Abstract

The chirp effect on a X-ray emission intensity from a CsCl aqueous solution jet irradiated by femtosecond pulses was systematically studied. The p-polarized chirped pulses were more efficient as compared with the shortest pulses determined by the spectral bandwidth. The negatively-chirped pulses of approximately 240 fs duration produced up to 10 times larger X-ray intensity as compared with the transform-limited 160 fs pulses. The angular dependence of X-ray generation can be explained by the resonant absorption. Numerical simulations of electron density evolution due to the avalanche and multi-photon absorption supports qualitatively well the experimental observations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007

M. Silies, S. Linden, H. Witte, and H. Zacharias, "The dependence of the Fe Kα yield on the chirp of the femtosecond exciting laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 87, 623 - 627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional laser structuring of materials at tight focusing," Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, S198 - 200 (2007).

2006

E. E. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in a bulk of a transparent solid: confined micro-explosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Getz and V. P. Krainov, "Vacuum heating of large atomic clusters by superintense femtosecond laser pulse," J. Exper. & Theor. Phys. 101, 80-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Anand, C. P. Safvan, and M. Krishnamurthy, "Hard X-ray generation from microdroplets in intense laser fields," Appl. Phys. B 81, 469-477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Hatanaka, T. Miura, and H. Fukumura, "White X-ray pulse emission of alkali halide aqueous solutions irradiated by focused femtosecond laser pulses: a spectroscopic study on electron temperatures as function of laser intensity, solute concentration, and solute atomic number," Chem. Phys. 299, 265-270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Bressler and M. Chergui, "Ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1781 - 1812 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mathur, "Structure and dynamics of molecules in high charge states," Phys. Rep. 391, 1 - 118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Phys. Plasmas 9, 949 - 957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hatanaka, T. Miura, and H. Fukumura, "Ultrafast X-ray pulse generation by focusing femtosecond infrared laser pulses onto aqueous solutions of alkali metal chloride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3925-3927 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Korn, A. Thoss, H. Stiel, U. Vogt, M. Richardson, and T. Elsaesser, "Ultrashort 1-khz laser plasma hard x-ray source," Opt. Lett. 27, 866 - 868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V.I. Berezhiani, S.M. Mahajan, Z. Yoshida, and M. Pekker, "Dynamics of self-trapped singular beams in an underdense plasma," Phys. Rev. E 65, 046415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty em Science 286, 1340, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vogel and V. Skvortsov, "The x-ray emission from vacuum discharge micro fragments at comparatevly low applied voltages," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 122 - 123 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

C. Y. Cô té, J. C. Kieffer, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, and H. PépinJ.Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31, L883-L889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, "Soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma with reduced debris using a metal-doped glass target," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 16-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Workman, M. Nantel, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadler, "Application of a picosecond soft x-ray source to time-resolved plasma dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 312- 314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. F. Price, R. M. More, R. S. Walling, G. Guethlein, R. L. Shepherd, R. E. Stewart, andW. E. White, "Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses by solid targets heated rapidly to temperatures 1-1000 eV," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 252- 255 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Gauthier, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, and A. R., "Observation of KL - LL x-ray satellites of aluminum in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 52, 2963 - 2968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

M. M. Murnane, C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, "Ultrafast X-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas," Science 251, 531 - 536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

F. Brunel, "Not-so-resonant, resonant absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52 - 55 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anand, M.

M. Anand, C. P. Safvan, and M. Krishnamurthy, "Hard X-ray generation from microdroplets in intense laser fields," Appl. Phys. B 81, 469-477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

J.-C. Gauthier, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, and A. R., "Observation of KL - LL x-ray satellites of aluminum in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 52, 2963 - 2968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berezhiani, V.I.

V.I. Berezhiani, S.M. Mahajan, Z. Yoshida, and M. Pekker, "Dynamics of self-trapped singular beams in an underdense plasma," Phys. Rev. E 65, 046415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bressler, C.

C. Bressler and M. Chergui, "Ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1781 - 1812 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunel, F.

F. Brunel, "Not-so-resonant, resonant absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52 - 55 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalleri, A.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty em Science 286, 1340, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chergui, M.

C. Bressler and M. Chergui, "Ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1781 - 1812 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cô té, C. Y.

C. Y. Cô té, J. C. Kieffer, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, and H. PépinJ.Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31, L883-L889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

Falcone, R. W.

M. M. Murnane, C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, "Ultrafast X-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas," Science 251, 531 - 536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukumura, H.

K. Hatanaka, T. Miura, and H. Fukumura, "White X-ray pulse emission of alkali halide aqueous solutions irradiated by focused femtosecond laser pulses: a spectroscopic study on electron temperatures as function of laser intensity, solute concentration, and solute atomic number," Chem. Phys. 299, 265-270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Hatanaka, T. Miura, and H. Fukumura, "Ultrafast X-ray pulse generation by focusing femtosecond infrared laser pulses onto aqueous solutions of alkali metal chloride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3925-3927 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gamaly, E. E.

E. E. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in a bulk of a transparent solid: confined micro-explosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gamaly, E. G.

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Phys. Plasmas 9, 949 - 957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J.-C.

J.-C. Gauthier, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, and A. R., "Observation of KL - LL x-ray satellites of aluminum in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 52, 2963 - 2968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geindre, J.-P.

J.-C. Gauthier, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, and A. R., "Observation of KL - LL x-ray satellites of aluminum in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 52, 2963 - 2968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Getz, A. V.

A. V. Getz and V. P. Krainov, "Vacuum heating of large atomic clusters by superintense femtosecond laser pulse," J. Exper. & Theor. Phys. 101, 80-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guethlein, G.

D. F. Price, R. M. More, R. S. Walling, G. Guethlein, R. L. Shepherd, R. E. Stewart, andW. E. White, "Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses by solid targets heated rapidly to temperatures 1-1000 eV," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 252- 255 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, T.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty em Science 286, 1340, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hallo, L.

E. E. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in a bulk of a transparent solid: confined micro-explosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hatanaka, K.

K. Hatanaka, T. Miura, and H. Fukumura, "White X-ray pulse emission of alkali halide aqueous solutions irradiated by focused femtosecond laser pulses: a spectroscopic study on electron temperatures as function of laser intensity, solute concentration, and solute atomic number," Chem. Phys. 299, 265-270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Hatanaka, T. Miura, and H. Fukumura, "Ultrafast X-ray pulse generation by focusing femtosecond infrared laser pulses onto aqueous solutions of alkali metal chloride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3925-3927 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hüttman, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ikhlef, A.

C. Y. Cô té, J. C. Kieffer, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, and H. PépinJ.Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31, L883-L889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

C. Y. Cô té, J. C. Kieffer, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, and H. PépinJ.Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31, L883-L889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional laser structuring of materials at tight focusing," Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, S198 - 200 (2007).

E. E. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in a bulk of a transparent solid: confined micro-explosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kammler, M.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty em Science 286, 1340, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, C.

M. M. Murnane, C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, "Ultrafast X-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas," Science 251, 531 - 536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

C. Y. Cô té, J. C. Kieffer, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, and H. PépinJ.Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31, L883-L889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Krainov, V. P.

A. V. Getz and V. P. Krainov, "Vacuum heating of large atomic clusters by superintense femtosecond laser pulse," J. Exper. & Theor. Phys. 101, 80-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, M.

M. Anand, C. P. Safvan, and M. Krishnamurthy, "Hard X-ray generation from microdroplets in intense laser fields," Appl. Phys. B 81, 469-477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

M. Silies, S. Linden, H. Witte, and H. Zacharias, "The dependence of the Fe Kα yield on the chirp of the femtosecond exciting laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 87, 623 - 627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

E. E. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in a bulk of a transparent solid: confined micro-explosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Phys. Plasmas 9, 949 - 957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, S.M.

V.I. Berezhiani, S.M. Mahajan, Z. Yoshida, and M. Pekker, "Dynamics of self-trapped singular beams in an underdense plasma," Phys. Rev. E 65, 046415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maksimchuk, A.

J. Workman, M. Nantel, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadler, "Application of a picosecond soft x-ray source to time-resolved plasma dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 312- 314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, D.

D. Mathur, "Structure and dynamics of molecules in high charge states," Phys. Rep. 391, 1 - 118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional laser structuring of materials at tight focusing," Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, S198 - 200 (2007).

E. E. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in a bulk of a transparent solid: confined micro-explosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miura, T.

K. Hatanaka, T. Miura, and H. Fukumura, "White X-ray pulse emission of alkali halide aqueous solutions irradiated by focused femtosecond laser pulses: a spectroscopic study on electron temperatures as function of laser intensity, solute concentration, and solute atomic number," Chem. Phys. 299, 265-270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Hatanaka, T. Miura, and H. Fukumura, "Ultrafast X-ray pulse generation by focusing femtosecond infrared laser pulses onto aqueous solutions of alkali metal chloride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3925-3927 (2002).
[CrossRef]

More, R. M.

D. F. Price, R. M. More, R. S. Walling, G. Guethlein, R. L. Shepherd, R. E. Stewart, andW. E. White, "Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses by solid targets heated rapidly to temperatures 1-1000 eV," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 252- 255 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

M. M. Murnane, C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, "Ultrafast X-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas," Science 251, 531 - 536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakano, H.

H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, "Soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma with reduced debris using a metal-doped glass target," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 16-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nantel, M.

J. Workman, M. Nantel, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadler, "Application of a picosecond soft x-ray source to time-resolved plasma dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 312- 314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nicolai, P.

E. E. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in a bulk of a transparent solid: confined micro-explosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, T.

H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, "Soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma with reduced debris using a metal-doped glass target," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 16-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, K.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, and H. Misawa, "Three-dimensional laser structuring of materials at tight focusing," Chin. Opt. Lett. 5, S198 - 200 (2007).

E. E. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in a bulk of a transparent solid: confined micro-explosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noack, J.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paltauf, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pekker, M.

V.I. Berezhiani, S.M. Mahajan, Z. Yoshida, and M. Pekker, "Dynamics of self-trapped singular beams in an underdense plasma," Phys. Rev. E 65, 046415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

C. Y. Cô té, J. C. Kieffer, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, and H. PépinJ.Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31, L883-L889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Price, D. F.

D. F. Price, R. M. More, R. S. Walling, G. Guethlein, R. L. Shepherd, R. E. Stewart, andW. E. White, "Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses by solid targets heated rapidly to temperatures 1-1000 eV," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 252- 255 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R, A.

J.-C. Gauthier, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, and A. R., "Observation of KL - LL x-ray satellites of aluminum in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 52, 2963 - 2968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

Rode, A. V.

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Phys. Plasmas 9, 949 - 957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, M. D.

M. M. Murnane, C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, "Ultrafast X-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas," Science 251, 531 - 536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safvan, C. P.

M. Anand, C. P. Safvan, and M. Krishnamurthy, "Hard X-ray generation from microdroplets in intense laser fields," Appl. Phys. B 81, 469-477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, R. L.

D. F. Price, R. M. More, R. S. Walling, G. Guethlein, R. L. Shepherd, R. E. Stewart, andW. E. White, "Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses by solid targets heated rapidly to temperatures 1-1000 eV," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 252- 255 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siders, C. W.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty em Science 286, 1340, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silies, M.

M. Silies, S. Linden, H. Witte, and H. Zacharias, "The dependence of the Fe Kα yield on the chirp of the femtosecond exciting laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 87, 623 - 627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Skvortsov, V.

N. Vogel and V. Skvortsov, "The x-ray emission from vacuum discharge micro fragments at comparatevly low applied voltages," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 122 - 123 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty em Science 286, 1340, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, R. E.

D. F. Price, R. M. More, R. S. Walling, G. Guethlein, R. L. Shepherd, R. E. Stewart, andW. E. White, "Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses by solid targets heated rapidly to temperatures 1-1000 eV," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 252- 255 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiel, H.

Thoss, A.

Tikhonchuk, V.

E. E. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in a bulk of a transparent solid: confined micro-explosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Phys. Plasmas 9, 949 - 957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toth, C.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty em Science 286, 1340, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uesugi, N.

H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, "Soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma with reduced debris using a metal-doped glass target," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 16-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Umstadler, D.

J. Workman, M. Nantel, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadler, "Application of a picosecond soft x-ray source to time-resolved plasma dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 312- 314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, N.

N. Vogel and V. Skvortsov, "The x-ray emission from vacuum discharge micro fragments at comparatevly low applied voltages," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 122 - 123 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, U.

von der Linde, D.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty em Science 286, 1340, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Hoegen, M. H.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty em Science 286, 1340, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walling, R. S.

D. F. Price, R. M. More, R. S. Walling, G. Guethlein, R. L. Shepherd, R. E. Stewart, andW. E. White, "Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses by solid targets heated rapidly to temperatures 1-1000 eV," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 252- 255 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, K. R.

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty em Science 286, 1340, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, H.

M. Silies, S. Linden, H. Witte, and H. Zacharias, "The dependence of the Fe Kα yield on the chirp of the femtosecond exciting laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 87, 623 - 627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Workman, J.

J. Workman, M. Nantel, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadler, "Application of a picosecond soft x-ray source to time-resolved plasma dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 312- 314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, Z.

V.I. Berezhiani, S.M. Mahajan, Z. Yoshida, and M. Pekker, "Dynamics of self-trapped singular beams in an underdense plasma," Phys. Rev. E 65, 046415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zacharias, H.

M. Silies, S. Linden, H. Witte, and H. Zacharias, "The dependence of the Fe Kα yield on the chirp of the femtosecond exciting laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 87, 623 - 627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Anand, C. P. Safvan, and M. Krishnamurthy, "Hard X-ray generation from microdroplets in intense laser fields," Appl. Phys. B 81, 469-477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Silies, S. Linden, H. Witte, and H. Zacharias, "The dependence of the Fe Kα yield on the chirp of the femtosecond exciting laser pulse," Appl. Phys. B 87, 623 - 627 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Hüttman, and G. Paltauf, "Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues," Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015-1047 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, A. V. Rode, E. G. Gamaly, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Recording and reading of three-dimensional optical memory in glasses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 361-368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Hatanaka, T. Miura, and H. Fukumura, "Ultrafast X-ray pulse generation by focusing femtosecond infrared laser pulses onto aqueous solutions of alkali metal chloride," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3925-3927 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakano, T. Nishikawa, and N. Uesugi, "Soft x-ray pulse generation from femtosecond laser-produced plasma with reduced debris using a metal-doped glass target," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 16-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Workman, M. Nantel, A. Maksimchuk, and D. Umstadler, "Application of a picosecond soft x-ray source to time-resolved plasma dynamics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 312- 314 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barty em Science

C. W. Siders, A. Cavalleri, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Toth, T. Guo, M. Kammler, M. H. von Hoegen, K. R. Wilson, D. von der Linde, and C. P. J. Barty em Science 286, 1340, (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys.

K. Hatanaka, T. Miura, and H. Fukumura, "White X-ray pulse emission of alkali halide aqueous solutions irradiated by focused femtosecond laser pulses: a spectroscopic study on electron temperatures as function of laser intensity, solute concentration, and solute atomic number," Chem. Phys. 299, 265-270 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev.

C. Bressler and M. Chergui, "Ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1781 - 1812 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin. Opt. Lett.

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci.

N. Vogel and V. Skvortsov, "The x-ray emission from vacuum discharge micro fragments at comparatevly low applied voltages," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 27, 122 - 123 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.

C. Y. Cô té, J. C. Kieffer, Z. Jiang, A. Ikhlef, and H. PépinJ.Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31, L883-L889 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Exper. & Theor. Phys.

A. V. Getz and V. P. Krainov, "Vacuum heating of large atomic clusters by superintense femtosecond laser pulse," J. Exper. & Theor. Phys. 101, 80-87 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Plasmas

E. G. Gamaly, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, "Ablation of solids by femtosecond lasers: Ablation mechanism and ablation thresholds for metals and dielectrics," Phys. Plasmas 9, 949 - 957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep.

D. Mathur, "Structure and dynamics of molecules in high charge states," Phys. Rep. 391, 1 - 118 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

E. E. Gamaly, S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. Tikhonchuk, "Laser-matter interaction in a bulk of a transparent solid: confined micro-explosion and void formation," Phys. Rev. B 73, 214101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

V.I. Berezhiani, S.M. Mahajan, Z. Yoshida, and M. Pekker, "Dynamics of self-trapped singular beams in an underdense plasma," Phys. Rev. E 65, 046415 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Gauthier, J.-P. Geindre, P. Audebert, and A. R., "Observation of KL - LL x-ray satellites of aluminum in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas," Phys. Rev. E 52, 2963 - 2968 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. F. Price, R. M. More, R. S. Walling, G. Guethlein, R. L. Shepherd, R. E. Stewart, andW. E. White, "Absorption of ultrashort laser pulses by solid targets heated rapidly to temperatures 1-1000 eV," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 252- 255 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Brunel, "Not-so-resonant, resonant absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52 - 55 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

M. M. Murnane, C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, "Ultrafast X-ray pulses from laser-produced plasmas," Science 251, 531 - 536 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. Audebert, P. Renaudin, S. Bastiani-Ceccotti, J.-P. Geindre, C. Chenais-Popovics, S. Tzortzakis, V. Nagels-Silvert, R. Shepherd, I. Matsushima, S. Gary, F. Girard, O. Peyrusse, and J.-C. Gauthier, "Picosecond timeresolved X-Ray absorption spectroscopy of ultrafast aluminum plasmas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 025004/1-4 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Misawa and S. Juodkazis, 3D laser microfabrication: principles and applications, (Weinheim, Wiley-VCH, 2006) ch. 9.
[CrossRef]

D. Attwood, Soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation: principles and applications (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999).

N. I. Koroteev and I. L. Shumai, Physics of high-intensity laser radiation (Moscow, Nauka (in Russ.), 1991).

R. J. Goldston and P. Rutherford, Introduction to Plasma Physics (London, Inst. of Phys. Publishing, Bristol & Philadelphia, 1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(color online/final size) Setup used to chirp fs-pulses: XD is the X-ray detector, OL - objective lens, GR1,2 - gratings, S - sample, RM - retro-mirror, SL - slit defining the spectral width, and RNG - regenerative amplifier of fs-pulses. The incoming and outgoing pulses are separated by a slight off-plane angle of mirror (RM).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(color online/final size) The dependence of X-ray intensity on the pulse duration at different values of chirp for s-pol. (a) and p-pol. (b) in aqueous solution of CsCl (please, note the shortest pulse is at the center of the figure). Pulse energy was Ep =0.38 mJ at focus; the pulse duration was measured before the objective lens. Angle of incidence was 58 degrees. For comparison, X-ray emission by non-chirped transform-limited pulses (controlled by slit SL (Fig. 1)) is also plotted. Arrow (a) marks the shortest pulse duration at the focus.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(color online/final size) Laser incident angle dependence of the X-ray emission from the CsCl aqueous solution (4 mol/dm3) for s- and p-pol. Superimposed are the Fresnel reflection coefficients R p,s (left axis) for the corresponding polarizations at the air-CsCl aqueous solution interface (the refractive indices are nair =1, nsol .=1.38; the Brewster angle θB =54°). Pulse energy was 0.30 mJ; X-ray detector was at 10 cm distance for the p-pol. and at 5 cm for s-pol.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(color online/final size) Evolution of ionisation rate dne /dt [cm-3s-1](calculated by eqn. 2) during the pulse of τ p =160 fs duration at the positive and negative chirp |β|=6×10-5 fs-2, at which the pulse duration is 255 fs (see, Fig. 2(b)). Material has ionization potential J=8 eV and the irradiance was I=30 TW/cm2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Supplement figure) Hard X-ray emission spectra for the negatively-chirped 240 fs, (β<0) positively-chirped 240 fs (β>0), and transform-limited 160 fs (β=0) p-pol. pulses, respectively. Spectra are not corrected for the transmission in a 15-cm-long path in air; the transmission is shown on the right axis. The experimental conditions of X-ray generation are the same as those for Fig. 2 only the pulse energy was Ep =0.30 mJ (at focus). The spectra were detected by the Si(Li) detector (Rontek, XFlash Detector Type 1100). The following lines of Cs and Cl can be recognized: the line at 2.55 keV (Cl at 2.62 keV), 4.26 keV (Cs at 4.28 keV), 4.60 keV (Cs 1 at 4.61 keV), and 4.89 keV (Cs 2 at 4.93 keV) according to the Ref. [X-ray data booklet, 2nd Edition, Center for X-ray Optics and Advanced Light Source Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2001].

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I i I r I i = τ ( θ ) 2 ( 2.31 exp ( 2 τ ( θ ) 3 ) 3 ) 2 ,
n e ( ω ins ( t ) ) = ( n e 0 + n a w m p i w i m p [ 1 e w i m p t ] ) e w i m p t ,
P br ~ Z 2 n e n i T e [ W m 3 ] ,

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