid-Schonbein, "Mechanisms for increased blood flow resistance due to leukocytes," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 273, H2884-2890 (1997).
  16. D. U. Bartsch, and W. R. Freeman, "Laser-Tissue Interaction and Artifacts in Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography," Neurosci. Biobehav. R 17, 459-467 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. [5] . A. Nakano, Y. Sugii, M. Minamiyama, and H. Niimi, "Measurement of red cell velocity in microvessels using particle image velocimetry (PIV)," Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc 29, 445-455 (2003).
  22. [6] . A. G. Koutsiaris, "Volume flow estimation in the precapillary mesenteric microvasculature in vivo and the principle of constant pressure gradient," Biorheology 42, 479-491 (2005).
  23. [7] . B. H. McGhee, and E. J. Bridges, "Monitoring Arterial Blood Pressure: What You May Not Know," Crit. Care. Nurse 22, 60-79 (2002).
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  25. L. Kagemann, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, D. Evans, S. Buck, and B. Martin, "Heidelberg retinal flowmetry: factors affecting blood flow measurement," Br. J. Ophthalmol 82, 131-136 (1998).

2007

S. A. Burns, R. Tumbar, A. E. Elsner, D. Ferguson, and D. X. Hammer, "Large-field-of-view, modular, stabilized, adaptive-optics-based scanning laser ophthalmoscope," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1313-1326 (2007).
[CrossRef]

[4] . S. Kim, R. L. Kong, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, "Temporal and spatial variations of cell-free layer width in arterioles," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 293, H1526-H1535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

[6] . A. G. Koutsiaris, "Volume flow estimation in the precapillary mesenteric microvasculature in vivo and the principle of constant pressure gradient," Biorheology 42, 479-491 (2005).

J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

[5] . A. Nakano, Y. Sugii, M. Minamiyama, and H. Niimi, "Measurement of red cell velocity in microvessels using particle image velocimetry (PIV)," Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc 29, 445-455 (2003).

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol 121, 235-239 (2003).

2002

R. Candido, and T. J. Allen, "Haemodynamics in microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes," Diabetes/Metab. Res 18, 286-304 (2002).

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, III, and H. Queener, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

[7] . B. H. McGhee, and E. J. Bridges, "Monitoring Arterial Blood Pressure: What You May Not Know," Crit. Care. Nurse 22, 60-79 (2002).

2001

[2] . N. Chapman, N. Witt, X. Gao, A. Bhardwaj, A. Stanton, S. Thom, and A. Hughes, "Computer algorithms for the automated measurement of retinal arteriolar diameters," Br. J. Ophthalmol 85, 74-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, "Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol 128, 75-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Harris, L. Kagemann, and G. A. Cioffi, "Assessment of human ocular hemodynamics," Surv. Ophthalmol. 42, 509-533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Kagemann, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, D. Evans, S. Buck, and B. Martin, "Heidelberg retinal flowmetry: factors affecting blood flow measurement," Br. J. Ophthalmol 82, 131-136 (1998).

1997

J. Z. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, "Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 2884-2892 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Helmke, S. N. Bremner, B. W. Zweifach, R. Skalak, and G. W. Schmid-Schonbein, "Mechanisms for increased blood flow resistance due to leukocytes," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 273, H2884-2890 (1997).

Y. Yang, S. Kim, and J. Kim, "Visualization of retinal and choroidal blood flow with fluorescein leukocyte angiography in rabbits," Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.  235, 27-31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. U. Bartsch, and W. R. Freeman, "Laser-Tissue Interaction and Artifacts in Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography," Neurosci. Biobehav. R 17, 459-467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, B. L. Petrig, and R. D. Shonat, "Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic-nerve," Exp. Eye. Res. 55, 499-506 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow-rate in human retinal-vessels," Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci 26, 1124-1132 (1985).

1980

Allen, T. J.

R. Candido, and T. J. Allen, "Haemodynamics in microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes," Diabetes/Metab. Res 18, 286-304 (2002).

Bartsch, D. U.

D. U. Bartsch, and W. R. Freeman, "Laser-Tissue Interaction and Artifacts in Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography," Neurosci. Biobehav. R 17, 459-467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, A.

[2] . N. Chapman, N. Witt, X. Gao, A. Bhardwaj, A. Stanton, S. Thom, and A. Hughes, "Computer algorithms for the automated measurement of retinal arteriolar diameters," Br. J. Ophthalmol 85, 74-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bremner, S. N.

B. P. Helmke, S. N. Bremner, B. W. Zweifach, R. Skalak, and G. W. Schmid-Schonbein, "Mechanisms for increased blood flow resistance due to leukocytes," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 273, H2884-2890 (1997).

Bridges, E. J.

[7] . B. H. McGhee, and E. J. Bridges, "Monitoring Arterial Blood Pressure: What You May Not Know," Crit. Care. Nurse 22, 60-79 (2002).

Buck, S.

L. Kagemann, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, D. Evans, S. Buck, and B. Martin, "Heidelberg retinal flowmetry: factors affecting blood flow measurement," Br. J. Ophthalmol 82, 131-136 (1998).

Burns, S. A.

Candido, R.

R. Candido, and T. J. Allen, "Haemodynamics in microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes," Diabetes/Metab. Res 18, 286-304 (2002).

Chapman, N.

[2] . N. Chapman, N. Witt, X. Gao, A. Bhardwaj, A. Stanton, S. Thom, and A. Hughes, "Computer algorithms for the automated measurement of retinal arteriolar diameters," Br. J. Ophthalmol 85, 74-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cheney, M.

Chung, H. S.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, "Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol 128, 75-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Kagemann, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, D. Evans, S. Buck, and B. Martin, "Heidelberg retinal flowmetry: factors affecting blood flow measurement," Br. J. Ophthalmol 82, 131-136 (1998).

Cioffi, G. A.

A. Harris, L. Kagemann, and G. A. Cioffi, "Assessment of human ocular hemodynamics," Surv. Ophthalmol. 42, 509-533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ciulla, T. A.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, "Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol 128, 75-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Danis, R. P.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, "Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol 128, 75-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, W. J.

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, III, and H. Queener, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

Elsner, A.

Elsner, A. E.

Emre, M.

M. Emre, S. Orgul, K. Gugleta, and J. Flammer, "Ocular blood flow alteration in glaucoma is related to systemic vascular dysregulation," Br. J. Ophthalmol 88, 662-666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Evans, D.

L. Kagemann, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, D. Evans, S. Buck, and B. Martin, "Heidelberg retinal flowmetry: factors affecting blood flow measurement," Br. J. Ophthalmol 82, 131-136 (1998).

Ferguson, D.

Ferguson, R.

Flammer, J.

M. Emre, S. Orgul, K. Gugleta, and J. Flammer, "Ocular blood flow alteration in glaucoma is related to systemic vascular dysregulation," Br. J. Ophthalmol 88, 662-666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, W. R.

D. U. Bartsch, and W. R. Freeman, "Laser-Tissue Interaction and Artifacts in Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography," Neurosci. Biobehav. R 17, 459-467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X.

[2] . N. Chapman, N. Witt, X. Gao, A. Bhardwaj, A. Stanton, S. Thom, and A. Hughes, "Computer algorithms for the automated measurement of retinal arteriolar diameters," Br. J. Ophthalmol 85, 74-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grunwald, J. E.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow-rate in human retinal-vessels," Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci 26, 1124-1132 (1985).

Gugleta, K.

M. Emre, S. Orgul, K. Gugleta, and J. Flammer, "Ocular blood flow alteration in glaucoma is related to systemic vascular dysregulation," Br. J. Ophthalmol 88, 662-666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, D. X.

Harino, S.

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, B. L. Petrig, and R. D. Shonat, "Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic-nerve," Exp. Eye. Res. 55, 499-506 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Harris, A.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, "Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol 128, 75-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Kagemann, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, D. Evans, S. Buck, and B. Martin, "Heidelberg retinal flowmetry: factors affecting blood flow measurement," Br. J. Ophthalmol 82, 131-136 (1998).

A. Harris, L. Kagemann, and G. A. Cioffi, "Assessment of human ocular hemodynamics," Surv. Ophthalmol. 42, 509-533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Helmke, B. P.

B. P. Helmke, S. N. Bremner, B. W. Zweifach, R. Skalak, and G. W. Schmid-Schonbein, "Mechanisms for increased blood flow resistance due to leukocytes," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 273, H2884-2890 (1997).

Hughes, A.

[2] . N. Chapman, N. Witt, X. Gao, A. Bhardwaj, A. Stanton, S. Thom, and A. Hughes, "Computer algorithms for the automated measurement of retinal arteriolar diameters," Br. J. Ophthalmol 85, 74-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Intaglietta, M.

[4] . S. Kim, R. L. Kong, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, "Temporal and spatial variations of cell-free layer width in arterioles," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 293, H1526-H1535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol 121, 235-239 (2003).

Johnson, P. C.

[4] . S. Kim, R. L. Kong, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, "Temporal and spatial variations of cell-free layer width in arterioles," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 293, H1526-H1535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kagemann, L.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, "Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol 128, 75-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Kagemann, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, D. Evans, S. Buck, and B. Martin, "Heidelberg retinal flowmetry: factors affecting blood flow measurement," Br. J. Ophthalmol 82, 131-136 (1998).

A. Harris, L. Kagemann, and G. A. Cioffi, "Assessment of human ocular hemodynamics," Surv. Ophthalmol. 42, 509-533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Y. Yang, S. Kim, and J. Kim, "Visualization of retinal and choroidal blood flow with fluorescein leukocyte angiography in rabbits," Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.  235, 27-31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

[4] . S. Kim, R. L. Kong, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, "Temporal and spatial variations of cell-free layer width in arterioles," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 293, H1526-H1535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, S. Kim, and J. Kim, "Visualization of retinal and choroidal blood flow with fluorescein leukocyte angiography in rabbits," Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.  235, 27-31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kong, R. L.

[4] . S. Kim, R. L. Kong, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, "Temporal and spatial variations of cell-free layer width in arterioles," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 293, H1526-H1535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koutsiaris, A. G.

[6] . A. G. Koutsiaris, "Volume flow estimation in the precapillary mesenteric microvasculature in vivo and the principle of constant pressure gradient," Biorheology 42, 479-491 (2005).

Liang, J. Z.

Martin, B.

L. Kagemann, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, D. Evans, S. Buck, and B. Martin, "Heidelberg retinal flowmetry: factors affecting blood flow measurement," Br. J. Ophthalmol 82, 131-136 (1998).

Martin, B. J.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, "Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol 128, 75-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. A.

J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGhee, B. H.

[7] . B. H. McGhee, and E. J. Bridges, "Monitoring Arterial Blood Pressure: What You May Not Know," Crit. Care. Nurse 22, 60-79 (2002).

McNulty, L.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, "Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol 128, 75-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. T.

Minamiyama, M.

[5] . A. Nakano, Y. Sugii, M. Minamiyama, and H. Niimi, "Measurement of red cell velocity in microvessels using particle image velocimetry (PIV)," Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc 29, 445-455 (2003).

Nakano, A.

[5] . A. Nakano, Y. Sugii, M. Minamiyama, and H. Niimi, "Measurement of red cell velocity in microvessels using particle image velocimetry (PIV)," Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc 29, 445-455 (2003).

Niimi, H.

[5] . A. Nakano, Y. Sugii, M. Minamiyama, and H. Niimi, "Measurement of red cell velocity in microvessels using particle image velocimetry (PIV)," Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc 29, 445-455 (2003).

Orgul, S.

M. Emre, S. Orgul, K. Gugleta, and J. Flammer, "Ocular blood flow alteration in glaucoma is related to systemic vascular dysregulation," Br. J. Ophthalmol 88, 662-666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petrig, B. L.

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, B. L. Petrig, and R. D. Shonat, "Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic-nerve," Exp. Eye. Res. 55, 499-506 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow-rate in human retinal-vessels," Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci 26, 1124-1132 (1985).

C. Riva, and B. L. Petrig, "Blue field entoptic phenomenon and blood velocity in the retinal capillaries," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 1234-1238 (1980).

Popel, A. S.

[4] . S. Kim, R. L. Kong, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, "Temporal and spatial variations of cell-free layer width in arterioles," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 293, H1526-H1535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pratt, L. M.

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, "Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol 128, 75-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Queener, H.

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, III, and H. Queener, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

Riva, C.

Riva, C. E.

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, B. L. Petrig, and R. D. Shonat, "Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic-nerve," Exp. Eye. Res. 55, 499-506 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow-rate in human retinal-vessels," Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci 26, 1124-1132 (1985).

Rollins, A. M.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol 121, 235-239 (2003).

Romero-Borja, F.

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, III, and H. Queener, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

Roorda, A.

J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, III, and H. Queener, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002).

Schmid-Schonbein, G. W.

B. P. Helmke, S. N. Bremner, B. W. Zweifach, R. Skalak, and G. W. Schmid-Schonbein, "Mechanisms for increased blood flow resistance due to leukocytes," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 273, H2884-2890 (1997).

Shonat, R. D.

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, B. L. Petrig, and R. D. Shonat, "Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic-nerve," Exp. Eye. Res. 55, 499-506 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sinclair, S. H.

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow-rate in human retinal-vessels," Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci 26, 1124-1132 (1985).

Skalak, R.

B. P. Helmke, S. N. Bremner, B. W. Zweifach, R. Skalak, and G. W. Schmid-Schonbein, "Mechanisms for increased blood flow resistance due to leukocytes," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 273, H2884-2890 (1997).

Smithwick, Q.

Stanton, A.

[2] . N. Chapman, N. Witt, X. Gao, A. Bhardwaj, A. Stanton, S. Thom, and A. Hughes, "Computer algorithms for the automated measurement of retinal arteriolar diameters," Br. J. Ophthalmol 85, 74-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugii, Y.

[5] . A. Nakano, Y. Sugii, M. Minamiyama, and H. Niimi, "Measurement of red cell velocity in microvessels using particle image velocimetry (PIV)," Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc 29, 445-455 (2003).

Thom, S.

[2] . N. Chapman, N. Witt, X. Gao, A. Bhardwaj, A. Stanton, S. Thom, and A. Hughes, "Computer algorithms for the automated measurement of retinal arteriolar diameters," Br. J. Ophthalmol 85, 74-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tumbar, R.

Weber, A.

Weber, R.

Weiter, J.

Williams, D. R.

Witt, N.

[2] . N. Chapman, N. Witt, X. Gao, A. Bhardwaj, A. Stanton, S. Thom, and A. Hughes, "Computer algorithms for the automated measurement of retinal arteriolar diameters," Br. J. Ophthalmol 85, 74-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, S. Kim, and J. Kim, "Visualization of retinal and choroidal blood flow with fluorescein leukocyte angiography in rabbits," Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.  235, 27-31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yazdanfar, S.

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol 121, 235-239 (2003).

Zweifach, B. W.

B. P. Helmke, S. N. Bremner, B. W. Zweifach, R. Skalak, and G. W. Schmid-Schonbein, "Mechanisms for increased blood flow resistance due to leukocytes," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 273, H2884-2890 (1997).

Am. J. Ophthalmol

T. A. Ciulla, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, R. P. Danis, L. Kagemann, L. McNulty, L. M. Pratt, and B. J. Martin, "Color Doppler imaging discloses reduced ocular blood flow velocities in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol 128, 75-80 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol

B. P. Helmke, S. N. Bremner, B. W. Zweifach, R. Skalak, and G. W. Schmid-Schonbein, "Mechanisms for increased blood flow resistance due to leukocytes," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 273, H2884-2890 (1997).

[4] . S. Kim, R. L. Kong, A. S. Popel, M. Intaglietta, and P. C. Johnson, "Temporal and spatial variations of cell-free layer width in arterioles," Am. J. Physiol. Heart. Circ. Physiol 293, H1526-H1535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol

S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Rollins, and J. A. Izatt, "In vivo imaging of human retinal flow dynamics by color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol 121, 235-239 (2003).

Biorheology

[6] . A. G. Koutsiaris, "Volume flow estimation in the precapillary mesenteric microvasculature in vivo and the principle of constant pressure gradient," Biorheology 42, 479-491 (2005).

Br. J. Ophthalmol

L. Kagemann, A. Harris, H. S. Chung, D. Evans, S. Buck, and B. Martin, "Heidelberg retinal flowmetry: factors affecting blood flow measurement," Br. J. Ophthalmol 82, 131-136 (1998).

M. Emre, S. Orgul, K. Gugleta, and J. Flammer, "Ocular blood flow alteration in glaucoma is related to systemic vascular dysregulation," Br. J. Ophthalmol 88, 662-666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

[2] . N. Chapman, N. Witt, X. Gao, A. Bhardwaj, A. Stanton, S. Thom, and A. Hughes, "Computer algorithms for the automated measurement of retinal arteriolar diameters," Br. J. Ophthalmol 85, 74-79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc

[5] . A. Nakano, Y. Sugii, M. Minamiyama, and H. Niimi, "Measurement of red cell velocity in microvessels using particle image velocimetry (PIV)," Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc 29, 445-455 (2003).

Crit. Care. Nurse

[7] . B. H. McGhee, and E. J. Bridges, "Monitoring Arterial Blood Pressure: What You May Not Know," Crit. Care. Nurse 22, 60-79 (2002).

Exp. Eye. Res.

C. E. Riva, S. Harino, B. L. Petrig, and R. D. Shonat, "Laser Doppler flowmetry in the optic-nerve," Exp. Eye. Res. 55, 499-506 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.

Y. Yang, S. Kim, and J. Kim, "Visualization of retinal and choroidal blood flow with fluorescein leukocyte angiography in rabbits," Graef. Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.  235, 27-31 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci

C. E. Riva, J. E. Grunwald, S. H. Sinclair, and B. L. Petrig, "Blood velocity and volumetric flow-rate in human retinal-vessels," Invest. Ophth. Vis. Sci 26, 1124-1132 (1985).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Neurosci. Biobehav. R

D. U. Bartsch, and W. R. Freeman, "Laser-Tissue Interaction and Artifacts in Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Tomography," Neurosci. Biobehav. R 17, 459-467 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmology

J. A. Martin, and A. Roorda, "Direct and noninvasive assessment of parafoveal capillary leukocyte velocity," Ophthalmology 112, 2219-2224 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Res

R. Candido, and T. J. Allen, "Haemodynamics in microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes," Diabetes/Metab. Res 18, 286-304 (2002).

Surv. Ophthalmol.

A. Harris, L. Kagemann, and G. A. Cioffi, "Assessment of human ocular hemodynamics," Surv. Ophthalmol. 42, 509-533 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

[1] . O. Brinchmann-Hansen, and O. Engvold, "Microphotometry of the blood column and the light streak on retinal vessels in fundus photographs," Acta. Ophothalmol 179, (Suppl) (1986).

[8] . K. Shimizu, and K. Ujie, Structure of Ocular Vessels (Igaku-Schoin Medical Publishers, New York, 1978).

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